Following several complications including a battery fireplace and a gas leak, aviation companies in Europe, the us, and India have grounded all Boeing 787 Dreamliner plane. (airways in Japan have voluntarily grounded the planes.) The creative aircraft became the primary to make use of a major amount of carbon fiber composites within the wings and fueselage, decreasing its weight and boosting its fuel effectivity.
[ View the story "Boeing 787 Troubled Past" on Storify]
Storified via IEEE Spectrum· Thu, Jan 17 2013 12:forty seven:01
again in 2006, a yr earlier than we were told to are expecting takeoff, we named the 787 one in all our annual "Winners."
Winner: Carbon Takeoff - IEEE SpectrumOn Boeing's sprawling compound in Everett, backyard of Seattle, are two identical four-story white structures with considerable blue-tinted window...
The airplane had its official unveiling in July 2007, however no takeoff.
A Dream airplane Is a expertise Winner - IEEE SpectrumIt generally is a pleasure to fly in and a boon to the ambiance. On Sunday, Boeing unveiled the new 787 Dreamliner , a commercial aviation...initial delays have been (partly) brought about by way of software construction issues:
"How hard do you suppose the software individuals were praying that those fasteners wouldn't be accessible earlier than their tests were? So even if the application is late (and over-budget?), it does not appear as unhealthy as if utility construction have been by myself the hold-as much as the Dreamliner's in-provider date."
Boeing Dreamliner: video game of utility versus systems bird - IEEE SpectrumBoeing ultimately admitted the previous day that it was delaying the introduction of the 787 Dreamliner from may additionally 2008 to the conclusion of 2008. only a fe...
The 787's expanded reliance on utility raised further regulatory concerns.
FAA to Boeing: Please display that 787 Dreamliner can not be Hacked - IEEE SpectrumIn a narrative that regarded last week in Flight foreign and then got legs by the use of Wired , the Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA ) is g...
In early 2008, Boeing needed to extra delay the assignment as a result of they were having problem sourcing parts.
Boeing Delays 787 Dreamliner once again - IEEE SpectrumJust a month after delaying the primary-flight of the 787 Dreamliner and promising that issues had been on track, Boeing once again delayed fir...
Silver-lining to Boeing 787 schedule Slip - IEEE Spectrum" 'we now have taken capabilities of the delays to be sure our gadget degree maturity is coming alongside at a fee as a way to keep away from issues as we ...
Boeing 787 Dreamliner - extra Delays within the Works? - IEEE SpectrumIn a Chicago Tribune story this morning, Boeing's Randy Tinseth, vice chairman of advertising and marketing for industrial airplanes, become quoted as sayi...
Boeing to slide 787 Dreamliner again? - IEEE SpectrumLast week, a Goldman Sachs analyst warned in a research record is likely to slip an additional three to even six months due to continued diffic...all over the development of the 787, Airbus had their personal issues with the competing 380. Boeing was also dealing with labor concerns: "The simplest possible monkey wrench is that Boeing's two largest unions, the foreign association of Machinists' Seattle-based District 751 and the Society of knowledgeable Engineering personnel in Aerospace are threatening to strike in September and December respectively. according to one file, the unions see that they have got leverage over Boeing given the 787 delays, as well as the important future profits the 787 guarantees."
extra Airbus 380 Troubles? - IEEE SpectrumAirbus is getting ready its consumers about an additional extend to the Airbus 380 the London times studies . The instances experiences that Airbus is sti...
probably the most last delays have been certification issues with the brake utility.
Boeing 787 Dreamliner: Brake software subject - IEEE SpectrumReuters is quoting Boeingâ''s 787 Dreamliner generic supervisor Pat Shanahan as asserting that Boeing remains on path for making its first d...
Boeing 787 Dreamliner utility Brake difficulty Solved - IEEE SpectrumIn July, Boeingâ''s 787 Dreamliner well-known manager Pat Shanahan observed that there have been unexpected issues in getting the software in the 7...After two years of delays, the Dreamliner eventually flew in December 2009.
"Having greater fingers within the drafting board had its merits but it definitely created complications as neatly."
Boeing's Plastic aircraft Takes Off - IEEE SpectrumBack in 2006, I wrote: "someday subsequent yr, the first Boeing 787 Dreamliner will rise into the skies above Seattle. The takeoff will prob...
unless contemporary issues begun to floor, the 787 changed into generally considered a hit.
Boeing Lets executive Go-From a peak - IEEE SpectrumJim Albaugh, credited with overcoming delays in Boeing's 787 Dreamliner application, has simply left the enterprise, according to a report within the ...
PISCATAWAY, N.J.--(company WIRE)--IEEE, the area's biggest technical expert organization dedicated to advancing know-how for humanity, and the IEEE requisites affiliation (IEEE-SA), these days introduced the formation of the IEEE Electrical vehicle Charging Conformity assessment steering Committee and the approval of the typical revision IEEE P2030.1.1™—typical Technical specifications of a DC quick and Bi-directional Charger for use with electric powered cars.
The initial vehicle brand individuals of the IEEE EVC CASC are Nissan Motor enterprise and Mitsubishi Motors company. they are joined by way of the CHAdeMO association, a developer of an unbiased standard covered in IEEE P2030.1.1, and Tritium, an Australian company of speedy DC electrical automobile charging stations. shaped under the auspices of The IEEE Conformity assessment program (ICAP), EVC CASC aims to enhance a certification scheme for authorised checking out and conformity assessment to IEEE P2030.1.1, in addition to different requisites for DC quick chargers used with electric automobiles. IEEE encourages large participation from automobile, charger and connector manufacturers, test laboratories, the end-person group (utilities, cities, municipalities, asset owners), and regulators. To study extra about joining IEEE EVC CASC, please consult with the linked ICAP Membership and contract internet web page.
“while there are lots of stakeholders engaged within the technological construction of fast DC chargers conforming to globally approved requirements, these efforts are particularly critical for electric powered automobile manufacturers,” mentioned David Patterson, EVC CASC chair and chief engineer, Mitsubishi Motors R&D of the usa. “To support the use of electric motors, producers are taking a number one function guaranteeing expertise and common construction efforts work to obtain seamless charging and riding experiences to fulfill electric powered car owners.”
authorised through the IEEE-SA specifications Board in 2017 September, the IEEE P2030.1.1 commonplace revision is being undertaken by means of the newly fashioned Working neighborhood for creating Technical requisites of short Charger for electric powered automobiles standards. Technical amendments to the commonplace will cowl bi-directional charging (V2X), ultra-swift charging as much as 400kW, and CHAdeMO v1.2 and soon to be published v2.0 necessities. For greater advice, or to get involved, talk over with the Working group for growing Technical standards of brief Charger for electric powered cars requirements web page.
To study extra about IEEE-SA, discuss with us on facebook, observe us on Twitter, join with us on LinkedIn or on the past necessities blog.
in regards to the IEEE specifications association
The IEEE requirements association, a globally diagnosed requisites-setting body inside IEEE, develops consensus necessities through an open procedure that engages trade and brings together a extensive stakeholder neighborhood. IEEE standards set specifications and choicest practices according to current scientific and technological competencies. The IEEE-SA has a portfolio of over 1,200 lively requisites and over 650 standards under construction. For more suggestions seek advice from http://specifications.IEEE.org.
in regards to the IEEE Conformity assessment software
The IEEE Conformity assessment program (“ICAP”)—an initiative of the IEEE-SA (http://standards.IEEE.org/)—provides classes and trade help that aid bridge those requirements development actions with the conformity assessment actions that accelerate market acceptance and enablement of recent items and technologies. The foundation of ICAP activities is in line with business top of the line practices, internationally accredited fine methods and use of proven test equipment.
IEEE is the greatest technical professional company dedicated to advancing technology for the advantage of humanity. via its tremendously stated publications, conferences, expertise standards, and professional and tutorial activities, IEEE is the relied on voice in a large choice of areas starting from aerospace methods, computers, and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, electric powered power, and purchaser electronics. learn greater at http://www.IEEE.org.
Do you've got the expertise and certifications to support you get ahead?
one of the most well liked career sectors today is digital advertising. in keeping with the U.S. Bureau of Labor records, market analysis analysts and advertising specialists are among the exact 20 occupations with essentially the most new jobs forecast via 2026, and a normal profits that tops $sixty two,000. A digital marketer develops ideas for advertising a company's items and features over the internet, and runs campaigns for company recognition and to convert ends up in purchasers. entrepreneurs count closely on social media systems, equivalent to fb and Twitter, to do their jobs as well as e mail, textual content messages, internet analytics, search engine marketing tools and extra.
but digital advertising and marketing is never always about bringing in new purchasers or company; or not it's also about connecting with these you already have. you employ the same channels, akin to social media, to live in contact and keep customers existing on what your enterprise can do for them.excellent 5 certifications, by the numbers
here table lists good digital advertising certifications and the number of open positions on a single day that call for the certification chiefly or journey with the expertise. This is rarely a scientific evaluation by which every job description is examined, simply an universal glance at search numbers.Job web site search consequences Certification SimplyHired LinkedIn Jobs wholeFacebook certified Planning expert* 93 41 134 Google AdWords Certification one hundred seventy five 134 309 Hootsuite Social advertising and marketing Certification 35 19 54 HubSpot content material advertising Certification 77 46 123 PCM - Digital control38 forty six eighty four * searching for "facebook Blueprint" resulted in 478 hits.
here sections supply particulars of the appropriate digital marketing certifications in accordance with job website searches in addition to different certifications provided through the a considerable number of groups.fb certified Planning professional
The facebook Blueprint certification application presents two certifications: the facebook licensed Planning skilled and the facebook licensed purchasing skilled. both certifications goal at people who control fb Pages and who target audiences for the greatest influence. From there, the Planning knowledgeable focuses on optimizing attain and frequency, determines crusade KPIs, plans strategy and budget, and measures crusade efficiency.
You should pass two exams to earn either certification, which can be found via Pearson VUE. every exam costs $150, training is free, and the certifications are legitimate for one year.Google AdWords Certification
Google AdWords certification is soaring in popularity at the present time, adopted intently via the Google Analytics individual Qualification (IQ) credential. if you use Google tools to installation, measure, manage and optimize advertising campaigns, trust the Google AdWords certification.
Two tests are required – the AdWords Fundamentals exam and one greater on search, reveal, cellular, video or shopping advertising – each of which are free. To take any Google exam potential first signing up for the Google partners application, which also means that you can register for free practising; from there you can certify as someone. The Google AdWords certification is first rate for three hundred and sixty five days.Hootsuite Social advertising Certification
The social media and platform enterprise with the catchy name – Hootsuite – presents six certifications. The Hootsuite Social advertising certification covers core concepts related to social media advertising and marketing. other certifications encompass Hootsuite Social selling, Hootsuite superior Social promoting, Hootsuite Platform and just a few distinctiveness credentials.
Hootsuite encourages all prospective certificants to take a sequence of free online lessons before sitting for the Social advertising examination, which prices $199. The credential would not expire.HubSpot content advertising Certification
HubSpot, a maker of application for inbound advertising and income, offers a bunch of training and certifications through HubSpot Academy. The HubSpot content advertising Certification recognizes gurus who create and promote content for the purpose of bringing in new purchasers. The associated path covers guidance and choicest practices for building a content material library of effective property. different certifications consist of HubSpot Inbound Certification, HubSpot email marketing Certification, HubSpot earnings software Certification, and greater, aimed toward people and agencies.
To earn the HubSpot content material advertising Certification, take the associated on-line direction after which the examination. or not it's all free. For details, see the FAQs.PCM – Digital management Certification
The American advertising and marketing association expert licensed Marketer (PCM) software takes a extra formal approach to its certifications than different featured agencies listed here. The organization created a physique of competencies for the PCM - Digital administration certification, which contains topics on planning, branding, pricing, public family members, social media and more.
A connected credential through AMA is the PCM - Digital marketing. A study ebook for the PCM – Digital administration certification fees $99 for AMA individuals or $149 for nonmembers. The examination expenses $ninety nine (participants) and $299 (nonmembers) and is obtainable online. To preserve the credential, you have to recertify each three years by incomes accredited advertising continuing education gadgets (CEUs).What else?
The Adobe certified expert (ACE) application has several digital marketing certifications, such as the Analytics company Practitioner and the campaign business Practitioner, to identify just a few. The company's digital advertising potential evaluation helps you baseline your existing knowledge and determine your next step regarding certification.
Salesforce marketing certifications – the Salesforce licensed marketing Cloud Social professional and Salesforce certified advertising and marketing Cloud e-mail expert – may additionally attraction to gurus who use Salesforce for advertising campaigns.
at last, in case you lean on Twitter to additional your digital advertising campaigns (or wish to), take a look at Twitter Flight faculty choices. Twitter does not offer certifications at the present, however which you could take free classes and earn badges to your efforts.
Kim LindrosKim Lindros is a full-time content material developer who writes about security, technology and business. She spent practically 10 years in tech assist and as a network administrator earlier than transitioning to tech publishing. With a historical past in task management, she has run massive multifunction teams to produce whole ebook series, online curricula and on-floor practising classes. She has also contributed to a couple of books on home windows technologies and functions, and IT certification.
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Secure Mobile Developer Courses and Certification are created by more than 200 subject matter experts who have come together to produce eight exceptional courses:
These courses are built for online interaction, not pre-recorded slides. They leverage frequent knowledge checks and end-of-course assessments to reinforce learning throughout the course experience.
The total course curriculum prepares professionals to take the Secure Mobile Developer Certification. The courses can be taken as a whole, or individually, based on the knowledge of the individual. Advanced mobile developers may want to take the certification to verify and certify their expertise.
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While other security courses give professionals a small solution or limited view of mobile security, Secure Mobile Developer covers the landscape, taking on all the major issues – from beginner through advanced intermediate. Professionals who take the course will achieve:
Secure Mobile Developer Courses here to sign up today.
About IEEE Computer SocietyIEEE Computer Society, the computing industry's unmatched source for technology information and career development, offers a comprehensive array of industry-recognized products, services and professional opportunities. Known as the community for technology leaders, IEEE Computer Society's vast resources include membership, publications, a renowned digital library, training programs, conferences, and top-trending technology events. mputer for more information on all products and services.
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Holger Schmidt (photo by C. Lagatttuta)
Holger Schmidt, the Kapany Professor of Optoelectronics at UC Santa Cruz, has been named a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Elevation to the grade of fellow is a prestigious honor conferred by the IEEE Board of Directors on members with an outstanding record of accomplishments. The total number selected in any one year cannot exceed one-tenth of one percent of the total voting membership.
Schmidt, who directs the W. M. Keck Center for Nanoscale Optofluidics at UC Santa Cruz, was honored "for contributions to optofluidics and integrated photonics." He has authored or coauthored over 380 publications and several book chapters in various fields of optics, and he is coeditor of the Handbook of Optofluidics (CRC Press). Schmidt and his collaborators have developed technologies for optical analysis of samples on integrated chip-based platforms, with applications in areas such as biological sensors, virus detection, and chemical analysis. Diagnostic instruments based on these "optofluidic chips" could provide a rapid, low-cost, and portable option for identifying specific disease-related molecules or viruses.
Schmidt joins ten other UCSC engineering faculty who are IEEE Fellows. He earned his M.S. in physics from the University of Stuttgart, Germany, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical and computer engineering at UC Santa Barbara. He joined the faculty of the Baskin School of Engineering at UC Santa Cruz in 2001.
The IEEE is the world's leading professional association dedicated to the advancement of technology. The IEEE publishes 30 percent of the world's literature in the electrical and electronics engineering and computer science fields, and has developed more than 1300 active industry standards.
SALT LAKE CITY--(BUSINESS WIRE)--
SC16, the 28th annual international conference of high performance computing, networking, storage and analysis, celebrated the contributions of researchers and scientists - from those just starting their careers to those whose contributions have made lasting impacts.
This Smart News Release features multimedia. View the full release here:
The conference drew more than 11,100 registered attendees and featured a technical program spanning six days. The exhibit hall featured 349 exhibitors from industry, academia and research organizations from around the world.
“There has never been a more important time for high performance computing, networking and data analysis,” said SC16 General Chair John West from the Texas Advanced Computing Center. “But it is also an acute time for growing our workforce and expanding diversity in the industry. SC16 was the perfect blend of research, technological advancement, career recognition and improving the ways in which we attract and retain that next generation of scientists.”
According to Trey Breckenridge, SC16 Exhibits Chair from Mississippi State University, the SC16 Exhibition was the largest in the history of the conference. The overall size of the exhibition was 150,000 net square feet (breaking the 2015 record of 141,430). The 349 industry and research-focused exhibits included 44 first-timers and 120 organizations from 25 countries outside the United States.
During the conference, Salt Lake City also became the hub for the world’s fastest computer network: SCinet, SC16’s custom-built network which delivered 3.15 terabits per second in bandwidth. The network featured 56 miles of fiber deployed throughout the convention center and $32 million in loaned equipment. It was all made possible by 200 volunteers representing global organizations spanning academia, government and industry.
For the third year, SC featured an opening “HPC Matters” plenary that this year focused on Precision Medicine, which examined what the future holds in this regard and how advances are only possible through the power of high performance computing and big data. Leading voices from the frontlines of clinical care, medical research, HPC system evolution, pharmaceutical R&D and public policy shared diverse perspectives on the future of precision medicine and how it will impact society.
The Technical Program again offered the highest quality original HPC research. The SC workshops set a record with more than 2,500 attendees. There were 14 Best Paper Finalists and six Gordon Bell Finalists. These submissions represent the best of the best in a wide variety of research topics in HPC.
Overall Stats on Tech Program Tracks:
• 81 Papers
• 12 Panels
• 138 Posters
• 37 Tutorials
• 37 Workshops
• 12 Invited Speakers
• 12 Doctoral Showcase Presentations
• 13 Emerging Technology Presentations
• 55 Birds-of-a-Feather
“These awards are very important for the SC Conference Series. They celebrate the best and the brightest in high performance computing,” said Satoshi Matsuoka, SC16 Awards Chair from Tokyo Institute of Technology. “These awards are not just plaques or certificates. They define excellence. They set the bar for the years to come and are powerful inspiration for both early career and senior researchers.”
Following is the list of Technical Program awards presented at SC16:
SC16 received 442 paper submissions, of which 81 were accepted (18.3 percent acceptance rate). Of those, 13 were selected as finalists for the Best Paper (six) and Best Student Paper (seven) awards.
The Best Paper Award went to “Daino: A High-Level Framework for Parallel and Efficient AMR on GPUs” by Mohamed Wahib Attia and Naoya Maruyama, RIKEN; and Takayuki Aoki, Tokyo Institute of Technology.
The Best Student Paper Award went to “Flexfly: Enabling a Reconfigurable Dragonfly Through Silicon Photonics” by Ke Wen, Payman Samadi, Sebastien Rumley, Christine P. Chen, Yiwen Shen, Meisam Bahadori, and Karen Bergman, Columbia University and Jeremiah Wilke, Sandia National Laboratories.
ACM Gordon Bell Prize:
The ACM Gordon Bell Prize is awarded for outstanding team achievement in high performance computing and tracks the progress of parallel computing.
This year, the prize was awarded to a 12-member Chinese team for their research project, “10M-Core Scalable Fully-Implicit Solver for Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Dynamics.” The winning team presented a solver (method for calculating) atmospheric dynamics.
In the abstract of their presentation, the winning team writes, “On the road to the seamless weather-climate prediction, a major obstacle is the difficulty of dealing with various spatial and temporal scales. The atmosphere contains time-dependent multi-scale dynamics that support a variety of wave motions.”
To simulate the vast number of variables inherent in a weather system developing in the atmosphere, the winning group presents a highly scalable fully implicit solver for three-dimensional nonhydrostatic atmospheric simulations governed by fully compressible Euler equations. Euler equations are a set of equations frequently used to understand fluid dynamics (liquids and gasses in motion).
Winning team members are Chao Yang, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wei Xue, Weimin Zheng, Guangwen Yang, Ping Xu, and Haohuan Fu, Tsinghua University; Hongtao You, National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering and Technology; Xinliang Wang, Beijing Normal University; Yulong Ao and Fangfang Liu, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lin Gan, Tsinghua University; Lanning Wang, Beijing Normal University.
This year, SC received 172 detailed poster submissions that went through a rigorous review process. In the end, 112 posters were accepted and five finalists were selected for the Best Poster Award. As part of its research poster activities, SC16 also hosted the ACM Student Research Competition for both undergraduate and graduate students. In all 63 submissions were received, 26 Student Research Competition posters were accepted – 14 in the graduate category and 12 in the undergraduate category.
The Best Poster Award went to “A Fast Implicit Solver with Low Memory Footprint and High Scalability for Comprehensive Earthquake Simulation System” with Kohei Fujita from RIKEN as the lead author.
The 2016 Undergraduate Student Research Award recipients were:
First Place: “Touring Dataland? Automated Recommendations for the Big Data Traveler” by Willian Agnew and Michael Fischer, Advisors: Kyle Chard and Ian Foster.
Second Place: “Analysis of Variable Selection Methods on Scientific Cluster Measurement Data” by Jonathan Wang, Advisors: Wucherl Yoo and Alex Sim.
Third Place: “Discovering Energy Usage Patterns on Scientific Clusters” by Matthew Bae, Advisors: Wucherl Yoo, Alex Sim and Kesheng Wu.
The 2016 Graduate Student Research Award recipients were:
First Place: “Job Startup at Exascale: Challenges and Solutions” by Sourav Chakroborty, Advisor: Dhabaleswar K. Panda.
Second Place: “Performance Modeling and Engineering with Kerncraft,” by Julian Hammer, Advisors: Georg Hager and Gerhard Wellein.
Third Place: “Design and Evaluation of Topology-Aware Scatter and AllGather Algorithms for Dragonfly Networks” by Nathanael Cheriere, Advisor: Matthieu Dorier.
Scientific Visualization and Data Analytics Showcase:
The Scientific Visualization and Data Analytics Award featured six finalists. The award went to “Visualization and Analysis of Threats from Asteroid Ocean Impacts” with John Patchett as the lead author.
SC16 Student Cluster Competition:
The Student Cluster Competition returned for its 10th year. The competition which debuted at SC07 in Reno and has since been replicated in Europe, Asia and Africa, is a real-time, non-stop, 48-hour challenge in which teams of six undergraduates assemble a small cluster at SC16 and race to complete a real-world workload across a series of scientific applications, demonstrate knowledge of system architecture and application performance, and impress HPC industry judges. The students partner with vendors to design and build a cutting-edge cluster from commercially available components, not to exceed a 3120-watt power limit and work with application experts to tune and run the competition codes.
For the first-time ever, the team that won top honors also won the award for achieving highest performance for the Linpack benchmark application. The team “SwanGeese” is from the University of Science and Technology of China. In traditional Chinese culture, the rare Swan Goose stands for teamwork, perseverance and bravery. This is the university’s third appearance in the competition.
Also, an ACM SIGHPC Certificate of Appreciation is presented to the authors of a recent SC paper to be used for the SC16 Student Cluster Competition Reproducibility Initiative. The selected paper was “A Parallel Connectivity Algorithm for de Bruijn Graphs in Metagenomic Applications” by Patrick Flick, Chirag Jain, Tony Pan and Srinivas Aluru from Georgia Institute of Technology.
ACMIEEE George Michael Memorial HPC Fellowship:
The George Michael Memorial HPC Fellowship honors exceptional Ph.D. students. The first recipient is Johann Rudi from the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences at the University of Texas at Austin for his project, “Extreme-Scale Implicit Solver for Nonlinear, Multiscale, and Heterogeneous Stokes Flow in the Earth’s Mantle.”
The second recipient is Axel Huebl from Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf at the Technical University of Dresden for his project, “Scalable, Many-core Particle-in-cell Algorithms to Stimulate Next Generation Particle Accelerators and Corresponding Large-scale Data Analytics.”
The SC Conference Series also serves as the venue for recognizing leaders in the HPC community for their contributions during their careers. Here are the career awards presented at SC16:
IEEE-CS Seymour Cray Computer Engineering Award:
The IEEE-CS Seymour Cray Computer Engineering Award recognizes innovative contributions to high performance computing systems that best exemplify the creative spirit demonstrated by Seymour Cray. The 2016 IEEE-CS Seymour Cray Computer Engineering Award was presented to William J. Camp of Los Alamos National Laboratory “for visionary leadership of the Red Storm project, and for decades of leadership of the HPC community.” Camp previously served as Intel’s Chief Supercomputing Architect and directed Intel’s Exascale R&D efforts.
ACMIEEE-CS Ken Kennedy Award:
Established in memory of Ken Kennedy, the founder of Rice University's nationally ranked computer science program and one of the world's foremost experts on high-performance computing, the ACMIEEE-CS Ken Kennedy Award recognizes outstanding contributions to programmability or productivity in high-performance computing together with significant community service or mentoring contributions.
The 2016 Ken Kennedy Award was presented to William D. Gropp “for highly influential contributions to the programmability of high-performance parallel and distributed computers, and extraordinary service to the profession.” Gropp Is the Acting Director of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and Director, Parallel Computing Institute, Thomas M. Siebel Chair in Computer Science at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.
IEEE-CS Sidney Fernbach Memorial Award:
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1 A Novel Approach on Virtual Systems Prototyping Based on a Validated, Hierarchical, Modular Library Prof.Dr. Herbert Palm, Jörg Holzmann, University of Applied Sciences, Lothstrasse 64, Munich, Germany Robert Klein, Dr. Stefan-Alexander Schneider BMW AG, Petuelring 130, Munich, Germany Prof.Dr. Dieter Gerling Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, Neubiberg, Germany Abstract Development of highly innovative systems requires adaptation of standard processes in order to reflect its specific characteristics. Unknown best solutions with respect to system requirements or their efficacy at development start is one of those most common characteristics in innovation projects. In those cases adequate tailoring or revision of system development processes may increase quality of the technical solution while at the same time reducing the involved project risks and costs. This paper describes a novel methodology to establish Virtual Prototyping for multi-domain system development by Design Space Exploration (DSE) based on Virtual Systems Prototyping (VSP). VSP comprises four elementary steps to systematically build up the space of potential solutions. It offers a structural and dynamic insight view to validate performance indicators against a set of requirements. Our approach allows choosing the best solution within the design phase while simultaneously providing a high confidence level of its efficacy prior to implementation. VSP, therefore, is a powerful instrument for increasing the quality confidence level of innovative systems while reducing risk and cost of their implementation. VSP complements the method of prototyping on system design level inherently by a tool chain based on a multi-domain validated, hierarchical and modular library. The set of tool supported process steps makes DSE based on VSP a valuable methodology for effectively and efficiently developing innovative systems. The authors demonstrate their new approach on the basis of an automotive example in the context of novel fully-electric powertrain car architectures. 1) Macro Procedural Models: V-Model for Systems Development System developments usually follow a reference model providing a template sequence of generic activities. Two kinds of reference models have been established: a) Procedural models and b) Phase models. While procedural models describe the logical (conditional) sequence of activities, phase models, in addition, reveal a directed time path. From that point of view phase models may be considered as instantiated procedural models. Driven by German Government and independently by Hughes Aircraft the V-Model  has been established since early 1980s as one of the most common procedural reference models for system development. A sample representation of the V-Model is shown in figure 1. From a Systems Engineering point of view the V-Model includes two basic principles: A system is supposed to be designed top-down within its hierarchical structure while it has to be implemented bottom-up.
2 Figure 1: The V-Model Referring to the nature of any procedural model the referenced generic activities follow a logical rather than any timely sequence. Loops, therefore, are allowed, for instance when working results as achieved during component design trigger changes of the hierarchically upward module design. 2) Phase Models as derived from Procedural Models When asking for the timely sequence of activities within a development the underlying procedural model has to be transferred into a corresponding phase model. Phase models instantiate macro procedural models by a specified content and a time-ordered sequence. As the number of individual activities may grow significantly it is common practice to cluster activities based on specific interim results. Standard macro elements as a cluster of micro elements are listed in table 1. Milestones, thereby, mark significant events or results, respectively ( i.e. major decisions andor deliverables). A phase model may consist of only one single macro phase (typically System Build ), thereby defining a Single-Phase Model. Consequently, a sequence of more than one macro phase forms a Multi- Phase Model. Figure 2 illustrates schematically how the V-Model may be instantiated by Single- or Multi-Phase Implementations. Macro element Result (defining milestone) Comment System Build - System Version Vn.m Built to go-live study PCM - Knowledge of basic solution alternatives - Decision on solution alternative to follow Hierarchical structure: Pre-study PCM, Main study PCM,.. Prototype - Realization of a subset of system aspects real or virtual Pilot - Realization within an artificial environment Allows risk reduction Table 1: Macro Elements clustering activity sequence sets A Single-Phase Implementation of the V-Model obviously corresponds to the shortest path of a sequence activity from top-left to top-right without any loops. Based on this linear activity flow we may also call the Single-Phase Implementation a Waterfall-Approach . This Waterfall-Approach, however, is linked to a significant drawback: The maximum system feedback time between definition of a system and knowledge about features and behavior of its realization (if possible at all).
3 Only at the very end of a Waterfall-Approach development process a system can be validated against system level requirements of the design phase. As a consequence, we recommend a Single-Phase Figure 2: Single vs. Multi-Phase Implementation Implementation of the V-Model only in those cases where the following prerequisites are met: All requirements are known and stable The best solution approach may easily be picked amongst alternatives that are all known The chosen solution to be realized is known and proven to work (on all hierarchical levels) Building the entire system is expected to be a first-time-right Under the listed prerequisites a Waterfall-Approach offers the advantage of the shortest possible way from a problem to its solution within a V-Model approach. Adding phases may be considered a tradeoff between reducing risk of failure versus increasing time and cost requirements. Considering the value of an additional loop it should be kept in mind that severeness of a failure strongly depends on its occurrence-to-observation stage of the development gap. Cost to extract defects as a function of a system s life cycle phase has been investigated by the INCOSE (International Council of Systems Engineering) and is shown in figure 3 (according to ). It clearly indicates the value of an as early as possible preventive risk reduction in system developments. Figure 3: Benefits of avoiding failures according to 
4 Multi-Phase Models allow reducing system development risks by providing feedback loops. Loops may provide information on solution alternatives and their capabilities. They allow the clarification and stabilization of requirements. Loops offer the ability of incremental learning in cycles and to define and reduce the risk of a go-life. These benefits have to be considered versus increasing overall development time and effort. Table 2 shows macro elements and their specific benefit. Macro element Useful if.. Comment System Build study PCM Prototype.. a full system version is required andor.. learning cycles are required.. best solution approach is not obvious.. proof of concept is missing andor.. requirements are unclear or unstable Sequencing leads to spiral model  Pick the best instead of the first that comes along solution Applicable during design or implementation branch Pilot.. risk of first-time-right implementation is too high Allows risk reduction Table 2: Macro elements versus their useful integration within a V-Model. 3) System development in the context of disruptive innovations remental, evolutionary system changes usually allow reuse of an existing technology base. In contrast, major changes of system requirements often require a fundamental change of the underlying base. Development processes for this kind of disruptive innovations usually reveal the following characteristics: A part of the solution space (set of potential solutions) is unknown due to a missing proof of concept The best solution approach cannot be immediately identified, typically even not on top system level Reflecting table 2 for this context the application of Virtual Prototyping   in combination with a Pre- study PCM  is suggested. The combination of these two macro elements allows a significant risk reduction at the earliest possible stage of a V-Process based development: Identification of all potential solutions as part of the pre-study PCM will ensure not to miss the best one System feedback as part of the Virtual Prototyping will ensure a proof of concept Besides the question of which sequence of generic actions (method) has to be applied a corresponding tool (technique or technology) supporting the method needs to be identified. The combination of method and tooltechnology will be referred to as methodology. Aerospace industry certainly is more than many other industry segments driven by requirements of disruptive innovation. New products require fundamentally improved or even new features and behavior. Technology changes between new generations frequently reveal major rather than minor steps. In this area of aerospace system development the methodology of Design Space Evaluation (DSE) has emerged addressing all of the characteristics mentioned above. The methodology is described in detail elsewhere ( ) but its basic process steps may be briefly mentioned and reflected in figure 4: 0) Definition of major top-level requirements 1) Systematic built-up of potential solutions (indicated as yellow dots in figure 4) 2) Selection of those potential solutions meeting top-level requirements (blue circle in figure 4) 3) Trade-off quantification of selected solutions based on Virtual Prototyping (xy-graph in figure 4)
5 The following chapter will elaborate in more detail how the sequence of DSE process steps may be integrated into a V-Model to form a Pre-study PCM (revealing the best suited solution within a systematically built-up set of potential solutions) with integrated Virtual Prototyping (providing a proofof concept for the selected best solution prior to implementation). 4) Systematic Approach of VSP Figure 4: Principles of VSP and DSE The methodology of Design Space Exploration (DSE) based on Virtual Systems Prototyping (VSP) is not limited to any special technology or engineering domain. The automotive example chosen in the following course of this paper, therefore, is of exemplary character only serving clarification of its use. Battery electric vehicles (BEV) are based on fundamentally new and disruptive technologies in the automotive industry. Vehicles based on an electrified power train offer a wide range of architectural alternatives compared to combustion cars. Only a few of these alternatives have been realized so far. The total amount of potential solutions that are able to proof their concept is low. Given an application scenario ( use cases and requirements) for a new car development engineers are confronted with a huge set of unknown solutions. When applying our newly proposed DSE based VSP methodology to the V-Model four basic steps have to be followed as indicated in figure 5 and described in the following. Figure 5: The 4 major steps of VSP
6 Step 0: Definition of top-level requirements Step 0 reflects top-level requirements based on specific use-cases and related top level expectations. In our example, a user requests a zero emission urban car (referring to the system use case) with maximum energy efficiency and reasonable acceleration behavior. The user may decide upon important quantifiable performance parameters such as energy consumption per km and time to speed-up from zero to 100 kmh. Step 1: Building up the Design Space Step 1 systematically builds up the set of potential solutions (also called design space ). In our example, without loss of generality, we limit ourselves to Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and have to look at potential architectural solutions for their power train. A BEV power train may consist of one, two, three or four engines. It may integrate a motor within a wheel, close to a wheel or centrally. Energy may be provided by a high-energy storage (e.g. Lithium-Ion battery), a high-density storage (e.g. Supercaps) or a combination of both. Torque may be provided to wheels by a fixed, discretely variable or continuously variable transmission. Other top-level architectural alternatives may be built up accordingly. A top-level architectural alternative may be any combination of the architectural aspect variants mentioned. An appropriate tool to reflect them all is the Morphological Matrix (often referred to as Zwicky-Box )  shown in table 3. Each line of the matrix shows an architectural aspect while columns indicate options of it. Table 3 shows the 108 top-level architectural alternatives of our example. Architectural Aspect Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Number of engines Engine integration In-wheel Close-to-wheel Centrally - Energy storage High-energy High-power Combination - Transmission fixed Discretely variable Continuously variable - Table 3: Zwicky Matrix of the BEV power train example indicating 108 architectural top-level alternatives Step 2: Modeling & simulating potential solutions Step 2 analyses relevant features of individual alternatives based on Virtual Systems Prototyping (VSP). In our example we evaluate key performance indicators as defined in step 0, specifically acceleration time and energy consumption. The example shows typical VSP challenges that arise from their multi-domain character. Most tools for virtual prototyping are domain-specific, focusing on selected aspects (as relevant within the according domain) and are limited to a specific frequency range. Modeling and simulation of a multi-domain system, however, requires concurrency of all involved domains. Therefore, system prototyping requires overcoming of all multi-domain related challenges. Table 4 lists our solution approaches at technology level. Specifically, we would like to emphasize our approach of using Co-Simulation to integrate models implemented in different languages and their domain-specific authoring tools accordingly. This solution allows us to keep the strengths of all integrated languages   and tools. An integration tool combines all models used and - in the case of our automotive example adds a driver and an exterior environment.
7 Multi-Domain VSP challenge ing tools and languages are domainspecific and heterogeneous Divergence of models (esp. component models) Different frequency ranges Not runtime-optimized Too complex for top level simulation No integration capability due to Missing standardized interface Non-consistent models Range of validity is unknown on Component level Architecture level Solution approach chosen in this paper Keep strength of authoring tools and create Co- Simulation environment Library elements of (controllable) Co-simulation using own solver Component level runtime-optimization Hierarchic behavior clustering Exchangeability and flexibility due to Use of standardized Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI)  Definition and guidance of interfaces through model templates and objectoriented class structure Only validated elements are used Validity range (confidence) marked Watchdog on architectural level Table 4: VSPs solutions for Virtual Prototyping Figure 6 illustrates our top level template of the library for BEV power train VSP to demonstrate the aspect of Definition and guidance of interfaces through model templates and object-oriented class structure. Individual sub-systems, such as front or rear axle drive, energy storage etc. reveal a hierarchic sub-structure underneath. The template structure allows and corresponds to the systematic build-up of the system design space as required for DSE and reflects the V-Model hierarchy. Figure 6: Top level template of the library for BEV power train VSP Step 3: Validating & identifying the best solution Step 3 quantifies potential solutions against each other with respect to requirement trade-offs by simulation and evaluation of all design space elements. When the design space has been built-up as described in step 1 based on a Zwicky Matrix the underlying simulation runs may also be automated. Figure 7 describes our tool chain for automatically building up models according to the design space, simulating them and evaluating key performance indicators.
8 Figure 7: Tool chain for automatically building up models, simulating them and evaluating key performance indicators. When all required simulation runs are finalized designers and product engineers may visualize performance indicator trade-offs between potential solutions. There are numerous ways for representing these trade-offs. A standard representation of DSE is shown in Figure 8. Individual solutions are marked by a bullet. Axes represent key indicators. Without loss of generality we restricted this example to two parameters while the evaluation tool (AVL Cameo) allows up to 30 dimensions to be handled. This seems well sufficient for any top-level system architecture trade-off decision. In our 2-dimensional sample we can clearly mark (blue dashed line) a so-called pareto front. Solutions corresponding to dots on this pareto front  are well superior to any other vertical or horizontal solution but represent a trade-off, in our case energy efficiency versus acceleration time. Figure 8: Result of the DSE based VSP optimization indicating a pronounced pareto front. 5) Conclusion In this paper we proposed a novel methodology to establish Virtual Prototyping for multi-domain system development by Design Space Exploration (DSE) based on Virtual Systems Prototyping (VSP). The method allows to systematically build up the space of potential solutions (design space)
9 and offers a structural and dynamic insight view to quantify performance indicator trade-offs. This allows choosing the best solution within the design phase while simultaneously providing a high confidence level of its efficacy prior to implementation. Based on an automotive example we demonstrated DSE based on VSP to be a powerful instrument for increasing the quality confidence level of innovative systems while reducing risk and cost of their implementation. On a tool base we proposed a novel approach to overcome multi-domain modeling and simulation challenges as required to systematically support DSE based VSP. The tool chain has been proven to work successfully. The methodology is not restricted to the selected automotive industry segment and may become a standard element in all V-Model based system developments based on disruptive innovation. 6) Acknowledgements The authors would like to mention and thank Eliane Fourgeau from Dassault Systemes, Johannes Gerl from Modelon, Bernhard Schick from IPG and Dr. Hans-Michael Kögeler from AVL for their tool and tool related consulting support. 7) References  B. Boehm, Guidelines for verifying and validating software requirements and design specifications, EURO IFIP 79, p ,  B. Boehm, Software Engineering Economics, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall,  SE Handbook Working Group, Systems Engineering Handbook - A Guide for System Life Cycle Processes and Activities V3.2.2, International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE),  B. Boehm, A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement, IEEE Computer, pp ,  L. Prowse-Fosler, Virtual Systems Prototyping Ensures Reusable Design Platforms, Vast Systems,  S.-A. Schneider, B. Schick and H. Palm, "Virtualization, Integration and Simulation in the Context of Vehicle Systems Engineering," Embedded World 2012 Exhibition & Conference Proceedings,  Haberfellner, Nagel, Becker, Büchel and v. Massow, Systems Engineering, 11. Auflage, Verlag Industrielle Organisation,  W. K. Hofstetter, A Framework for the Architecting of Aerospace Systems Portfolios with Commonality, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics,  F. Zwicky, Discovery, Invention, Research - Through the Morphological Approach, Toronto: The Macmillian Company,  P. Fritzson, Principles of Object-Oriented Modeling andsimulation with Modelica 2.1, IEEE Press, 2004.
10  H. Tummescheit, Design and Implementation of Object-Oriented Model Libraries using Modelica, Lund: Dissertation, Lund Institute of Technology,  Blochwitz und e. al, The Functional Mockup Interface for Tool independent Exchange of Simulation Models, in 8th International Modelica Conference,  L. T. Eckart Zitzler, Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms: A Comparative Case study PCM and the Strength Pareto Approach, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol 3, No 4, November 1999.