|Exam Name||:||Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications Part 2 (IIUC2)|
|Questions and Answers||:||80 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||April 19, 2018|
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642-145 Certification Brain Dumps Source : Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications Part 2 (IIUC2)
Test Code : 642-145
Test Name : Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications Part 2 (IIUC2)
Vendor Name : Cisco
Q&A : 80 Brain Dump Questions
Cisco weblog > SP360: carrier provider
As we head to MPLS + SDN + NFV World Congress this week, i'm reminded of conversations I even have with carrier providers all of the time. They inform me how they need finished solutions to meet their enterprise needs, now not only a slice of a expertise stack. They tell me they need utility that supports an conclusion-to-end structure it really is tightly integrated with their OSS/BSS methods, and runs on a full range of hardware. And, they want it to be fundamental to put into effect and easy to use.
it truly is exactly what we created with Cisco IOS XR. greater than 150 service suppliers - including one of the crucial largest net gamers everywhere - have deployed our subsequent era containerized/virtualized IOS XR, which is the richest networking stack available available on the market, with business-main improvements in IP transport (phase Routing), IPv6, services (EVPN), Visibility (Streaming Telemetry), protection (MacSec), Programmability (Yang), 5G (clocking/synch) and plenty more.
Our IOS XR has three main areas of innovation:
An illustration of this innovation is IOS XR's assist of Linux containers, which we delivered back in 2015 with IOS XR 6.0. We architected our IOS XR application stack to run in containers and provide guide for consumer and third celebration purposes in containers too, which is feasible because the utility distribution supporting IOS XR is based on Open Embedded Linux. at the identical time, we aligned our deployment and automation capabilities with trade requirements (Netconf/gRPC) as well as server workflows (iPXE, ZTP, Ansible, Chef, Puppet and greater). really, we established IOS XR operating as a part of a Mesos Cluster at MesosCon 2015.
We additionally made sure IOS XR is purchasable on Cisco and merchant silicon throughout a large choice of hardware structures, starting from 1 RU to multi-chassis techniques. It runs in a digital form ingredient on established x86 compute platforms with the complete characteristic set and a excessive-efficiency facts aircraft. With help for actual and virtual, IOS XR gives service suppliers true choice in their designs, whereas offering a standard operational journey conclusion-to-conclusion. we are additionally laser focused on making our application convenient to use and put in force. we're designing with ruthless ease in intellect. you could study more about full IOS XR capabilities on https://xrdocs.github.io or comply with @xrdocs on twitter.
i am so proud of our crew for his or her continual improvements in software that launched the industry to new heights back in 2015 and nonetheless far outpaces the rest in the marketplace nowadays.
if you are attending MPLS+SDN+NFV World Congress be sure to register for the experience online for Cisco's workshop to study greater about IOS XR and meet our consultants.Tags:
LAN quality of carrier Templates
The aim of this document is to define the local enviornment community (LAN) quality of carrier templates that could be applied by using you Unified Communications engineers. This document carries simple configuration details that should be followed right through any UC deployment. The configurations contained inside this doc are in accordance with Ciscos high-quality of carrier SRND and Unified Communications supervisor SRND. For a complete listing of configuration particulars, reference the Cisco quality of provider SRND and Cisco Unified Communications manager SRND.
The configurations in this document should be regarded as the final analysis for any implementation and should be blanketed in any implementation as a part of the average birth technique. LAN traps should be carried out after enforcing the QoS to ensure that proper markings are being set and maintained right through the commercial enterprise.
here contraptions are lined in this FAQ* Catalyst 3550 Switches* Catalyst 2960/2970/3560/3750 Switches* Catalyst 4500 Switches with Native IOS as much as Supervisor Engine 7E* Catalyst 6500 Switches with Native IOS
here markings are used to designate site visitors, per the Cisco SRND. These are the markings that you will account for within the base skilled services implementation pricing.
When IP phones are deployed together with different smooth customers, similar to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then it is vital to make certain the appropriate marking of sentimental customer UC traffic. here's achieved by utilizing entry lists and repair policies.
The voice element of a call may also be labeled in one of two techniques, reckoning on the type of name in development. A voice-only (or normal) cellphone call would have the media categorized as CoS 5 (IP precedence 5 or PHB EF), whereas the audio channel of a video conference would have the media classified as CoS four (IP priority four or PHB AF41). the entire Cisco IP Video Telephony items adhere to the Cisco company QoS Baseline average, which requires that the audio and video channels of a video name each be marked as CoS four (IP precedence four or PHB AF41). The motives for this suggestion consist of, however aren't limited to, the following:* To retain lip-sync between the audio and video channels* To give separate classes for audio-handiest calls and video calls
Cisco Unified own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video knowledge are both voice and video ready, which presents two challenges when the usage of the ACL and coverage map for packet classification and DSCP re-marking. First, Cisco Unified personal Communicator uses the equal IP tackle and UDP port range to supply voice and video streams. The ACL it truly is in accordance with IP address and port quantity isn't granular sufficient to differentiate a voice call from a video name as a way to observe appropriate DSCP re-marking. 2d, Cisco IP Communicator makes use of the identical IP handle and UDP port range to supply its voice packets. similarly, the ACL is not granular satisfactory to distinguish the voice move of an audio-simplest name from the voice circulation of a video call. for this reason, the use of the ACL and policy-map for packet classification and DSCP re-marking is not a feasible QoS solution for application-primarily based endpoints.
as a result of both Cisco Unified personal Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video capabilities mark their signaling and media packets accurately as they ingress the community, Cisco recommends configuring the policy map to believe the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and practice traffic policing and rate limiting.
1. Catalyst 3550
The Catalyst 3550 switch mode is frequently present in the access layer of the LAN. This model helps a 1P3Q1T queuing mannequin.
These commands are entered on a worldwide level and are crucial in all QoS implementations. they're used to safely map COS and DSCP values as well as to associate these markings with the applicable interface queue and threshold.
Trunk Port commands
Trunk ports, which may include connections to other switches, as well as Dot1Q connections to routers, should be configured to have faith the DSCP markings from the neighboring device.
Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways
frequently speaking, contraptions similar to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways can also be depended on, comparable to trunk ports.
IP telephones with out soft purchasers
When IP phones are deployed in an atmosphere with out other gentle valued clientele equivalent to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports can also be to readily trust the COS of the IP phones. If a consumer may have any smooth consumers in the commercial enterprise, it is informed that you simply follow the configuration template for IP telephones with gentle valued clientele as it is not feasible to know precisely which ports may additionally or may not have smooth valued clientele energetic.
IP phones with soft purchasers
because both Cisco Unified personal Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video potential mark their signaling and media packets correctly as they ingress the network, Cisco recommends configuring the policy map to have confidence the DSCP marking of incoming site visitors and practice site visitors policing and price limiting. it's going to be cited that this doc comprises IP mobilephone manage site visitors for SCCP, secure SCCP, and SIP implementations.
The customer can choose so as to add extra courses for other purposes that fall into the bulk, Transactional, or Interactive classes reminiscent of Oracle, FTP, and so forth via configuring further ACLs and class-maps. You could be creating classes for voice and video. All other traffic not blanketed in these courses could be policed at 5Mbps. This helps offer protection to the ambiance from DoS assaults, and should not have an effect on official site visitors.
given that we're going to be marking traffic from PCs to greater courses inside the QoS guidelines, we should ensure that we don't open the infrastructure as much as a DoS assault from these PCs via allowing them to transmit extra information than imperative in every category. here is accomplished with policers. via policing sudden packets to DSCP 8 (scavenger), we've made excessive packets with policed markings a reduce precedence than 0.
entry lists (ACLs) are used to competently determine traffic to be able to need to be marked at the element of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN phase to LAN segment, as each the voice VLAN and facts VLAN might also fluctuate from location to vicinity inside a deployment.
type-Maps are created to vicinity the traffic recognized by way of the access lists into the acceptable QoS classes. The 3550 swap can classify based on VLAN identification, so hierarchy classes are utilized for this swap. In right here illustration, VV refers back to the Voice VLAN identification.
policy-Maps are created as a way to take action on traffic within a class. In these examples, the policers assume that the voice most effective calls will use G.711 and that video calls will no longer exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a more robust bandwidth became used, equivalent to G.722, the policer for the voice classification would deserve to be altered to 320k, as a substitute of 128k.
IP cellphone and workstation Ports
with a purpose to implement the classifications and policies, the coverage-map need to be applied to the ingress of all IP mobile and computer ports.
2. Catalyst 2960/2970/3560/3750
These Catalyst change fashions are generally present in the entry layer of the LAN, however in some deployments, the 3750 is used within the distribution degree. These fashions support a 1P3Q3T queuing mannequin.
These commands are entered on a world degree and are imperative in all QoS implementations. they are used to properly map COS and DSCP values as well as to affiliate these markings with the applicable interface queue and threshold.
Trunk Port instructions
Trunk ports, which could encompass connections to other switches, in addition to Dot1Q connections to routers, should be configured to have faith the DSCP markings from the neighboring gadget.
Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways
often speaking, devices corresponding to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways can also be depended on, comparable to trunk ports.
IP telephones devoid of gentle consumers
When IP phones are deployed in an atmosphere without different soft valued clientele equivalent to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports may also be to without difficulty trust the COS of the IP telephones. If a shopper will have any gentle consumers within the enterprise, it's informed that you just observe the configuration template for IP phones with smooth customers as it is not possible to understand exactly which ports can also or may now not have tender consumers lively.
IP phones with tender valued clientele
as a result of each Cisco Unified personal Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video capabilities mark their signaling and media packets accurately as they ingress the network, Cisco recommends configuring the coverage map to believe the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and practice traffic policing and fee limiting. it would be stated that this doc comprises IP cell manage site visitors for SCCP, comfortable SCCP, and SIP implementations.
The customer can decide on to add further courses for other purposes that fall into the majority, Transactional, or Interactive classes such as Oracle, FTP, and many others through configuring extra ACLs and sophistication-maps. You could be growing courses for voice and video. All other site visitors now not protected in these classes can be policed at 5Mbps. This helps give protection to the atmosphere from DoS assaults, and may now not have an effect on respectable site visitors.
seeing that we're going to be marking traffic from PCs to better courses within the QoS policies, we should make sure that we don't open the infrastructure as much as a DoS attack from these PCs by way of allowing them to transmit more statistics than fundamental in every classification. this is performed with policers. through policing unexpected packets to DSCP eight (scavenger), we now have made excessive packets with policed markings a lessen precedence than 0.
entry lists (ACLs) are used to correctly identify site visitors which will deserve to be marked on the element of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN segment to LAN phase, as each the voice VLAN and facts VLAN may differ from region to place within a deployment.
type-Maps are created to location the site visitors identified by means of the entry lists into the acceptable QoS courses. a class-map is created for every traffic category for which an ACL was created.
policy-Maps are created with the intention to take motion on site visitors within a category. In these examples, the policers count on that the voice only calls will use G.711 and that video calls will no longer exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a much better bandwidth turned into used, corresponding to G.722, the policer for the voice category would need to be altered to 320k, instead of 128k.
IP mobile and pc Ports
with a view to implement the classifications and guidelines, the policy-map ought to be utilized to the ingress of all IP mobile and workstation ports.
3. Catalyst 4500 Sup II to Sup IV
These Catalyst change models may also be found in the entry, distribution, or core layers of the LAN. These models aid a 1P3Q1T queuing model.
These instructions are entered on a worldwide level and are essential in all QoS implementations. they are used to effectively map COS and DSCP values in addition to to affiliate these markings with the acceptable interface queue and threshold.
Trunk Port instructions
Trunk ports, which could include connections to different switches, in addition to Dot1Q connections to routers, should be configured to trust the DSCP markings from the neighboring device.
Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways
frequently speaking, devices comparable to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways will also be relied on, similar to trunk ports.
IP phones devoid of soft valued clientele
When IP telephones are deployed in an environment with out different soft customers akin to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports can also be to without difficulty have confidence the COS of the IP phones. if you could have any soft purchasers in the business, it is recommended that you observe the configuration template for IP phones with tender purchasers because it isn't feasible to grasp precisely which ports may or might also not have soft purchasers energetic.
IP telephones with tender purchasers
as a result of each Cisco Unified own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video capabilities mark their signaling and media packets appropriately as they ingress the network, Cisco recommends configuring the coverage map to have faith the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and apply site visitors policing and fee limiting. it'll be mentioned that this doc comprises IP mobilephone control traffic for SCCP, comfortable SCCP, and SIP implementations.
you can select to add extra classes for other applications that fall into the majority, Transactional, or Interactive classes akin to Oracle, FTP, and so on with the aid of configuring further ACLs and class-maps. You can be creating classes for voice and video. All different site visitors no longer protected in these courses could be policed at 5Mbps. This helps offer protection to the environment from DoS attacks, and should now not have an effect on legit site visitors.
considering that we're going to be marking site visitors from PCs to larger courses inside the QoS policies, we should be sure that we don't open the infrastructure up to a DoS assault from these PCs through allowing them to transmit greater records than critical in each category. here is accomplished with policers. by using policing unexpected packets to DSCP eight (scavenger), we have made excessive packets with policed markings a reduce precedence than 0.
entry lists (ACLs) are used to adequately establish traffic with the intention to deserve to be marked at the element of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN segment to LAN segment, as both the voice VLAN and data VLAN can also vary from area to location inside a deployment.
classification-Maps are created to location the traffic recognized by way of the access lists into the appropriate QoS classes. a category-map is created for every site visitors classification for which an ACL become created.
coverage-Maps are created to be able to take action on site visitors within a class. In these examples, the policers anticipate that the voice only calls will use G.711 and that video calls will no longer exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a far better bandwidth changed into used, such as G.722, the policer for the voice class would deserve to be altered to 320k, instead of 128k.
IP mobilephone and computer Ports
with a purpose to enforce the classifications and policies, the policy-map need to be utilized to the ingress of all IP cell and computer ports.
four. Catalyst 4500 Sup VI-E
These Catalyst change fashions may also be present in the access, distribution, or core layers of the LAN. These fashions aid a 1P3Q1T queuing model.
These instructions are entered on a world level and are integral in all QoS implementations. they are used to accurately map COS and DSCP values in addition to to associate these markings with the applicable interface queue and threshold.
access lists (ACLs) are used to safely determine site visitors as a way to should be marked at the element of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN segment to LAN segment, as each the voice VLAN and statistics VLAN may additionally differ from region to place within a deployment.
5. Catalyst 4500 Sup 7-E
The per-port/per-VLAN policing mannequin is basically the identical for the Catalyst 4500-E Supervisor 6-E, except that it doesn't require a world policed-DSCP map and accordingly the policing instructions are a bit different; additionally no trust-DSCP commentary is required on the interface(s)
information Vlan Interfaces
Voice Vlan Interfaces
6. Catalyst 4500: Supervisor V-10GE
6.1. Per-Port UBRL (person-based mostly expense Limiting)
UBRL adopts microflow policing skill to dynamically study site visitors flows and expense limit each and every enjoyable flow to an individual price and, as such, is a highly constructive and effective policing tool, principally at the distribution ayer in a medianet campus network.
UBRL is obtainable on Supervisor Engine V-10GE with NetFlow support. UBRL can also be applied to ingress traffic on routed interfaces and is typically utilized in environments where a per-user, granular expense limiting mechanism is required, comparable to at the distribution layer, to deliver a 2d line of policing defense within the campus. Like other policers, UBRL will also be used to drop or observation exceeding flows.
A flow is defined by means of five-tuples (IP supply tackle, IP destination address, IP protocol container, Layer 4 protocol source, and destination ports), which might be the identical for every packet in the circulation. move-based mostly policers apply a single policy to discrete flows without needing to specify the virtually-endless tuple-mixtures. UBRL can also be utilized with source or destination move masks; these masks practice an combination microflow policing coverage to varied flows sharing the equal supply or IP destination addresses.
in the per-port UBRL model, a category map matches on a microflow foundation and aggregates these by supply addresses. Then a policer applies an aggregate limit to all microflows sharing a typical source IP address, remarking site visitors in excess of the policing expense.
Remarking is performed by means of configuring a policed-DSCP map with the global configuration command qos map dscp policed, which specifies which DSCP values are field to remarking (if out-of-profile) and what these values should still be remarked to (which in the case of scavenger classification QoS guidelines, the remarking value is CS1/DSCP 8).
UBRL is supported on Layer 3 interfaces and can be applied on either a per-port or per-port/per-VLAN-basis
Per-Port UBRL Configuration illustration on a Catalyst 4500 Supervisor V-10GE
6.2. Per-Port/Per-VLAN UBRL (person-based rate Limiting)
In distinction with the outdated illustration, if the campus distribution block is the use of a Layer 2/Layer three design, and as such has Layer 2 trunked interfaces (TenGigabitEthernet 1/1 and 1/2) connecting it to the entry layer switches, then UBRL may also be utilized on a per-port/per-VLAN groundwork. in this case, separate UBRL policies can be utilized to each VLAN traversing the trunked interfaces by the use of per-port/per-VLAN UBRL policies as each and every VLAN is routed throughout the swap.
To spotlight coverage flexibility, further degrees of classification are covered in this 2d UBRL example (which by the way can even be utilized to the per-port UBRL mannequin). in its place of applying a blanket UBRL policy to all endpoints, separate UBRL polices can also be utilized to different types of endpoints or utility-and-endpoint-combinations. as an instance, VoIP from Cisco IP phones within the VVLAN will also be rate limited to 128 Kbps, while signaling site visitors from these endpoints may also be constrained to 32 kbps. in a similar fashion, TelePresence endpoints within the VVLAN (which mark their media flows to CS4) can be restricted to 25 Mbps. All different endpoint-generated site visitors within the VVLAN will also be constrained to 32 kbps per endpoint.
identical coverage granularity may also be applied to the DVLAN policer, if favored. besides the fact that children in this example, a simplified DVLAN policer is applied to all flows to make certain that any DVLAN endpoint transmitting at more than 5% capacity (an instance value) of the access area 10/100/a thousand swap ports are discipline to data plane policing/scavenger class QoS.
Static DSCP-trust is configured on the actual ports and the per-port/per-VLAN UBRL policers are applied to their respective VLANs in the trunked interface.
Per-Port/Per-VLAN UBRL Configuration example on a Catalyst 4500 Supervisor V-10GE
7. Catalyst 6500 Native IOS
These Catalyst swap models can also be present in the distribution or core layers of the LAN. The queuing components is at once elegant upon the road playing cards. consult the Cisco QoS SRND or line card datasheet on Cisco website documentation to be sure that the appropriate queuing formula is configured on the switch.
These commands are entered on a world stage and are vital in all QoS implementations. they are used to accurately map COS and DSCP values in addition to to affiliate these markings with the appropriate interface queue and threshold.
Trunk Port instructions
Trunk ports, which might encompass connections to different switches, as well as Dot1Q connections to routers, should still be configured to trust the DSCP markings from the neighboring device. moreover, with Native IOS, the queue configurations are also made on the exact interfaces and are based upon the transmit queue support of the line cards.
2Q2T Tx Line cards
1P2Q1T Tx Line cards
1P2Q2T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q1T Tx Line cards
1P3Q4T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q8T Tx Line playing cards
1P7Q4T Tx Line cards
1P7Q8T Tx Line playing cards
Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways
frequently speakme, gadgets reminiscent of voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways can also be trusted, similar to trunk ports.
2Q2T Tx Line cards
1P2Q1T Tx Line cards
1P2Q2T Tx Line cards
1P3Q1T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q8T Tx Line playing cards
1P7Q8T Tx Line cards
access lists (ACLs) are used to correctly establish site visitors in order to need to be marked on the point of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN phase to LAN segment, as both the voice VLAN and facts VLAN may also differ from vicinity to vicinity inside a deployment.
Gigabit Ethernet IP phone and computing device Ports
in order to enforce the classifications and policies, the policy-map have to be utilized to the ingress of all IP addresses.
2Q2T Tx Line cards
1P2Q1T Tx Line cards
1P2Q2T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q1T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q4T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q8T Tx Line cards
1P7Q4T Tx Line playing cards
1P7Q8T Tx Line cards
Per-Port Microflow Policing mannequin
Microflow policing dynamically learns traffic flows and price limits each and every interesting flow to an individual cost and as such, is a totally useful and productive policing tool, particularly at the distribution layer in a medianet campus network.
Microflow policing can also be utilized to ingress traffic on routed interfaces and is usually utilized in environments where a per-consumer, granular cost limiting mechanism is required comparable to those of on the distribution layer which to supply a 2nd-line of policing defense within the campus. Like different policers, microflow policing may also be used to drop or statement exceeding flows.
Microflow policers are enabled with the police move policy-map classification-motion command. A move is defined with the aid of five-tuples (IP supply address, IP destination address, IP protocol field, Layer four protocol source, and vacation spot ports), which can be the same for every packet in the movement. Microflow policers follow a single policy to discrete traffic flows, while not having to specify the virtually-countless tuple mixtures. Microflow policing can also be utilized with source or destination circulation masks (with the mask src-most effective and mask dest-best not obligatory key terms, respectively). These masks then practice an combination microflow policing coverage to assorted flows sharing the same source or IP vacation spot addresses.
within the per-port microflow policing model, a circulation-primarily based policer is applied with a masks src-best option and applies an mixture limit to all microflows sharing a standard source IP tackle, remarking traffic in extra of the policing expense.
Remarking is performed with the aid of configuring policed-DSCP maps with the global configuration instructions mls qos map policed-dscp average-burst (which specifies the exceeding remarking action) and mls qos map policed-dscp max-burst (which specifies the violating remarking action, in the case of a dual fee policer). These instructions specify which DSCP values are field to remarking if out-of-profile and what value these may still be remarked as (which in the case of data plane policing/scavenger type QoS policies, this price is CS1/DSCP eight).
despite the fact that single price policers are used, it's suggested to configure the mls qos map dscp policed max-burst markdown map, as the maximum_burst_bytes parameter for the policer is determined to equal to the normal_burst_bytes parameter, unless explicitly exact otherwise. In different words, the PIR is set to equal the CIR, until explicitly exact otherwise, and thus the exceed-motion policed-dscp-transmit key words causes PFC QoS to mark site visitors down DSCP values as defined through the policed-dscp max-burst markdown map (and not the policed-dscp typical-burst markdown map).
Per-Port Microflow Policing Configuration instance on a Catalyst 6500
Per-VLAN Microflow Policing mannequin
In distinction with the previous illustration, if the campus distribution block is the usage of a Layer 2/Layer 3 design, and as such has Layer 2 trunked interfaces (TenGigabitEthernet 3/1 and 3/2) connecting it to the access layer switches, then microflow policing will also be applied on a per-VLAN basis. in this case, separate microflow policing guidelines can be utilized to every VLAN.
To highlight policy flexibility, additional degrees of classification are protected in this 2d microflow policing example. by the way these additions can also be applied to the per-port microflow policing model. as a substitute of making use of a blanket microflow policer to all endpoints, separate microflow policers can also be applied to several types of endpoints or application-and-endpoint-combinations. as an instance, VoIP from Cisco IP phones within the VVLAN can be policed to 128 Kbps, whereas signaling traffic from these endpoints can be policed to 32 kbps. in a similar fashion, TelePresence endpoints within the VVLAN (which mark their media flows to CS4) can also be policed to 25 Mbps. All different endpoint-generated traffic within the VVLAN can be policed to 32 kbps per endpoint.
equivalent policy granularity may also be utilized to the DVLAN policer, if preferred. youngsters in this illustration, a simplified DVLAN policer is applied to all flows to make certain that any DVLAN endpoint transmitting at greater than 5% capability (an example cost) of the entry facet 10/a hundred/a thousand swap ports are field to statistics plane policing/scavenger classification QoS.
Per-VLAN Microflow Policing Configuration example on a Catalyst 6500
in order to be sure real conclusion to conclusion QoS right through the atmosphere, the voice gateways ought to be configured to thoroughly mark handle and bearer traffic sourced from their processes, together with MGCP, H.323, and SIP.
by way of default, MGCP gateways mark bearer site visitors with DSCP EF and handle traffic with AF31. here is now not consistent with current requirements. right here adjustments may still be made to all deployed MGCP gateways.
with the aid of default, H.323 and SIP dial-friends mark bearer site visitors with DSCP EF and manage traffic AF31. here's not per latest requirements. The comply with changes may still be made to VOIP dial-peers on all deployed H.323 and SIP gateways.
WAN great of service
if you happen to try to assure site visitors service over lengthy distance involving WAN circuits equivalent to element-to-element, MPLS, and Metro Ethernet; then there ought to be QoS implementation on your WAN gateway of all ends of your area. moreover, your WAN QoS implementation need to fit QoS specification your carrier company makes use of to preserve end-to-conclusion QoS service.
As illustration, for instance you have aspect-to-aspect 1 Gbps Metro Ethernet circuit out of your carrier provider to interconnect two of your places. The service company has specification that 5 Mbps is guaranteed for class of carrier (CoS) priority 5 (EF) site visitors, 5 Mbps is assured for CoS precedence 2; while the ultimate bandwidth is freely used for CoS default traffic.
Let's anticipate you have IP mobile that uses DSCP EF 5 or CoS 5 of UDP port range 16384 - 32767 for voice traffic and makes use of DSCP AF 41 (CS 3) or CoS 3 of SIP (UDP and TCP port range 5060 - 5061) and SCCP (TCP port range 2000 - 2002) for signalling site visitors. inside LAN, you typically let these specification as default while atmosphere all LAN swap access and trunk ports to acknowledge these traffic. as soon as the site visitors is headed to the factor-to-aspect circuit, then come what may you must modify the traffic specification when you intend to healthy your traffic specification with the provider issuer specification.
expect you want to make the most of the service provider CoS 5 for the voice traffic, CoS 2 for the signalling, and final bandwidth is utilize for different site visitors reminiscent of e mail, web, and file sharing. for this reason as the site visitors is ready to leave one location over the aspect-to-factor circuit to reach your different vicinity, you deserve to map your latest CoS 5 traffic to the carrier provider CoS 5, map your existing CoS 3 site visitors to the service issuer CoS 2, and map remaining traffic to the carrier company CoS default traffic.
When the site visitors is already going over the element-to-factor circuit from one vicinity and arrive on the other area, you need set your traffic lower back to its customary specification to be able to suit your site visitors specification. hence as the site visitors arrives at the other place, you deserve to map the carrier company CoS 5 traffic to the customary CoS 5 traffic, map the service issuer CoS 2 to the usual CoS three, and map last traffic as default traffic.
As you might also observe that these WAN QoS mapping happens to your WAN gateway while LAN QoS mapping happens in your LAN. Following is one solution how the WAN QoS mapping and configuration appear to be. the idea here is that your WAN gateway is a router the usage of GigabitEthernet 0/0/0 port to connect with the WAN circuit.
for more info regarding these QoS instructions, try the following Cisco link.Configuring the Modular great of provider
illustration community Design and Implementation
The advice posted here is a summarized version of the Cisco AVVID QoS Design e-book. The grownup who posted this is no longer accountable for any community complications or any harm led to through configuring their router to the following specification. If in doubt, open up a Cisco TAC case which a Cisco Engineer will get in touch to support you implement or troubleshoot your design or subject respectively. You may additionally additionally ask the Cisco discussion board neighborhood for any counsel however group settle for no liability for any thoughts made which are then applied.
The instance under is the usage of a Cisco 79xx IP cell, 2924 swap (12.0(5)XU EN, and a 2600 Router (12.2(11)T IP/FW/IDS PLUS IPSEC fifty six). make sure the types of IOS that you just're operating guide the instructions used earlier than enforcing in a construction ambiance. It additionally assumes that you're using separate VLANs for data and voice (VLAN one hundred for statistics, and one hundred and one for voice).
This instance assumes the following community setup:
Configuring the 2924 change:
The above port configuration allows for for both voice and statistics traffic from separate vlans. Cisco IP telephones immediately assist 802.1q trunking and 802.1p COS tagging, so one can tag all outgoing voice traffic with an L2 COS of 5, and a L3 IP precedence of 5. The 'switchport precedence lengthen cos 0' ensures that each one facts site visitors has it be L2 COS tag re-categorized as 0. this may ensure a computer linked to the mobile is not also classifying its traffic.
moreover, if your change supports inline vigour, add the following to the above configuration: 'vigor inline auto'
observe:The 'pace auto' command is extraordinarily vital. Cisco IP telephones default to auto-negotiation for pace and duplex. If the switch port is decided to 100baseT full-duplex, the IP cell immediately sets its port to 100baseT half-duplex, causing a duplex mismatch.
Configuring the 2600 router
the first issue we should do is define access-lists to match our voice traffic. we will create 2 extended ACLs, one for the voice RTP traffic, and one for the voice signaling traffic.
For Skinny, H.323, MGCP
note:You may additionally also use a 'allow ip 18.104.22.168 0.0.0.255 any' command on the signaling access-listing to match all hosts in a specific subnet, assuming all IP telephones are on the identical subnet and their personal vlan.
subsequent, we create class maps for each type of traffic.
Then create a coverage map for the courses:
The policy-map on the router areas all voice site visitors into the precedence Queue, which is given 240kbps of bandwidth. All signaling site visitors is in a category-based queue with 16kbps of bandwidth. And all different site visitors is queued the use of Weighted fair Queuing.
To investigate how much bandwidth to give to voice traffic:number of simultaneous calls X 80 (for g711u)variety of simultaneous calls X eleven (for g729)
ultimately, follow the coverage to the interface:
observe:if you're the usage of sub-interfaces, making use of the coverage to the fa0/0 interface will also follow it to all sub-interfaces (i.e. fa0/0.1, fa0/0.2 and so on.) To observe a QoS carrier-coverage to a particular sub-interface confer with this Cisco link.applying QoS elements to Ethernet Sub-interfaces
As Qos is commonly configured on outgoing traffic, it is going to help if you have manage over each side of the link. which you could additionally practice rate limiting to inbound traffic in case you so opt for, although it's going to most effective work with TCP site visitors.
This expense-restrict command line will allow no more than 1408kbps via; in order that any excess will be dropped. again, this best works for TCP site visitors, on the grounds that dropped packets will cause the sender to again off and take a look at once more slower.
»[Config] Configuring QOS on 2960 for VOIP»[HELP] Enabling QoS on 4500 switch»[HELP] Route Maps query»[HELP] VOIP and records site visitors with qos and vlan
A critical vulnerability affecting lots of Cisco’s networking contraptions may be exploited with the aid of unauthenticated, far off attackers to take over vulnerable gadgets or set off a reload and crash.
The company says that the vulnerability isn't actively exploited within the wild, but as guidance about it and Proof-of-conception code has now been published network directors would do neatly to set up the launched safety updates as quickly a likely.concerning the vulnerability (CVE-2018-0171)
The flaw become found out by using Embedi researchers just about a yr in the past. it's a stack-primarily based buffer overflow vulnerability existing in the smart set up feature of Cisco IOS utility and Cisco IOS XE utility.
“sensible installation is a ‘plug-and-play’ configuration and photo-management feature that gives zero-contact deployment for brand spanking new (usually access layer) switches,” Cisco explains.
“The feature allows for a customer to ship a Cisco swap to any region, deploy it within the network, and energy it on with out additional configuration requirements. The smart set up function incorporates no authentication through design.”
The vulnerability will also be exploited by means of by sending a crafted smart deploy message to an affected gadget on TCP port 4786.Vulnearable contraptions
Embedi researchers confirmed that the flaw is present in Catalyst 4500 Supervisor Engines, Cisco Catalyst 3850 sequence Switches, and Cisco Catalyst 2960 sequence Switches, however that a slew of other gadgets are doubtlessly susceptible.
Cisco says that it impacts contraptions which are working a inclined liberate of Cisco IOS or IOS XE application and have the sensible installation customer function enabled.
“a wise set up community consists of precisely one sensible set up director swap or router, also referred to as an built-in branch director (IBD), and one or extra sensible installation client switches, also known as built-in branch purchasers (IBCs). a client switch doesn't need to be directly related to the director; the customer change may also be up to seven hops away,” Cisco cited. “handiest wise set up client switches are suffering from the vulnerability.”
Cisco IOS XR utility or Cisco NX-OS software isn't affected.
both Cisco and Embedi have supplied directions on how to verify no matter if a tool is susceptible (i.e., how to investigate the software free up, whether the wise deploy customer function is enabled, and whether the aforementioned port is open).what number of inclined devices are out there?
“After the vulnerability changed into found, we determined that it could most effective be used for assaults inside an commercial enterprise community. as a result of in a securely configured network, sensible set up know-how members may still not be obtainable through the web,” Embedi researchers stated.
“but scanning the cyber web has shown that here's now not real. all the way through a short scan of the web, we detected 250,000 susceptible instruments and 8,5 million gadgets that have a vulnerable port open. probably, this occurs as a result of on sensible installation purchasers the port TCP(4786) is opened by way of default and community administrators do not be aware this in some way.”
As there are no workarounds for mitigating the flaw and PoC make the most code has been made accessible, administrators are advised to put in force the offered updates.
replace (APRIL 5, 2018):
And in order for you greater explanations for eliminating the Cisco sensible set up customer from all instruments where it isn't used, Cisco has shared more particulars about lively attacks that leverage a old protocol misuse situation in the customer and offered mitigation assistance.
642-145 Certification Brain Dumps Source : Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications Part 2 (IIUC2)
Test Code : 642-145
Test Name : Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications Part 2 (IIUC2)
Vendor Name : Cisco
Q&A : 80 Brain Dump Questions
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Having laid out my views in part I, let me turn to the exact information related to hybrids — each from an environmental and financial perspective.
How do carbon emissions per mile driven evaluate for quite a few automobiles? The Volt is expected to be “below $30,000” with a 1.0L engine. compare this to the Corolla, with a 1.8Lengine (top hp of 126; 31 mpg) and a cost of $14,400. It’s worth noting that here is in the positive, no-gas-use situation for the Volt, computed below together with carbon emissions for the Volt operating on cellulosic ethanol and gasoline, and emissions for comparable-sized ICE vehicles. questions about the Volt’s genuine utilization patterns remain: how many people will recharge typical? how many of complete miles will be on the grid, and what percentage on gas?2010 2017 2017 (with 50% boost in ICE mpg efficiency) vehicleCO2 Emissions — grams/ mile month-to-month can charge (vehicle+gasoline) CO2 Emissions — grams/ mile monthly cost (vehicle+gasoline) CO2 Emissions — grams/ mile month-to-month cost (car+fuel) Toyota Prius 238 $490 238 $490 159 $468 GM Volt On electrical energyone hundred forty four $623 144 $623 144 $623 GM Volt Cellul. E85 – – fifty five $641 37 $628 GM Volt gas best 219 $661 219 $661 146 $641 GM Volt gas+Elec (1:1) 182 $642 181 $642 one hundred forty five $632 Toyota Corolla (ICE Engine) 353 $385 353 $385 235 $353 Toyota Corolla (Hypothetical FFV version) 282 (Corn E85) $387 88 (Cellul. E85) $355 fifty eight (Cellul. E85) $334
note: A hypothetical “plug-in Prius” with a Volt-sized 16kWh battery would probably cost greater than the Volt. hence the above evaluation of a plug-in Volt and a hybrid Prius is unfair to the GM Volt. The month-to-month can charge includes the monthly amortized charge of purchase (7.5 percent personal loan — fully financed over 5 years) + can charge of gasoline (1,000 miles/month). Battery can charge of $7,600 (at $400kWh + $1,200 handle) in 2010 and $four,000 ($200kWh + $800 control) in 2017 is covered in the Volt purchase fee of $30,000 — these battery can charge estimates are forty-60 percent lessen than existing estimates of $seven-hundred-1000kWh and automaker margin isn't protected. fuel charge assumptions of $0.11c/kWh electrical energy (U.S. commonplace per EIA) and 5 miles per kwh for the Volt, $3.00 gas charge to patrons (roughly simply the material can charge of “oil” in fuel at $one hundred oil fee, earlier than taxes — precise charges are more likely to be bigger for patrons if oil expenses reside excessive), $2.25 per gallon corn E85 to consumers before taxes ($1.75 creation cost per gallon), and $1.50 per gallon cellulosic E85 (in accordance with $1.00 creation cost earlier than taxes) in 2017. A 25 p.c mileage discount is used with ethanol (equal to current normal EPA de-ranking for E85). does not encompass expected improvement on E85 mileage relative to fuel or the carbon emissions from battery manufacturing, which are prone to make Prius and battery numbers about 10-20 percent worse on carbon emissions. not one of the costs account for subsides or taxes, which we count on might be zero or equal for all applied sciences by using 2017. No vehicle attribute alterations are assumed.
The numbers are necessarily estimates, and apples-to-apples comparisons are problematic. especially, they do not consist of the carbon emissions for battery manufacture amortized over the assumed a hundred,000-mile lifetime of the battery. moreover, speculation persists that the GM Volt battery may be leased to buyers — and that the $30,000 fee tag isn't inclusive of any leasing expenses. i believe these blunders are fabric, and make the electric numbers seem to be materially enhanced than they're. (Can somebody provide a source for an inexpensive estimate?)
The assumptions behind this table are as follows: the Volt gets 5 miles/kwh. Given U.S. electrical grid emissions of approximately 1.35lbs per kWh (EIA estimates), that offers us a per-mile emissions degree of roughly 0.32 lbs/mile (after adjusting for an electrical roundtrip storage effectivity at 85 percent for the battery, and assuming it is operating on battery on my own) or about 144 grams of carbon dioxide per mile. On gasoline on my own (assuming no battery charging from electrical energy) the same car’s emissions could be 219 grams per mile.
using only cellulosic ethanol, the equal vehicle would have seventy five p.c lessen emissions, or fifty five grams per mile (assuming vans, and so forth., presenting biomass, and transportation still running on fossil fuel). we've modeled gas emissions for tank-to-wheels to be eighty % of that from well-to-wheels emissions (roughly what the EIA uses). Any help in refining these numbers could be liked.
The percent of coal within the U.S. grid is anticipated to go up, no longer down. contrary to most forecasts, I think we can do enhanced than that and restrict coal-powered electrical energy to the point where its percent will decline (we have investments to make renewable grid electrical energy more cost-effective than next-gen IGCC coal flora), however the decline will be gradual given usual vigour plant lifespans. despite what we may hope for — driving on photo voltaic or wind power — the reality is probably going to be different. For those of you who want to compute solar PV panels in your roof, its advantageous cost is between $0.25 (low-cost panels in sunny Arizona?) to $0.50 (Foggy Seattle?) per kWh, depending upon your cost and the location of the panels. In a few places wind might possibly be competitively priced, however that would be for a small minority of motor vehicle house owners.
What about the charge of driving a mile? once we get to the incremental clear-grid charges, renewable electrical energy is expected to charge about $0.10-0.15c/kWh (previous to taxes; $0.06-0.10 per kWh delivered to utilities) brought to the customer at any huge scale, or about $0.02-0.03 per mile from a automobile of the Volt category. A construction cost of $1.00 per gallon of biofuel (i think decrease expenses are possible in 10-15 years) will probably effect in a $1.50 client price point (just before any taxes, which range by using state), so one would ought to get 50mpg (very workable; virtually the GM Volt gasoline-best mileage) in a flex-fuel vehicle to get the same variable cost per mile driven.
sure, I do predict — within the decade — a pretty good flex-gasoline engine to get the identical mileage on biofuels as it does on gasoline (as an example, an ethanol-competent engine operating at a compression ratio of sixteen — ethanol’s larger octane rating skill that these days’s engines are not optimized for it). that will raise ethanol mileage through one more 25 percent, which is not figured into our month-to-month cost reduction calculations. I should still be clear that every one numbers are necessarily approximations, probably to inside 25 percent.
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CIW [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [72 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [126 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [27 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [735 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1516 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [61 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [25 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [354 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [256 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [133 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [28 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [54 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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