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Which of the following device classes are commonly used STONITH devices? (Choose THREE correct answers.)
Uninterruptable Power Supplies, UPS
CPU frequency management tools
Blade Control Devices
Remote Management Services like iLO or DRAC
Local node storage
Answer: A, C, D
QUESTION: 108 CORRECT TEXT
Which command is used to edit and display the running Linux Virtual Server (LVS) configuration? (Specify ONLY the command without any path or parameters.)
Section 3: Sec Three (109 to 120)
Details:Topic 3, High Availability Cluster Storage
Which of the following commands can be used to change properties such as the number of node slots or the label of an existing OCFS2 filesystem?
What is the name and path of the configuration file for the O2CB cluster that coordinates the nodes using OCFS2 filesystems?
What is the task of the Cluster Logical Volume Manager, CLVM?
It segments the cluster nodes into several logical groups that are always fenced together.
It balances incoming TCP connections to a logical service to several backend nodes.
It makes logical volumes on shared storage available to all cluster nodes.
It allows several nodes to share file system locks in order to access the same files simultaneously.
QUESTION: 112 CORRECT TEXT
Which parameter of vgchange controls whether a volume group is shared within a shared storage cluster? (Specify ONLY the option name without any values or parameters.)
-c, c, clustered, --clustered
Which of the following statements is true regarding journals of a GFS2 filesystem?
Each GFS2 filesystem has exactly one journal.
Once a GFS2 filesystem is created, the number of journals cannot be changed.
Every node that simultaneously mounts the filesystem requires its own GFS2 journal.
Journals were heavily used in GFS and are deprecated and optional in GFS2.
The GFS Cluster Journal Daemon, GCJD, handles the journaling in a GFS2 cluster.
Which one of the following is NOT a required component for running an OCFS2 filesystem resource in a Pacemaker cluster?
A clone resource for the OCFS2 file system.
A shared storage device accessible by all nodes using the OCFS2 filesystem.
The distributed lock manager (DLM).
The cluster logical volume manager (CLVM).
The O2CB service.
Which of the following statements are true regarding OCFS2? (Choose TWO correct answers.)
OCFS2 is an integral part of Pacemaker and relies on Pacemaker services for functionality.
To avoid the need for shared storage, OCFS2 can replicate the content of its filesystems via the network.
When using OCFS2 with additional cluster software, OCFS2 must be integrated into the overall cluster manager to ensure consistent cluster behaviour.
OCFS2 can be used without any additional software as it contains its own cluster manager, O2CB.
In addition to filesystems, OCFS2 can handle other cluster services such as IP addresses and server daemons.
Answer: C, D
Which of the following can be used as a low level device for DRBD? (Choose TWO correct answers.)
A LVM logical volume
A physical hard disk
A rewritable CD
A virtual tape library
A tape streamer
Answer: A, B
Which kernel module must be loaded to initiate a RAID-1 like copy of data on two separate storage devices for a clustered storage solution?
How can the state of the backing storage disks of a DRBD device be checked? (Choose TWO correct answers.)
drbdadm dstate all
drbdadm diskstatus all
drbdadm state --disk all
Answer: B, C
When using DRBD in a Pacemaker cluster, which configuration objects must be managed in order to use the DRBD device as storage for other cluster services? (Choose TWO correct answers.)
A security resource in order to permit other cluster services to access the data on the DRBD device.
A health resource in order to check the integrity of the file system.
A file system resource to mount the device.
A replication resource that synchronizes the DRBD device's data to all nodes that may take over the device after a failover.
A constraint to ensure the device is mounted before the dependent services are started.
Answer: C, E
Which O2CB mode should be used for OCFS2 integration with heartbeat?
LPI 304-200 Exam (LPI Level 3 Exam 304 Senior Level Linux Certification Virtualization & Hi ) Detailed Information
LPI is the global certification standard and career support organization for open source professionals. With more than 500,000 exams delivered, it's the world’s first and largest vendor-neutral Linux and open source certification body. LPI has certified professionals in 181 countries, delivers exams in 9 languages, and has over 200 training partners.
Recommended for professionals: LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3
For IT professionals who want their Linux and open source skills verified in order to boost their career momentum, why wait? According to the Foote Partners report, ‘IT Skills and Certification Index’, there’s double-digit growth in bonuses paid to LPI certified candidates.
According to CompTIA HR perceptions of IT Training and Certification study:
96% use IT certifications as screening or hiring criteria during recruitment.
90% agree IT certified individuals are more likely to be promoted than those without.
89% think IT certified individuals perform better than non certified individuals in similar job roles.
88% say IT certified employees are rewarded (bonus and pay increase) for obtaining IT certification.
94% expect IT certification to grow in importance over the next two years.
88% believe it’s important to test after training to confirm knowledge gains.
97% value certification enough to provide support for IT employees obtaining certification.
The open source Jobs Report says hiring managers are looking for open source professionals.
34% are willing to aid with the cost of an employee's open source certification
59% are looking to increase open source hiring
74% have a need for developers
58% are seeking DevOps professionals
65% report open source hiring will rise more than hiring in other departments
87% say it's hard to find open source talent
"ManpowerGroup recently found that 36% of employers globally reported talent shortages in 2014—the highest percentage in seven years. In the United States, more than half (54%) of employers currently have open positions for which they can’t find qualified candidates. Unemployment rates for highly skilled workers continue to fall, job openings are on the rise and companies are finding an increased need to focus their attention on finding staff with job-specific skills needed to meet rapidly changing technologies.”
— ITCC, 2016 white paper, ’The trends that will affect the IT certification industry by 2020’
How open source professionals keep their skills up to date:
open source Jobs Report 2016 open source Jobs Report 2016
LPI tops the list of Linux certs by population according to Certification Magazine
1. Linux Professional Institute LPIC-1 37.9%
2. Linux Foundation Certified Systems Administrator (LFCS) 36.0%
3. Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) 24.2%
4. Red Hat Certified Systems Administrator (RHCSA) 22.2%
5. SUSE Certified Linux Administrator (CLA) 20.3%
6. CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI 18.3%
7. Linux Professional Institute LPIC-2 17.0%
8. Novell Certified Linux Professional 15.7%
9. Linux Foundation Certified Engineer 13.7%
10. Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) 8.5%
How we create our certifications
LPI is committed to providing the IT community with exams of the highest quality, relevance, and accuracy. This commitment requires that our exam development process is highly detailed, participatory, consultative and employs many of the proven techniques used by most other IT certification programs.
LPI’s exam development process is detailed, thorough, participatory, collaborative and employs many proven techniques used by the best IT certification programs.
Psychometrics, the study of testing and measuring mental capacity, is used throughout LPI certification development to ensure that our exams reflect the needs of the IT community and industry.
As a part of our ongoing certification development process we continually monitor the needs of the Linux and IT markets to ensure our exams effectively evaluate candidates on the most relevant skills.
When we began this process in the late 1990’s we initially launched a two-tiered certification track that became what is known as LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 today. Over the years we have expanded our offerings to include the third tier to the LPIC professional track with the three enterprise specialties of LPIC-3. We’ve also introduced an entry-level certificate program, Linux Essentials, for those seeking to add some Linux to their credentials.
Job Task Analysis
After development of a program structure and a job description for an exam or series, the next stage is to scientifically determine the skills, tasks and areas of knowledge needed for the job. The challenge: Anyone could come up with a list of tasks they think a Linux professional should be able to do. If you ask 10 Linux professionals what a “junior-level” professional should do, you might get 10 lists.
Which list is correct?
Our solution: We ask a large number of Linux professionals for their lists of necessary job duties, and then compile the responses to find the common and most important tasks. The most important tasks show up on all lists.
This process is called job analysis study or job task analysis. LPI has completed extensive job analysis surveys of Linux professionals to help ensure exams are unbiased and constructed fairly.
How we do it:
First we work with a large pool of subject-matter experts to compile an exhaustive list of all the tasks that they think might be performed by the target audience of the certification.
Job Analysis Survey
Next, the tasks collected during the pre-survey go into a job analysis survey. This survey asks practicing Linux professionals to rate each task in several ways:
Frequency: How often they perform the task.
Importance: How important it is for an administrator to be able to perform the task.
Finally, we conduct statistical analysis of the survey responses. We compute statistics indicating, on average, how critical respondents rated each task. This analysis guides the determination of the final job task list.
The third major stage of development is converting the results from the Job Analysis Study to develop the actual objectives for the exam(s). Objectives express specific things that Linux professionals must be able to do. Each objective is assigned a weighting value indicating its importance relative to other objectives.
Initial Objective Drafting
First, a small group of people with knowledge of both Linux technical issues and psychometric principles drafted an initial set of test objectives, basing them upon the results of the job analysis study.
Objective Review and Revision
After the draft objectives are created, they are placed online in a web based system for public review and comment. This system organizes objectives by exam and content topic, displaying the objectives themselves, along with links to additional documentation about the objectives. Public comments about objectives are collected and then supervisors review the comments and revise the objectives as necessary. The most recent review and revision of the objectives is posted publicly on our LPI Exam Development wiki and we send them to our community and ExamDev mailing list for comments and input.
When the objectives are finalized, we post them to LPI.org and let our community as well as courseware and training providers know, so that the training materials can be updated to reflect the new exam material.
Once the objectives are finalized, we being the process of writing questions, called items, for exams. Security is a major concern in item development. All items are kept as confidential as possible by having those involved in the process sign non-disclosure agreements agreeing not to disclose item content to anyone. LPI also takes other undisclosed security precautions.
Historically, the process used to develop the items for most other IT certification exams was to fly a group of subject-matter experts into a location for a week or more, give them training in how to write items, and then have them work intensely to create the questions.
But this technique is expensive and exclusive. At LPI, during our initial exam development phase we leveraged the power of the community through the internet to encouraged everyone who was interested and knowledgeable to help with item writing.
Since then, LPI has developed new items for exam rotation in house by tapping the knowledge of subject matter experts, online volunteers and participants in item writing workshops.
Supervisors screened all submitted exam items, and accepted, rejected or reworded them. They focused on three criteria:
Redundancy: Items that are substantially identical to previously submitted items are rejected.
Phrasing and Clarity: Items phrased in confusing or otherwise inappropriate ways are rejected or reworded. Supervisors pay attention to ensure that questions can be understood by non-native English speakers.
Accuracy: Supervisors rejected or reworded items that are not technically accurate.
Item Technical Review
Next, LPI uses a group of Linux experts to put items through a technical review. Each item is reviewed by multiple experts. Each expert classifies items as approved, rejected or “other” for rewording or review by others.
The primary technical criteria:
Appropriateness of distractors (for multiple-choice items): Reviewers ensure that the distractor answer choices are incorrect but reasonably plausible.
Phrasing and clarity: Reviewers ensure items are worded in appropriate language.
Supervisors then collect the reviews to determine if each item was:
Accepted based on consensus
Rejected based on consensus
Accepted after further review: If reviewers did not agree, the supervisor might accept it, perhaps based on the opinion of another reviewer.
Rejected after further review: If reviewers did not agree, the supervisor might reject it, perhaps based on the opinion of another reviewer.
Accepted after revision: In some cases, reviewers might suggest rewording the item and the supervisor might accept the item after rewording it.
Live Form Creation
The next stage of development involves assembling items into exams for global deployment. Each test has multiple forms. If candidates fails one form and retake the exam, they receive the different form of the exam on retake attempt.
The Pearson VUE test engine randomly orders the questions of each form when someone takes the exam to ensure two candidates taking the same exam are not tested on the same questions in the same order.
Initial Exam Publishing
Once the LPI psychometric staff has determined the composition of forms, the exam must be converted from text-based items into the actual exam file format to deployed globally through LPI’s network of testing centers.
The exam enter a period of initial testing to determine if the questions are in fact measuring skills and competencies. In IT certification, this period is known as the beta testing period.
During the beta period, candidates can register for tests and complete them at local events. They receive credit, but candidates do not receive scores back immediately after the exam. Beta exams often involve extra questions with an extended-time format as well as additional survey and demographic questions. Several simultaneous processes determine the cut score, so that exams may be evaluated and scored.
Obtaining Enough Exams
Before the passing score can be set, LPI had to accumulate an adequate number of exams taken by people who are similar to the target job description. As our support has grown, our target data numbers continue to grow, helping to generate the most accurate results. As part of the beta exam process, demographic data is taken into account by psychometric staff when reviewing the validity of questions.
Reviewing the Questions
As tests results roll in, psychometric staff start to examine the data. Asking questions such as: Are there questions that everyone gets correct? Are there questions that everyone fails? to determine if there anything wrong with the questions. Exam comments collected during the process are reviewed and questions and concerns are addressed.
Modified Angoff Study
While psychometric staff review incoming data, a separate pool of subject-matter experts simultaneously participated in a modified Angoff study. Their goal, to provide the psychometric staff with additional data to validate questions and assist in setting the passing score.
During this process, the experts:
Receive copies of the exam questions on each form.
Look at each question independently and in consultation with each other and make judgments about how likely a minimally qualified person meeting the job requirements described in a specification sheet would be able to answer the question correctly. In other words, the experts consider the question from the perspective of someone who is at the bottom of the competence scale for job performance.
Rate each question with their estimate of what percentage of people will answer correctly, keeping in mind that on multiple choice questions, some people will get it right by virtue of guessing.
Ideally, the results from the Angoff study should parallel the actual results from the exams in the beta period. Beyond validating item performance, the results of the Angoff study are also used in helping to establish the passing score for exams.
Distributing Score Results
After all of the data collection, the analysis and the Angoff study, the psychometric staff set a passing score, and distribute scores to exam takers who participated in the beta.
Once the beta has been completed, the passing score has been set, and any bad items have been removed or fixed, the exam is ready to be re-published. This work involves significant review and can take a month or more to complete. Once this final review process is complete, we coordinate with Pearson VUE and our partner network to publish the finalized exams for all test takers worldwide.
Why Written Exams
Written exams are a global standard.
Multiple choice is a common standard for most certification and licensure exams. Whether you want to be a doctor, lawyer, or chartered accountant, most professions require that you pass a multiple-choice exam. The procedures for producing high-quality multiple choice exams are firmly established. No such standard exists for hands-on exams. Therefore they tend to be ad hoc and rarely include pilot testing, item analysis, formal standard setting, and equating.
Written exams are valid.
Written job knowledge exams have approximately the same levels of predictive validity as job simulations (Roth et al., 2005)
Written exams are more efficient.
Written exams with individual questions are more efficient than exams with more complex item types. For example, Jodoin (2003) examined innovative item types on an IT certification exam that required examinees to construct answers (e.g. draw a network diagram). He found that these constructed response items provided more information but also took additional time. As a result, he concluded that, “multiple-choice items provide more information per unit time.”
Written exams cover all objectives.
Certification exams (like LPI’s) cover a broad range of knowledge areas. Using individual items, written exams can easily ensure adequate coverage of all objectives. Because of practical constraints, hands-on testing must either sample narrowly from these objectives or cover a much smaller body of knowledge.
Written exams are more valuable.
Hands-on testing is typically more expensive in all phases, including item development, pilot testing, administration, and scoring. If hands-on testing is more expensive but not more reliable or valid, then it offers less value.
Written exams are more reliable and objective.
Scoring practices for open-ended exams vary considerably, but the literature on scoring constructed responses suggests that subjective scoring is often less reliable than the scoring of traditional items. The literature on job performance suggests that objective measures of performance are also unreliable.
LPI 304-200 Tests
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Abstracts of Papers Presented to the Conference on Luna 24. Held 1-3 December, 1977. A Lunar Science Institute Topical Conference. LPI Contribution 304, published by the Lunar Science Institute, 3303 Nasa Road 1, Houston, TX 77058, 1977, p.200
Linux Professional Institute (LPI) Certifications
The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) came into being in October of 1999, almost one decade after Linus Torvalds began his pioneering efforts on the Linux kernel. During the past 15 years or so, LPI has taken a place as one of the leading certification providers on Linux topics and technologies. Given the organization's distribution-agnostic approach to Linux, it offers excellent coverage of a platform that is available in many different forms and flavors in today's marketplace.
The LPI Certification (LPIC) program is available in three distinct levels:
LPIC-1: Linux Administrator — A junior-level Linux certification with no prerequisites, although Linux Essentials is recommended. Candidates must pass two exams that cover basic Linux skills, including working at the command line, performing basic maintenance tasks, installing and configuring a workstation (including X Windows) and making LAN or internet connections. While you can obtain the LPIC-1 credential directly from LPI, candidates should consider obtaining the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential first, which qualifies you for both the Linux+ and LPIC-1 credentials.
LPIC-2: Linux Engineer — An advanced-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-1 certification. Candidates must pass two exams that cover significant Linux skills and topics. The first exam covers the kernel, system startup, filesystem and devices, advanced storage administration, network configuration, system maintenance and capacity planning. The second exam covers web services, file sharing, network client management, email services, system security and troubleshooting, and domain name servers.
LPIC-3: Linux Enterprise Professional Certification — A senior-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-2 and passing any single exam in the 300 series. Valid exam IDs currently include 300: Mixed Environment, 303: Security and 304: Virtualization & High Availability. The Mixed Environment exam covers Samba (domain integration, user and group management, name services, share configuration and so forth), plus OpenLDAP and working with Linux and Windows clients. The Security exam covers network, operations and application security, as well as cryptography and access controls. High availability cluster storage and management, along with virtualization, are covered in the Virtualization & High Availability exam.
MORE: Panther Alpha Puts Linux on a Micro PC
In addition to the LPIC-1, 2 and 3 credentials, LPI also offers an entry-level credential, the Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate (PDC). Linux Essentials focuses on foundation skills such as creating and running simple scripts or restoring compressed backups and archives, working with the command line, Linux operating system basics, FOSS, and usersgroups and file permissions for public and private directories. Linux Essentials is a great way to get started while gaining the skills and knowledge needed for the more challenging LPIC credentials.
The LPIC credentials are worthwhile for IT pros whose chosen Linux distributions do not warrant their own certification programs, and for those seeking broad, vendor- and distribution-neutral coverage of Linux topics, tools and technologies. They are popular among IT staffers and in some demand among IT employers.
LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 Facts & Figures
LPIC-1: Linux Administrator LPIC-2: Linux Engineer LPIC-3: Linux Enterprise Professional
Prerequisites & Required Courses
LPIC-1: None, Linux Essentials recommended LPIC-2: Active LPIC-1 certification LPIC-3: Active LPIC-2 certification plus completion of one of the 300 series specialty exams Training is recommended but not required
Number of Exams
LPIC-1: Exam 101-400 and Exam 102-400 LPIC-2: Exam 201-400 and Exam 202-400 LPIC-3: One of the 300 series exams:
Cost per Exam
$188 per exam. Exams administered by Pearson VUE. Linux ID required to register.
Self-study 304-200 Materials
study 304-200 guides, courseware knowledge packs, eLearning courses, exam crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, Linux Academy subscriptions and more are available on LPI Exam Preparation, LPI Marketplace and Amazon.
Problem & Solution: Allow only one instance of any MDI child form in your MDI application
One of the things I needed to do at an MDI application I was involved with was the ability to only load a specific form once, and make sure it does not load again. That form could not be modal, but could only have one instance running inside the MDI parent. I came up with a rather elegant solution, if I do say so myself :)
(Of course what usually happens when I come up with an “elegant” solution is that someone shows me a simple property on the form that says something like "AllowOneInstanceOnly" which does exactly what I did here. )