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117-101 - Linux-General Linux, Part 1 - Dump Information

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Exam Code : 117-101
Exam Name : Linux-General Linux, Part 1
Questions and Answers : 644 Q & A
Updated On : March 22, 2018
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117-101 Questions and Answers

117-101 Linux-General Linux, Part 1

Article by Killexams LPI Certification Experts


LPI Linux-General Linux, Part

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good 8 LPI Certification Books for the Linux professional | real questions with brain dumps

if you want to be assured and prepared for anything on your profession, take a look at the effective books in this listing of the true 8 LPI certification books for the Linux knowledgeable.

You gained’t leave out anything with any of these winner e book books in hand or under your pillow!

<a href=LPIC-1CompTIA Linux+ Certification All-in-One Exam Guide" src="" width="114" height="157"/>1. LPIC-1/CompTIA Linux+ Certification All-in-One exam book (checks LPIC-1/LX0-one hundred and one & LX0-102) by means of Robb Trac

one of the vital optimum written books on inofrmation know-how you may have read in a long time, this LPI certification booklet is incredible for anybody who's new to Linux administration. It also works as a refresher for advanced users for tips that they may have forgotten. It’s effortless to navigate, and the author additionally makes it very convenient to make use of for those open book tests.

CompTIA Linux+ Complete Study Guide Authorized Courseware2. CompTIA Linux+ comprehensive look at ebook licensed Courseware: checks LX0-one zero one and LX0-102 via Roderick W. Smith

This LPI certification book covers the entire vital substances for passing the tests. The guidance discussed is accurate and covers all of the issues nicely. For most effective check outcomes, use every command line device indicated in this book greater than as soon as and discover their command line alternate options prior to taking the exam.

<a href=LPIC-2 Linux Professional Institute Certification Study Guide" src="" width="114" height="143"/>3. LPIC-2 Linux expert Institute Certification examine e-book: checks 201 and 202 by using Roderick W. Smith

After the completion of this LPI certification booklet, you’d end up eager to thank the creator. not at all boring, it remains advantageous and engaging throughout all chapters. Its well-divided into two (2) parts sufficient to circulate the examination, including LPIC 201 and LPIC 202. all the questions within the publication are additionally very corresponding to the exam.

<a href=LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell" src="" width="111" height="166"/>4. LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell by Adam Haeder, Stephen Addison Schneiter, Bruno Gomes Pessanha and James Stanger

This LPI certification publication is definitely concise and useful. in case you use Linux on your occupation, this will support sharpen your advantage. This e-book will fully prepare you for the certification examine. it is additionally a superb tool for gadget administration and to use as a reference for anybody meaning to develop into a equipment administrator.

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<a href=LPIC-1 Linux Professional Institute Certification Study Guide" src="" width="114" height="146"/>5. LPIC-1: Linux professional Institute Certification study ebook: (checks a hundred and one and 102) by Roderick W. Smith

handiest a true master corresponding to Roderick Smith can dominate all of the themes covered within the examination and explain himself in ultimate readability with precise-world scenarios and information. The follow assessments on the conclusion of all the chapters are additionally magnificent to look at various your competencies. The bonus exams are truly a have to for passing the precise exams.

<a href=LPIC-1 In Depth" src="" width="114" height="141"/>6. LPIC-1 in depth with the aid of Michael Jang

This ebook showcases material in a very good, in-depth style. Michael Jang’s LPI certification book explores the LPIC-1 tests and offers just about 500 follow inquiries to present the latest look at various prep guide available for each LPI stage 1 assessments 101 and 102. It’s a have to for any person taking the checks, with key phrases, chapter summaries, review questions and others for multiple discovering paths.

<a href=LPIC I Exam Cram 2" src="" width="112" height="166"/>7. LPIC I exam Cram 2: Linux knowledgeable Institute Certification checks a hundred and one and 102 by way of Ross Brunson

A evaluation of this certain LPI certification book can't mirror how beautifully this book prepares you for the LPIC examination. The fantastic thing about it's its conciseness and ease. with out getting excessively drawn out and wordy, it tells you exactly what you deserve to recognize via crystal clear explanations offered beautifully.

<a href=LPIC-1 Linux Professional Institute Certification Study Guide" src="" width="114" height="141"/>8. LPIC-1: Linux professional Institute Certification analyze e-book (degree 1 assessments one zero one and 102) by using Roderick W. Smith

here's the most fulfilling LPI certification ebook to put together for LPIC-1. It follows LPIC-1 goals carefully, is well-written, and manages to maintain your activity. it is also a pretty good reference for basic Linux administration. The creator now not most effective contains the targets of the examination, but offers satisfactory heritage for you to fill the holes.

With specified, clear, and concise information offered beautifully, as well as follow exams and true-world assistance and situations, these LPI certification books are somewhat the handy and useful e book remarkable to have round. have you ever found any of the books in this list valuable? Share your experiences and let me understand by using leaving a remark under.

Linux foundation introduces new Linux certifications | real questions with brain dumps

CHICAGO — it's a typical story: organizations desperately want Linux savvy employees . Programmers and system directors who cut their enamel on the gcc and the BASH shell need jobs. however, between them rises the wall of human resources, which desires levels and certifications. The Linux groundwork delivered an answer at LinuxCon: a brand new Linux foundation Certification program for each early-career and engineer-stage systems directors.

Linux Foundation CertificationsLinux foundation certifications

the new Certification application assessments and designations for Linux basis licensed gadget Administrator (LFCS) and Linux basis licensed Engineer (LFCE) will reveal that users are technically capable via a efficiency-based mostly exam this is obtainable on-line.

These certifications can have right here aspects.

virtual, accessible each time, anywhere on this planet: The certification checks are designed to be at ease assessments that can also be taken through anyone anyplace with an internet browser, microphone, and webcam.

performance-primarily based checks: examination takers should be established on their ability to remedy actual complications within the command line in preference to be validated on theory or be given numerous alternative questions. 

Distribution-bendy: The Linux ecosystem is described by means of option, so examination takers may be able to choose to take their tests with one in all three Linux distributions: CentOS, openSUSE, or Ubuntu. 

These assessments aren't any cake-walk. before releasing them, the Linux foundation had its in-house developers and gadget directors take the assessments. Greg Kroah-Hartmann, the Linux kernel maintainer for the Linux reliable department, took them and spoke of, "here's challenging." The basis also eats its own dog food. Its first employ considering that arising with these certification assessments got his job in no small part as a result of he handed the verify.

This software follows up on the Linux basis's free ‘Introduction to Linux’ massive Open on-line path (MOOC) introduced previous this year. That classification alone now has greater than 250,000 attendees. With this, and other Linux basis courses, the Linux groundwork Certification application is designed to extend the talent pool of Linux authorities international.

according to Jim Zemlin, govt director of the Linux groundwork, the Linux foundation certifications are designed to be complementary to pink Hat and the Linux knowledgeable Institute (LPI) certifications.

The Linux foundation Certification program and assessments had been created by way of the groundwork with the support of a committee of business specialists. Zemlin stated within the LinuxCon keynote speech: "Our mission is to handle the demand for Linux that the industry. we're making our training software and Linux certification extra attainable to users global, when you consider that skill isn’t limited to 1 geography or one distribution. Our new Certification program will permit employers to effortlessly establish Linux talent when hiring and discover the better of the superior.”

This new certification opens with wide support from the Linux organizations. In a statement, Mark Shuttleworth, Ubuntu's founder, observed, "The Linux groundwork’s certification program will open new doorways for Linux professionals who want a way to reveal their expertise and put them forward of the relaxation. The timing is ultimate for this, as demand for Linux talent is on the upward push and we need easy methods to extend the pool of certified candidates to help Linux.”

Jim Wasko, IBM's Director of the IBM Linux technology middle, brought in a press release "The Linux groundwork Certification application will support put together Linux gadget administrators to have the technical depth of potential required nowadays in the business.  This approach to working towards and certification will provide gurus the capabilities needed by means of employers like us and our many shoppers who count on Linux."

or not it's now not just organizations that deliver and support Linux that like these new certifications. “Certifications inspire company confidence that specialists who are willing to make investments the time and energy are captivated with their craft,” observed Shravan Goli, president of dice, the know-how job company in a statement. “With the focus on efficiency and accessibility, the new application will enhance the paintings of Linux gaining knowledge of and assist construct a gifted pool of Linux authorities.”

The LFCS and LFCE tests charge $300 each and every. Certification holders will receive a graphical mark designating their completion of the exam that can also be displayed on resumes, LinkedIn profiles, net sites and extra. The Linux groundwork additionally plans on assisting a success candidates market themselves at its conferences and on

connected reviews:

system logging | real questions with brain dumps

be taught Linux, one hundred and one

What's been going on

Ian ShieldsPublished on November 28, 2017

content material series: This content is a component # of # within the series: study Linux, one zero one knowledge of+Linux+101

reside tuned for additional content material during this collection.

This content material is part of the collection:gain knowledge of Linux, 101

reside tuned for additional content material in this collection.


during this tutorial, gain knowledge of to:

  • Configure the syslog daemon
  • be aware regular amenities, priorities, and actions
  • Configure log rotation
  • remember rsyslog and syslog-ng
  • What's occurring interior your equipment?

    A Linux equipment has many subsystems and applications working. you use equipment logging to acquire records about your operating equipment from the moment it boots. every so often you simply deserve to comprehend that each one is neatly. At different instances you use this facts for auditing, debugging, figuring out when a disk or other useful resource is working out of means, and many different applications. that you would be able to bring together log records on one gadget and forward it to another equipment for processing. Log facts may also be displayed on a terminal, such because the root user's terminal, but extra often it is saved in files, or forwarded over sockets to a log server. obviously, logging is particularly configurable.

    The ordinary syslog facility and its syslogd daemon provide this logging. nowadays, syslog has been supplemented by means of different logging facilities equivalent to rsyslog, syslog-ng, and the systemd journal subsystem. I introduce you to those facilities in this tutorial.

    This tutorial helps you prepare for aim 108.2 in subject matter 108 of the Linux Server professional (LPIC-1) exam 102. The purpose has a weight of three.


    To get probably the most from the tutorials in this series, you need a fundamental knowledge of Linux and a working Linux device on which that you may apply the instructions coated during this tutorial. make sure you be common with GNU and UNIX instructions. every so often distinctive types of a software layout output otherwise, so your results may not at all times seem to be exactly like the listings shown here.

    during this tutorial, i exploit Slackware 42.2 for syslogd examples, CentOS 7 for rsyslogd examples, and Fedora 26 for systemd-journalctl and syslog-ng examples.

    ordinary syslog and the syslogd daemon

    The typical syslog equipment logging facility on a Linux equipment gives device logging and kernel message trapping. you can log information to your local equipment or ship it to a remote equipment. Use the /and so forth/syslog.conf configuration file to finely control the level of logging. Logging is performed by way of the syslogd daemon, which perpetually receives enter throughout the /dev/log socket, as shown in record 1.

    listing 1. /dev/log is a socket [ian@attic4-sl42 ~]$ # Slackware 42.2 [ian@attic4-sl42 ~]$ /bin/ls -l /dev/log srw-rw-rw- 1 root root 0 Nov 19 sixteen:35 /dev/log

    For native logging, the leading file is constantly /var/log/messages, however many other files are used in most installations, usually found in the /var/log directory or a subdirectory of it. that you could personalize these substantially. as an example, you can also want a separate log for messages from the mail device.

    The syslog.conf configuration file

    The syslog.conf file is the leading configuration file for the syslogd daemon. Entries in syslog.conf specify logging suggestions. each rule has a selector container and an action box, that are separated with the aid of one or extra spaces or tabs. The selector field identifies the facility and the priorities that the rule applies to, and the action container identifies the logging motion for the facility and priorities.

    The defined facilities are auth (or protection), authpriv, cron, daemon, ftp, kern, lpr, mail, mark, information, syslog, person, uucp, and local0 via local7. The key phrase auth should be used in its place of safety, and the key phrase mark is for inner use.

    The priorities (in ascending order of severity) are:

  • debug
  • info
  • be aware
  • warning (or warn)
  • err (or error)
  • crit
  • alert
  • emerg (or panic)
  • The parenthesized key terms (warn, error, and panic) are now deprecated.

    The default habits is to take action for the exact degree and for all better ranges, although it is possible to limit logging to selected degrees. every selector consists of a facility and a precedence separated with the aid of a length (dot). varied amenities for a given action may also be exact by using keeping apart them with a comma. numerous facility/precedence pairs for a given action may also be particular by using setting apart them with a semicolon. list 2 shows an example of an easy syslog.conf file.

    list 2. instance syslog.conf # Log anything else 'warn' or better. # Exclude authpriv, cron, mail, and information. These are logged in other places. # don't log inner most authentication messages! *.warn;\ authpriv.none;cron.none;mail.none;information.none -/var/log/syslog # The authpriv file has restrained entry. authpriv.* /var/log/relaxed # Log the entire mail messages in a single vicinity. mail.* -/var/log/maillog # Log cron stuff cron.* /var/log/cron # all and sundry gets emergency messages *.emerg * # save news mistakes of level crit and better in a special file. uucp,information.crit /var/log/spooler


  • As with many configuration info, traces beginning with # and blank strains are not noted.
  • An * may well be used to discuss with all amenities or all priorities.
  • The particular priority key phrase none indicates that no logging for this facility should be done with this motion.
  • The hyphen before a file name (such as -/var/log/maillog, in this example) suggests that the log file may still not be synchronized after each write. You may lose assistance after a gadget crash, but you could profit performance via doing this.
  • The movements are generically known as "logfiles," despite the fact they will not have to be real information. desk 1 describe the feasible logfiles.

    desk 1. moves in syslog.conf action intention usual dossierSpecify the complete pathname, beginning with a lower (/). Prefix it with a hyphen (-) to miss syncing the file after every log entry. This could cause guidance loss if a crash occurs, but can also enrich efficiency. Named pipes Use a primary-in first-out (FIFO) or named pipe as a vacation spot for log messages by means of together with a pipe image (|) before the file identify. You ought to create the FIFO the use of the mkfifo command before starting (or restarting) syslogd. FIFOs are once in a while used for debugging. Terminal or console send log messages to a terminal reminiscent of /dev/console. remote laptop ahead messages to one more host by placing an at (@) sign before the hostname. word that messages don't seem to be forwarded from the receiving host. checklist of users Use a comma-separated checklist of clients to get hold of messages (if the consumer is logged in). the basis person is commonly covered right here. every person logged on Specify an asterisk (*) to have everyone logged on notified using the wall command.

    Prefix a priority with ! to indicate that the motion may still not follow to this degree and higher. in a similar fashion prefix a priority with = to indicate that the rule applies most effective to this level or with != to indicate that the rule of thumb applies to all except this stage. record three shows some examples, and the man page for syslog.conf has many greater examples.

    list three. extra syslog.conf examples # Kernel messages are first, saved within the kernel # file, essential messages and better ones also go # to an additional host and to the console # kern.* /var/adm/kernel kern.crit @log-server kern.crit /dev/console;kern.!err /var/adm/kernel-data # keep all mail messages apart from data priority in /var/log/mail. mail.*;mail.!=info /var/log/mail

    The syslogd command starts the syslogd daemon. It has a numver of options, including -f to specify a different configuration file, and -a for additional sockets to listen to. The daemon responds to a few indicators, together with SIGHUP which factors it to reinitialize. See the man or data pages for more details on running and interacting with the syslogd daemon.

    record 4 shows some of the messages that might possibly be logged to /var/log/messages the usage of syslogd configuration parameters like those of checklist 2.

    record 4. instance of messages logged in /var/log/messages root@attic4-sl42:~# tail -n 20 /var/log/messages Nov 19 21:39:57 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274747] usb 1-1.1: New USB equipment strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=three Nov 19 21:39:57 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274751] usb 1-1.1: Product: USB DISK 2.0 Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274755] usb 1-1.1: company: Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.274759] usb 1-1.1: SerialNumber: 070B53DF11FC0170 Nov 19 21:39:57 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.275036] usb-storage 1-1.1:1.0: USB Mass Storage equipment detected Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1403.275801] scsi host12: usb-storage 1-1.1:1.0 Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus 1, gadget 12: "/sys/instruments/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.2/usb1/1-1/1-1.1" Nov 19 21:39:fifty seven attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: 1, machine: 12 was no longer an MTP equipment Nov 19 21:39:fifty eight attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1404.301570] scsi 12:0:0:0: Direct-entry USB DISK 2.0 PMAP PQ: 0 ANSI: four Nov 19 21:39:59 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.651626] sd 12:0:0:0: [sdd] 30299520 512-byte logical blocks: (15.5 GB/14.four GiB) Nov 19 21:39:59 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.652236] sd 12:0:0:0: [sdd] Write offer protection to is off Nov 19 21:forty:00 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.678810] sdd: sdd1 Nov 19 21:forty:00 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1405.683911] sd 12:0:0:0: [sdd] attached SCSI detachable disk Nov 19 21:forty two:36 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1562.844117] usb 1-1.1: reset high-velocity USB equipment quantity 12 the usage of ehci-pci Nov 19 21:forty two:37 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.044142] usb 1-1.1: reset high-pace USB machine quantity 12 using ehci-pci Nov 19 21:forty two:37 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.245138] usb 1-1.1: reset high-speed USB equipment number 12 the use of ehci-pci Nov 19 21:forty two:37 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.619154] usb 1-1.1: reset high-velocity USB device number 12 the usage of ehci-pci Nov 19 21:42:38 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 1563.919798] usb 1-1.1: USB disconnect, gadget number 12 Nov 19 21:forty two:38 attic4-sl42 kernel: <27>[ 1563.950967] udevd[3540]: inotify_add_watch(6, /dev/sdd, 10) failed: No such file or listing Nov 19 21:fifty six:48 attic4-sl42 -- MARK -- The kernel log daemon - klogd

    In listing three you saw some ways to configure kernel message logging. however how do boot-time kernel messages get logged before a file system is even mounted? The kernel stores messages in a hoop buffer in reminiscence. The klogd daemon processes these messages directly to a console, or a file equivalent to /var/log/dmesg, or in the course of the syslog facility.

    observe that the illustration in list 2 logs all messages at warning level or above in /var/log/syslog. In selected, this comprises kernel messages.

    As with the syslogd command, the klogd command has a number of alternatives. See the man or data pages for details. There isn't any configuration file for klogd.

    that you would be able to also display messages from the kernel ring buffer using the dmesg command. The command also has options to engage with the ring buffer, for instance to read and clear messages.

    Rotate and archive log files

    With the volume of logging it really is viable, you need to be able to control the measurement of log files. here is accomplished the use of the logrotate command, which is usually run as a cron job. (See our tutorial, Automate device administration projects by way of scheduling jobs, for more advice on cron jobs).

    The time-honored thought in the back of the logrotate command is that log data are periodically backed up and a new log is started. a number of generations of log are stored, and when a log a while to the final technology, it could be archived. for instance, it may be mailed to an archival consumer.

    Use the /and many others/logrotate.conf configuration file to specify how your log rotating and archiving should still ensue. that you would be able to specify diverse frequencies, comparable to each day, weekly, or monthly, for distinct log info, and you may manage the number of generations to maintain and when or no matter if to mail copies to an archival user. listing 5 indicates a sample /and so forth/logrotate.conf file.

    listing 5. sample /and many others/logrotate.conf # /and so forth/logrotate.conf # # logrotate is designed to ease administration of methods that generate tremendous # numbers of log files. It allows for automatic rotation, compression, removal, and # mailing of log files. each log file can be handled each day, weekly, month-to-month, or # when it grows too giant. # # logrotate is perpetually run day by day from root's crontab. # # For greater particulars, see "man logrotate". # rotate log files weekly: weekly # preserve four weeks worth of backlogs: rotate four # create new (empty) log info after rotating historic ones: create # uncomment if you need to use the date as a suffix of the turned around file #dateext # uncomment this if you need your log files compressed: #compress # some applications deploy log rotation assistance in this listing: encompass /etc/logrotate.d # Rotate /var/log/wtmp: /var/log/wtmp missingok monthly create 0664 root utmp minsize 1M rotate 1 # Rotate /var/log/btmp: /var/log/btmp missingok monthly create 0600 root root rotate 1 # notice that /var/log/lastlog is not turned around. this is intentional, and it's going to # now not be. The lastlog file is a database, and is also a sparse file that takes # up a whole lot much less space on the power than it seems. # gadget-selected logs could be also be configured under:

    The logrotate.conf file has international alternatives at the beginning. These are the default alternate options if nothing greater selected is distinctive in different places. in this example, log information are turned around weekly, and 4 weeks price of backups are saved. as soon as a log file is turned around, a new one is instantly created in place of the old one. notice that the logrotate.conf file can also consist of specifications from other data. right here, all the info in /and many others/logrotate.d are covered.

    This example also includes specific suggestions for /var/log/wtmp and /var/log/btmp, which can be rotated monthly. No error message is issued if the info are missing. a brand new file is created, and only 1 backup is maintained. access to these data is also constrained with the aid of setting permissions.

    observe: The information /var/log/wtmp and /var/log/btmp list a success and unsuccessful login attempts, respectively. not like most log data, these don't seem to be clear text info. You may additionally examine them the usage of the final or lastb instructions. See the person pages for these instructions for details.

    in this illustration, when a backup reaches the last era, it's deleted as a result of there isn't any specification of what else to do with it.

    that you would be able to lower back up log data once they reach a specific size. that you may additionally script instructions to run earlier than or after the backup operation. record 6 shows a greater complicated instance.

    list 6. one more logrotate configuration example /var/log/messages rotate 5 mail logsave@log-server measurement 100k postrotate /usr/bin/killall -HUP syslogd endscript

    In checklist 6, /var/log/messages is turned around after it reaches one hundred KB in measurement. five backup data are maintained, and when the oldest backup a long time out, it's mailed to logsave@log-server. The postrotate introduces a script that restarts the syslogd daemon after the rotation is finished, by way of sending it the HUP signal. The endscript commentary is required to terminate the script and is also required if a prerotate script is latest. See the logrotate man page for greater complete information.

    As with many such configuration data, some courses supplied additional configuration, constantly within the directory and so forth/logrotate.d. listing 7 shows the files on my Slackware device.

    list 7. Configuration files for logrotate root@attic4-sl42:~# ls /and so forth/logrot* /and so forth/logrotate.conf /etc/logrotate.d: consolekit mcelog mysql.orig ulogd wpa_supplicant httpd mysql syslog vsftpd root@attic4-sl42:~# cat /and so on/logrotate.d/httpd /var/log/httpd/*_log rotate 10 notifempty missingok measurement=5M compress delaycompress sharedscripts postrotate /and many others/rc.d/rc.httpd restart endscript Scan log info for remarkable recreation

    Log file entries are continually time stamped and contain the hostname of the reporting system, along with the manner identify. list eight indicates a couple of strains from /var/log/messages, containing entries from a number of programs.

    record eight. sample log file entries Nov 19 15:48:31 attic4-sl42 kernel: [ 7.407406] EXT4-fs (sda6): re-established. Opts: (null) Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus 3, machine 3: "/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/three-2/3-2.1" Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: 3, machine: three was not an MTP machine Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus 3, device four: "/sys/instruments/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/3-2/three-2.4" Nov 19 15:forty eight:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: 3, equipment: four changed into not an MTP gadget Nov 19 15:forty eight:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus 1, machine four: "/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.2/usb1/1-1/1-1.1" Nov 19 15:48:32 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: 1, machine: 4 changed into not an MTP device Nov 19 15:48:36 attic4-sl42 root: /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1: /sbin/ifconfig lo Nov 19 15:forty eight:36 attic4-sl42 root: /and so on/rc.d/rc.inet1: /sbin/route add -web netmask lo Nov 19 15:forty eight:36 attic4-sl42 root: /and so forth/rc.d/rc.inet1: /sbin/dhcpcd -t 10 eth0 Nov 19 15:48:36 attic4-sl42 dhcpcd[1112]: eth0: adding address fe80::4c2a:3f48:e0f7:cc90 Nov 19 15:48:41 attic4-sl42 sshd[1255]: Server listening on port 22. Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty one attic4-sl42 sshd[1255]: Server listening on :: port 22. Nov 19 15:48:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1262]: ntpd 4.2.8p8@1.3265-o Fri Jun three 23:08: 22 UTC 2016 (1): startingNov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1262]: Command line: /usr/sbin/ntpd -g -p /var /run/ Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: proto: precision = 0.230 usec (-22) Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: pay attention and drop on 0 v6wildcard [::]:12 three Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: pay attention and drop on 1 v4wildcard Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: hear continually on 2 lo Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: pay attention at all times on three eth0 Nov 19 15:forty eight:41 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: listen invariably on four lo [::1]:123 Nov 19 15:48:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: didn't init interface for tackle fe80::8616:f9ff:fe04:7a2ap.c2 Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty one attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: Listening on routing socket on fd #21 for interface updates Nov 19 15:48:forty one attic4-sl42 acpid: taking off with netlink and the input layer Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty one attic4-sl42 acpid: 1 rule loaded Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty one attic4-sl42 acpid: looking forward to hobbies: event logging is off Nov 19 15:forty eight:42 attic4-sl42 dbus[1226]: [system] Activating provider name='org.freedesktop.PolicyKit1' (the usage of servicehelper) Nov 19 15:forty eight:forty two attic4-sl42 ntpd[1264]: did not init interface for tackle fe80::8616:f9ff:fe04:7a2a%2

    The final line of record eight shows a failure from the community Time Protocol daemon (ntpd). in this case, it failed to initialize an IP V6 interface as a result of this equipment makes use of most effective IP V4 connections.

    which you can scan log information using a pager, akin to less, or look for particular entries (similar to ntpd messages from host attic4-sl42) the use of grep as shown in record 9.

    listing 9. Scanning log info root@attic4-sl42:~# grep "attic4-sl42 ntpd" /var/log/messages | tail -9Nov 19 21:17:12 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1131]: Command line: /usr/sbin/ntpd -g -p /var/run/ Nov 19 21:17:12 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: proto: precision = 0.220 usec (-22) Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: hear and drop on 0 v6wildcard [::]:123 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: listen and drop on 1 v4wildcard Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: hear perpetually on 2 lo Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: hear continuously on 3 eth0 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: pay attention continuously on 4 lo [::1]:123 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: pay attention at all times on 5 eth0 [fe80::8616:f9ff:fe04:7a2a%2]:123 Nov 19 21:17:13 attic4-sl42 ntpd[1133]: Listening on routing socket on fd #22 for interface updates computer screen log data

    from time to time you could need to video display log info for hobbies. as an instance, you should be would becould very well be trying to seize an infrequently taking place experience on the time it occurs. In such a case, that you may use the tail command with the -f choice to observe the log file. list 10 shows an instance.

    checklist 10. Following log file updates root@attic4-sl42:~# tail -n 1 -f /var/log/messages Nov 20 09:24:58 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43705.563240] sd 15:0:0:0: [sdd] connected SCSI detachable disk Nov 20 09:26:23 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43790.820125] usb three-2.4: USB disconnect, equipment quantity fiveNov 20 09:27:13 attic4-sl42 sshd[6059]: approved password for ian from port 58184 ssh2 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.890670] usb three-2.4: new low-speed USB equipment quantity 6 the usage of ohci-pci Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989492] usb 3-2.four: New USB machine found, idVendor=046d, idProduct=c50e Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989501] usb three-2.four: New USB equipment strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=0 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989506] usb three-2.4: Product: USB Receiver Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43955.989509] usb 3-2.four: manufacturer: Logitech Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43956.003175] input: Logitech USB Receiver as /contraptions/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/three-2/3-2.4/three-2.4:1.0/0003:046D:C50E.0004/input/input19 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 kernel: [43956.054049] hid-typical 0003:046D:C50E.0004: input,hidraw1: USB HID v1.11 Mouse [Logitech USB Receiver] on usb-0000:00:12.0-2.four/input0 Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: checking bus three, device 6: "/sys/contraptions/pci0000:00/0000:00:12.0/usb3/3-2/three-2.four" Nov 20 09:29:08 attic4-sl42 mtp-probe: bus: three, equipment: 6 became not an MTP machine song down issues stated in log data

    in case you find complications in log information, word the time, the host identify, and the system that generated the problem. If the message identifies the difficulty specifically satisfactory so that you can unravel it, you're finished. If now not, you may deserve to update syslog.conf to specify that extra messages be logged for the applicable facility. as an instance, you may deserve to display informational messages instead of warning messages and even debug-stage messages. Your software may additionally have extra facilities so that you can use.

    finally, in case you deserve to put marks within the log file to assist you comprehend what messages were logged at what stage of your debugging pastime, you could use the logger command from a terminal window or shell script to send a message of your choice to the syslogd daemon for logging according to the suggestions in syslog.conf.

    using rsyslogd

    Rsyslog is the self-described rocket-quick gadget for log processing. it's upwards appropriate from syslog in the sense that it may procedure configurations appropriate with syslog and additionally handle the syslog name to log counsel. It also provides a number of enhancements that aren't backwards compatible. In selected, it helps further logging protocols, and it may well log to databases, equivalent to MySQL or PostgreSQL, in addition to files. you could filter any a part of a syslog message and may wholly configure the output layout.

    The usual man and data pages give simple assistance about rsyslog. however, there's significantly greater documentation provided within the HTML format within the doc directory of your equipment. You could need to set up the rsyslog-doc equipment if it become no longer put in for your equipment. the foundation of the HTML tree is at /usr/share/doc/rsyslog-eight.24.0/html/index.html. The region may additionally differ for your system.

    The rsyslog application runs as a daemon, comparable to syslogd. The configuration file defaults to rsyslog.conf.

    record eleven. An rsyslog.conf configuration file [ian@attic4-ce7 ~]$ cat /and so forth/rsyslog.conf # rsyslog configuration file # For extra tips see /usr/share/doc/rsyslog-*/rsyslog_conf.html # if you journey complications, see #### MODULES #### # The imjournal module bellow is now used as a message source instead of imuxsock. $ModLoad imuxsock # offers assist for native system logging (e.g. by the use of logger command) $ModLoad imjournal # offers access to the systemd journal #$ModLoad imklog # reads kernel messages (the identical are examine from journald) #$ModLoad immark # provides --MARK-- message potential # offers UDP syslog reception #$ModLoad imudp #$UDPServerRun 514 # provides TCP syslog reception #$ModLoad imtcp #$InputTCPServerRun 514 #### world DIRECTIVES #### # the place to area auxiliary files $WorkDirectory /var/lib/rsyslog # Use default timestamp layout $ActionFileDefaultTemplate RSYSLOG_TraditionalFileFormat # File syncing capacity is disabled by means of default. This function is usually no longer required, # now not constructive and an severe efficiency hit #$ActionFileEnableSync on # consist of all config data in /and so on/rsyslog.d/ $IncludeConfig /and so forth/rsyslog.d/*.conf # turn off message reception by the use of local log socket; # local messages are retrieved through imjournal now. $OmitLocalLogging on # File to save the place in the journal $IMJournalStateFile imjournal.state #### guidelines #### # Log all kernel messages to the console. # Logging a whole lot else clutters up the monitor. #kern.* /dev/console # Log anything else (apart from mail) of level info or bigger. # don't log deepest authentication messages! *.data;mail.none;authpriv.none;cron.none /var/log/messages # The authpriv file has restrained entry. authpriv.* /var/log/relaxed # Log the entire mail messages in a single area. mail.* -/var/log/maillog # Log cron stuff cron.* /var/log/cron # everyone gets emergency messages *.emerg :omusrmsg:* # retailer information errors of degree crit and higher in a special file. uucp,information.crit /var/log/spooler # keep boot messages also besides.log local7.* /var/log/boot.log # ### begin forwarding rule ### # The commentary between the start ... end define a SINGLE forwarding # rule. They belong together, don't break up them. in case you create diverse # forwarding rules, reproduction the complete block! # faraway Logging (we use TCP for official beginning) # # An on-disk queue is created for this motion. If the far off host is # down, messages are spooled to disk and sent when it's up again. #$ActionQueueFileName fwdRule1 # pleasing name prefix for spool info #$ActionQueueMaxDiskSpace 1g # 1gb space limit (use as lots as viable) #$ActionQueueSaveOnShutdown on # shop messages to disk on shutdown #$ActionQueueType LinkedList # run asynchronously #$ActionResumeRetryCount -1 # countless retries if host is down # far flung host is: name/ip:port, e.g., port non-compulsory #*.* @@remote-host:514 # ### conclusion of the forwarding rule ###

    you are going to admire common syslog.conf entries in the core of the file, surrounded by way of further issues that the rsyslog facility understands. See the man or information pages or the HTML documentation for more details.

    that you would be able to use logrotate with data created by rsyslogd, although SQL databases may also require scripting or other equipment. similarly, the logger command nonetheless works to location your own mark in the log.

    the use of the systemd journal provider

    The systemd journal carrier examples in this area come from Fedora 26.

    The systemd-journald application is a equipment provider daemon that collects and outlets logging facts. It creates and maintains structured, indexed journals based on logging assistance it's bought from the common syslog sources in addition to structured log messages the use of a native journal API.

    The typical /dev/log socket is a hyperlink to /run/systemd/journal/dev-log as proven in record 12.

    list 12. The dev/log and /run/systemd/journal/dev-log sockets [root@atticf26 ~]# ls -l /dev/log lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 28 Nov 20 23:43 /dev/log -> /run/systemd/journal/dev-log [root@atticf26 ~]# ls -l /run/systemd/journal/dev-log srw-rw-rw-. 1 root root 0 Nov 20 23:43 /run/systemd/journal/dev-log

    The systemd-journald daemon listens on sockets and different file gadget entities, together with /dev/kmsg, /dev/log, /run/systemd/journal/dev-log, /run/systemd/journal/socket, and /run/systemd/journal/stdout. it could actually also hear for audit activities the usage of netlink, which transfers kernel suggestions to user house using sockets.

    Most log data is textual, but binary data is allowed, theoretically as much as 2^64-1 bytes in size. The journal stores log statistics in /run/log/journal/ via default. The /run/ file system is unstable, so log statistics is lost when the equipment reboots. To make the information persistent, you create /var/log/journal/ and systemd-journald will then shop the facts there.

    As with different logging systems, there's a configuration file. with the aid of default, it's /and many others/systemd/journald.conf. Many alternatives are compiled in by means of default, so lots of the options in the configuration file are at first commented out as proven in record 13. Uncomment those you are looking to trade. As commonplace further configuration information can be located in the journald.conf.d directory. programs may still installation their journal configuration suggestions in /usr/lib/systemd/*.conf.d/.

    checklist 13. preliminary /and so forth/systemd/journald.conf example # This file is a part of systemd. # # systemd is free application; you could redistribute it and/or modify it # under the phrases of the GNU Lesser time-honored Public License as posted by using # the Free software groundwork; both version 2.1 of the License, or # (at your alternative) any later edition. # # Entries during this file exhibit the bring together time defaults. # that you could alternate settings with the aid of editing this file. # Defaults can also be restored by way of with no trouble deleting this file. # # See journald.conf(5) for particulars. [Journal] #Storage=auto #Compress=yes #Seal=sure #SplitMode=uid #SyncIntervalSec=5m #RateLimitIntervalSec=30s #RateLimitBurst=one thousand #SystemMaxUse= #SystemKeepFree= #SystemMaxFileSize= #SystemMaxFiles=one hundred #RuntimeMaxUse= #RuntimeKeepFree= #RuntimeMaxFileSize= #RuntimeMaxFiles=100 #MaxRetentionSec= #MaxFileSec=1month #ForwardToSyslog=no #ForwardToKMsg=no #ForwardToConsole=no #ForwardToWall=yes #TTYPath=/dev/console #MaxLevelStore=debug #MaxLevelSyslog=debug #MaxLevelKMsg=word #MaxLevelConsole=data #MaxLevelWall=emerg

    Use the man or data pages for journald.conf to be trained more about the configuration settings that are supported.

    Use the journalctl command to monitor logged assistance. checklist 14 suggests a way to display the remaining 10 lines of logged statistics and then use the -f alternative to comply with, or continually display, new traces as they are delivered. Use the --rotate option to rotate journal info.

    checklist 14. using journalctl to reveal or follow log messages [root@atticf26 ~]# journalctl -n 10 -f -- Logs start at Mon 2007-07-09 22:14:00 EDT. -- Nov 21 10:24:forty seven atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] Activating by means of systemd: carrier identify='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' unit='dbus-org.freedesktop.nm-dispatcher.carrier' requested by using ':1.9' (uid=0 pid=650 comm="/usr/sbin/NetworkManager --no-daemon " label="system_u:system_r:NetworkManager_t:s0") Nov 21 10:24:forty seven atticf26 systemd[1]: beginning community manager Script Dispatcher service... Nov 21 10:24:forty seven atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_START pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] efficiently activated carrier 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 systemd[1]: started network manager Script Dispatcher carrier. Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7121]: req:1 'connectivity-change': new request (5 scripts) Nov 21 10:24:47 atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7121]: req:1 'connectivity-change': birth operating ordered scripts... Nov 21 10:24:48 atticf26 gnome-software-provider.laptop[4641]: 15:24:48:0034 Gs didn't call gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: don't know the way to deploy app in state queued Nov 21 10:24:fifty two atticf26 dhclient[7110]: DHCPDISCOVER on enp4s0 to port sixty seven interval 15 (xid=0x36565033) Nov 21 10:24:fifty seven atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_STOP pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:25:07 atticf26 dhclient[7110]: DHCPDISCOVER on enp4s0 to port 67 interval 14 (xid=0x36565033) Nov 21 10:25:21 atticf26 dhclient[7110]: DHCPDISCOVER on enp4s0 to port sixty seven interval 17 (xid=0x36565033) Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <warn> [1511277922.0280] dhcp4 (enp4s0): request timed out Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277922.0286] dhcp4 (enp4s0): state modified unknown -> timeout Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <data> [1511277922.0380] dhcp4 (enp4s0): canceled DHCP transaction, DHCP client pid 7110 Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <data> [1511277922.0381] dhcp4 (enp4s0): state modified timeout -> accomplished Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277922.0386] equipment (enp4s0): state exchange: ip-config -> failed (intent 'ip-config-unavailable', inner state 'managed') Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <warn> [1511277922.0393] device (enp4s0): Activation: failed for connection 'enp3s0' Nov 21 10:25:22 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277922.0401] equipment (enp4s0): state alternate: failed -> disconnected (reason 'none', internal state 'managed') ... Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277997.7805] device (enp4s0): state change: ip-config -> deactivating (motive 'person-requested', inside state 'managed') Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <info> [1511277997.7811] audit: op="gadget-disconnect" interface="enp4s0" ifindex=3 pid=7167 uid=one thousand influence="success" Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <information> [1511277997.7817] machine (enp4s0): state alternate: deactivating -> disconnected (rationale 'person-requested', interior state 'managed') Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 gnome-utility-provider.laptop[4641]: 15:26:37:0783 Gs did not name gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: do not know how to install app in state queued Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 avahi-daemon[602]: Withdrawing address record for fe80::3fd7:76aa:e99d:da5d on enp4s0. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 avahi-daemon[602]: Leaving mDNS multicast community on interface enp4s0.IPv6 with tackle fe80::3fd7:76aa:e99d:da5d. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 avahi-daemon[602]: Interface enp4s0.IPv6 now not central for mDNS. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 gnome-utility-service.computing device[4641]: 15:26:37:0787 Gs failed to name gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: don't know the way to installation app in state queued Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <data> [1511277997.7993] dhcp4 (enp4s0): canceled DHCP transaction, DHCP client pid 7179 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 NetworkManager[650]: <information> [1511277997.7993] dhcp4 (enp4s0): state changed unknown -> finished Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=filter household=2 entries=ninety nine Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=nat family=2 entries=59 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=mangle family unit=2 entries=forty two Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=raw household=2 entries=30 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] Activating via systemd: carrier identify='org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' unit='dbus-org.freedesktop.nm-dispatcher.carrier' requested by means of ':1.9' (uid=0 pid=650 comm="/usr/sbin/NetworkManager --no-daemon " label="system_u:system_r:NetworkManager_t:s0") Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 systemd[1]: starting network supervisor Script Dispatcher carrier... Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=filter household=10 entries=ninety Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=nat family unit=10 entries=54 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG desk=mangle family=10 entries=forty one Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit: NETFILTER_CFG table=uncooked household=10 entries=31 Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 dbus-daemon[585]: [system] efficiently activated carrier 'org.freedesktop.nm_dispatcher' Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_START pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7223]: req:1 'down' [enp4s0]: new request (5 scripts) Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 systemd[1]: began network manager Script Dispatcher provider. Nov 21 10:26:37 atticf26 nm-dispatcher[7223]: req:1 'down' [enp4s0]: delivery operating ordered scripts... Nov 21 10:26:38 atticf26 gnome-application-carrier.computing device[4641]: 15:26:38:0787 Gs failed to name gs_plugin_app_install on packagekit: do not know a way to install app in state queued Nov 21 10:26:forty eight atticf26 audit[1]: SERVICE_STOP pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj=system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 msg='unit=NetworkManager-dispatcher comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success' Nov 21 10:28:35 atticf26 cupsd[4544]: REQUEST localhost - - "post / HTTP/1.1" 200 182 Renew-Subscription a success-adequate

    Use the systemctl command to display information about, have interaction with, or manage the daemon and linked units. checklist 15 indicates an instance.

    checklist 15. the use of the systemctl command [root@atticf26 ~]# systemctl listing-contraptions "*journal*" --no-pager UNIT LOAD energetic SUB DESCRIPTION abrt-journal-core.service loaded lively operating Creates ABRT complications fro systemd-journal-flush.carrier loaded active exited Flush Journal to Persiste systemd-journald.carrier loaded energetic working Journal carrier systemd-journald-audit.socket loaded lively working Journal Audit Socket systemd-journald-dev-log.socket loaded lively running Journal Socket (/dev/log) systemd-journald.socket loaded lively operating Journal Socket LOAD = reflects even if the unit definition was properly loaded. active = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB. SUB = The low-stage unit activation state, values depend upon unit type. 6 loaded instruments listed. pass --all to see loaded but inactive instruments, too. To reveal all put in unit files use 'systemctl checklist-unit-info'. using syslog-ng

    Syslog-ng describes itself as "an better log daemon, assisting a big range of enter and output methods: syslog, unstructured text, queueing, SQL & NoSQL." It supports legacy and better syslog protocols and provides guide for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and journald message formats. Syslog-ng helps extensive capabilities to filter enter and format output.

    once installed, there is simple tips in the man and information pages. although, you're going to likely are looking to use "The syslog-ng Open supply version Administrator e book", which is accessible in each HTML and PDF formats. (See related issues).

    The default configuration file is /and many others/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf. An illustration is shown in list sixteen. extra configuration info can also be found in the /and so forth/syslog-ng/conf.d listing.

    listing 16. illustration of syslog-ng.conf @version:three.9 @include "scl.conf" # syslog-ng configuration file. # # This should still behave relatively much like the usual syslog on RedHat. but # it can be configured a great deal smarter. # # See syslog-ng(8) and syslog-ng.conf(5) for extra suggestions. # # be aware: it also sources additional configuration files (*.conf) # discovered in /and so on/syslog-ng/conf.d/ alternate options flush_lines (0); time_reopen (10); log_fifo_size (one thousand); chain_hostnames (off); use_dns (no); use_fqdn (no); create_dirs (no); keep_hostname (sure); ; supply s_sys equipment(); internal(); # udp(ip( port(514)); ; destination d_cons file("/dev/console"); ; vacation spot d_mesg file("/var/log/messages"); ; destination d_auth file("/var/log/comfortable"); ; destination d_mail file("/var/log/maillog" flush_lines(10)); ; vacation spot d_spol file("/var/log/spooler"); ; vacation spot d_boot file("/var/log/boot.log"); ; vacation spot d_cron file("/var/log/cron"); ; vacation spot d_kern file("/var/log/kern"); ; vacation spot d_mlal usertty("*"); ; filter f_kernel facility(kern); ; filter f_default stage(info..emerg) and not (facility(mail) or facility(authpriv) or facility(cron)); ; filter f_auth facility(authpriv); ; filter f_mail facility(mail); ; filter f_emergency degree(emerg); ; filter f_news facility(uucp) or (facility(news) and stage(crit..emerg)); ; filter f_boot facility(local7); ; filter f_cron facility(cron); ; #log source(s_sys); filter(f_kernel); vacation spot(d_cons); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_kernel); vacation spot(d_kern); ; log source(s_sys); filter(f_default); vacation spot(d_mesg); ; log source(s_sys); filter(f_auth); destination(d_auth); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_mail); destination(d_mail); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_emergency); destination(d_mlal); ; log source(s_sys); filter(f_news); vacation spot(d_spol); ; log source(s_sys); filter(f_boot); destination(d_boot); ; log supply(s_sys); filter(f_cron); destination(d_cron); ; # supply additional configuration information (.conf extension best) @consist of "/etc/syslog-ng/conf.d/*.conf" # vim:ft=syslog-ng:ai:si:ts=four:sw=four:et:

    You frequently do not should run each the systemd journal and syslog-ng journalling. if you do need to use both, you will need to make some configuration adjustments to each and then restart both. Search the net for current guidance on a way to do that.

    This concludes your introduction to logging facilities on Linux.

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    Drew Quinn steps down as Palm seashore Gardens boys basketball train | real questions with brain dumps

    Drew Quinn has stepped down as Palm seashore Gardens basketball train.

    Quinn was hired through the school in 2014 after head teaching stints at Royal Palm beach and Park Vista. Quinn, who has a career listing of 117-one hundred and one in 9 seasons of coaching, released a press release involving his resignation.

    “at this time I deserve to take a step lower back and reevaluate my career circumstance for my family,” said Quinn in an electronic mail. “Our instructor evaluations got here returned remaining week, and that i changed into rated ‘valuable’ regardless of my surest efforts to move into the ‘highly valuable’ enviornment. This effects in losing a bonus [50% more than my coaching supplement] for me throughout the states optimum and Brightest scholarship, in addition to influences my raises relocating forward.

    “I take my math teacher job very seriously, and am disillusioned. When factored in with the period of time spent working this application, i noticed I can't quite simply lead the younger guys I educate and love while I take up the thought that I continue to position the activity of these young men in front of the well being of my very own family.”

    Palm seaside Gardens athletic director Karyn Hart declined remark. Assistant James Lake will serve as the meantime instruct for the the rest of the season.

    After going 6-20 in his first season, the Gators showed marked development in yr two, completing 13-15 with an look in the category 8A regional quarterfinals.

    The Gators were unable to come back to the regional playoffs remaining yr, completing 13-14 after falling in the district semifinals.

    Quinn, who spent four years at Royal Palm seaside and two years at Park Vista, led three different faculties to the regional playoffs in a 5-12 months span — Royal Palm beach in 2012, Park Vista in 2013 and Palm seaside Gardens in 2016.; On Twitter @dusereport

    Valanciunas, Miles support Raptors beat Bulls 117-one zero one in opener | real questions with brain dumps

    TORONTO (AP) -- Newcomer C.J. Miles got Toronto's bid to become a more robust three-point capturing group off to a a hit birth.

    Jonas Valanciunas had 23 features and 15 rebounds, Miles scored 22 facets in his Toronto debut and the Raptors beat the short-passed Chicago Bulls 117-101 on Thursday night in the season opener for both groups.

    Norman Powell delivered 15 elements, Delon Wright had 13, and Kyle Lowry 12.

    Miles went 6 for 9 from 3-aspect latitude and had five rebounds. Half of the previous Indiana Pacers player's aspects came in the 2d quarter all through a 22-2 run through Toronto's second unit.

    ''I are looking to be in a position to be that spark,'' Miles spoke of, ''are available in and talk, convey power.''

    DeMar DeRozan discovered an awful lot to love in his first game with Miles as a teammate.

    ''it's awesome to have him on our crew doing it with us as an alternative of in opposition t us,'' DeRozan spoke of.

    The Raptors, who intend to enhance their 3-point capturing and flow the ball greater this season, were 13 of 29 from lengthy range and had 26 assists on 39 baskets. Lowry had 9 assists, and DeRozan and Wright every had 5.

    ''I loved the manner the ball moved,'' instruct Dwane Casey. ''we've got acquired to play that manner.''

    Playmaking proved a great avenue for DeRozan on an evening when he made just two of 9 field desires and didn't attempt a 3-pointer. DeRozan accomplished with 11 facets, going 7 for eight on the free throw line, and had six rebounds.

    Chicago center Robin Lopez scored 18 aspects, rookie Lauri Markkanen had 17 features and eight rebounds in his NBA debut, and Justin break scored 15.

    ''i believed Lauri was really good,'' Bulls coach Fred Hoiberg said. ''For his first performance, popping out right here on the highway in a hostile atmosphere, to go out and put up 17 and eight in his first NBA game is fairly brilliant.''

    Hoiberg mentioned forward Nikola Mirotic is doing ok but continues to be sore two days after struggling facial fractures and a concussion in a tradition combat with teammate Bobby Portis. Chicago suspended Portis for eight games following the altercation. Mirotic is anticipated to be out from 4 to six weeks.

    With the Raptors up 25-23 after one quarter, Miles went three for 3 from 3-point latitude in Toronto's decisive 2d-quarter spurt.

    ''That was the important thing stretch of the video game,'' Hoiberg said. ''They received within the paint, opened up, his pictures.''


    Bulls: G Zach LaVine (left knee) and G Kris Dunn (left index finger) both travelled to Toronto. Hoiberg referred to they're figuring out and taking part in stroll-throughs. ... Chicago additionally became without G Cameron Payne (appropriate foot).

    Raptors: Powell begun for Toronto with Miles coming off the bench. ... teach Dwane Casey turned into about half-hour late for his pregame media session after getting caught in rush-hour site visitors. ... Blue Jays right-hander Marcus Stroman sat within the entrance row opposite the Raptors bench.


    Bulls G Quincy Pondexter played for the primary time on account that April 2015. Pondexter neglected the past two seasons following a collection of left knee surgeries and a probably life-threatening dermis infection.

    ''i am really, really happy for Quincy,'' Hoiberg said before the online game. ''or not it's such a superb story from the place he changed into to get this opportunity to get back on the floor.'


    Raptors rookie F OG Anunoby dunked over Pondexter for the primary points of his profession and accomplished with 9 features in a powerful debut. ''It changed into wonderful,'' Miles spoke of about Anunoby's first online game. ''way stronger than mine. I advised him that on the flooring.''

    UP next

    Bulls: Chicago opens its home time table in opposition t San Antonio on Saturday nighttime. The Bulls have gained six of their previous 10 home games towards the Spurs.

    Raptors: Toronto hosts Philadelphia on Saturday night. The Raptors have received nine straight domestic games against the 76ers.


    For more NBA insurance:

    Chris Paul out however other Clippers go all in to rout Rockets in game 1 | real questions with brain dumps

    Blake Griffin offered every little thing the Clippers continually obtain from Chris Paul.

    there have been the passes, Griffin mechanically finding his teammates for pictures they couldn't create on their personal.

    There become the leadership, Griffin giving a halftime tackle and calling for a huddle on the court midway during the fourth quarter.

    And there turned into the finish, Griffin grabbing three rebounds and making two free throws in the final 21/2 minutes of the Clippers' striking 117-a hundred and one victory over the Houston Rockets within the opener of the Western convention semifinals Monday night at Toyota center.

    Griffin even in brief imitated Paul in a method that annoyed Clippers teach Doc Rivers.

    "I obtained on him because he begun doing the Chris element," Rivers referred to, relating to the big name element preserve he held out because of a strained left hamstring. "He stopped trying to rating and i informed him, at one factor, 'We need you to do everything,' and he did it."

    Griffin became amazing in every class, finishing with 26 facets on 9-for-19 shooting, 14 rebounds and 13 assists — his third triple-double in eight playoff video games.

    The big displaying helped the Clippers win devoid of their basic leader on the highway towards a crew coming off nearly per week of leisure.

    "My leading message all the way through the entire video game become to stay together," Griffin stated. "There turned into no explanation for us to crumble and fall apart."

    The Clippers failed to despite committing 20 turnovers throughout the first three quarters and trailing by as many as 13 aspects. They used a 12-0 surge midway through the fourth quarter that featured two three-pointers by means of Matt Barnes and one by way of Jamal Crawford to quiet a crowd that was roaring best moments prior. Griffin had assists on two of the three-pointers.

    Paul excessive-fived Griffin and smiled after the Rockets known as a timeout right through the decisive run that gave the Clippers a a hundred and one-88 lead. dressed in a green jacket with a black collar, Paul become demonstrative the whole game on the bench, constantly encouraging his teammates.

    "with out Chris, every person has to step up," Griffin pointed out. "it's not one grownup's job, it's all of our jobs. I believe in case you look on the stat sheet and the manner we performed tonight, it was each person."

    virtually. Crawford had 21 aspects off the bench and Barnes scored 20. Austin Rivers, making his first career playoff birth, had 17 facets, 4 steals and three assists to go together with three turnovers, and DeAndre Jordan had 10 facets, 13 rebounds, 5 assists and four blocks.

    That more than offset Dwight Howard's 22 elements for Houston. Rockets taking pictures take care of James Harden scored 20 aspects on a shaky six-for-13 taking pictures in his first online game for the reason that finishing 2d to Golden State's Stephen Curry in balloting for the NBA's most constructive player award.

    Houston's athleticism offered a vastly distinctive challenge for the Clippers than the San Antonio Spurs' fundamentals and smarts in the first circular, a collection that went the total seven games. but the Rockets were additionally sloppy with the ball, committing 24 turnovers to the Clippers' 23.

    Rivers stated he decided to dangle Paul out because of issue that he may re-irritate the injury.

    "in case you re-injure that," Rivers referred to, "then you definitely're completed and or not it's not worth the possibility."

    Rivers noted he turned into in doubt if Paul would play in game 2 on Wednesday.

    Paul, who did not communicate with newshounds Monday, sustained the damage Saturday within the first quarter of game 7 against the Spurs.

    Rivers noted Paul talked to him about possibly taking part in but Rivers didn't want to hear it.

    "There are definite things, a knee or whatever thing, and you say, 'good enough, we are going to see what you've got,'" Rivers pointed out. "here is one of those, 'I don't wish to see what you have because if you're incorrect, then you definately're wrong for the collection and it's now not value the possibility.'"

    sooner or later, the Clippers showed that they had the resolve to persevere devoid of Paul.

    "I have no idea if we stay together like that earlier within the season," Griffin noted. "the united statesand downs of the playoffs, the fight we had within the first round is a useful lesson. You can't get that classification of adventure, being down on the street early and staying with the video game plan.

    "We failed to trade our video game plan, we performed tougher, we performed smarter and we saved chipping away."

    observe Ben Bolch on Twitter @latbbolch

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    LPI 117-101 Exam (Linux-General Linux, Part 1) Detailed Information

    LPI is the global certification standard and career support organization for open source professionals. With more than 500,000 exams delivered, it's the world’s first and largest vendor-neutral Linux and open source certification body. LPI has certified professionals in 181 countries, delivers exams in 9 languages, and has over 200 training partners.
    Recommended for professionals: LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3
    For IT professionals who want their Linux and open source skills verified in order to boost their career momentum, why wait? According to the Foote Partners report, ‘IT Skills and Certification Index’, there’s double-digit growth in bonuses paid to LPI certified candidates.
    According to CompTIA HR perceptions of IT Training and Certification study:
    96% use IT certifications as screening or hiring criteria during recruitment.
    90% agree IT certified individuals are more likely to be promoted than those without.
    89% think IT certified individuals perform better than non certified individuals in similar job roles.
    88% say IT certified employees are rewarded (bonus and pay increase) for obtaining IT certification.
    94% expect IT certification to grow in importance over the next two years.
    88% believe it’s important to test after training to confirm knowledge gains.
    97% value certification enough to provide support for IT employees obtaining certification.
    The open source Jobs Report says hiring managers are looking for open source professionals.
    34% are willing to aid with the cost of an employee's open source certification
    59% are looking to increase open source hiring
    74% have a need for developers
    58% are seeking DevOps professionals
    65% report open source hiring will rise more than hiring in other departments
    87% say it's hard to find open source talent
    "ManpowerGroup recently found that 36% of employers globally reported talent shortages in 2014—the highest percentage in seven years. In the United States, more than half (54%) of employers currently have open positions for which they can’t find qualified candidates. Unemployment rates for highly skilled workers continue to fall, job openings are on the rise and companies are finding an increased need to focus their attention on finding staff with job-specific skills needed to meet rapidly changing technologies.”
    — ITCC, 2016 white paper, ’The trends that will affect the IT certification industry by 2020’
    How open source professionals keep their skills up to date:
    open source Jobs Report 2016 open source Jobs Report 2016
    LPI tops the list of Linux certs by population according to Certification Magazine
    1. Linux Professional Institute LPIC-1 37.9%
    2. Linux Foundation Certified Systems Administrator (LFCS) 36.0%
    3. Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) 24.2%
    4. Red Hat Certified Systems Administrator (RHCSA) 22.2%
    5. SUSE Certified Linux Administrator (CLA) 20.3%
    6. CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI 18.3%
    7. Linux Professional Institute LPIC-2 17.0%
    8. Novell Certified Linux Professional 15.7%
    9. Linux Foundation Certified Engineer 13.7%
    10. Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) 8.5%
    How we create our certifications
    LPI is committed to providing the IT community with exams of the highest quality, relevance, and accuracy. This commitment requires that our exam development process is highly detailed, participatory, consultative and employs many of the proven techniques used by most other IT certification programs.
    Exam Development
    LPI’s exam development process is detailed, thorough, participatory, collaborative and employs many proven techniques used by the best IT certification programs.
    Psychometrics, the study of testing and measuring mental capacity, is used throughout LPI certification development to ensure that our exams reflect the needs of the IT community and industry.
    Development Structure
    As a part of our ongoing certification development process we continually monitor the needs of the Linux and IT markets to ensure our exams effectively evaluate candidates on the most relevant skills.
    When we began this process in the late 1990’s we initially launched a two-tiered certification track that became what is known as LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 today. Over the years we have expanded our offerings to include the third tier to the LPIC professional track with the three enterprise specialties of LPIC-3. We’ve also introduced an entry-level certificate program, Linux Essentials, for those seeking to add some Linux to their credentials.
    Job Task Analysis
    After development of a program structure and a job description for an exam or series, the next stage is to scientifically determine the skills, tasks and areas of knowledge needed for the job. The challenge: Anyone could come up with a list of tasks they think a Linux professional should be able to do. If you ask 10 Linux professionals what a “junior-level” professional should do, you might get 10 lists.
    Which list is correct?
    Our solution: We ask a large number of Linux professionals for their lists of necessary job duties, and then compile the responses to find the common and most important tasks. The most important tasks show up on all lists.
    This process is called job analysis study or job task analysis. LPI has completed extensive job analysis surveys of Linux professionals to help ensure exams are unbiased and constructed fairly.
    How we do it:
    First we work with a large pool of subject-matter experts to compile an exhaustive list of all the tasks that they think might be performed by the target audience of the certification.
    Job Analysis Survey
    Next, the tasks collected during the pre-survey go into a job analysis survey. This survey asks practicing Linux professionals to rate each task in several ways:
    Frequency: How often they perform the task.
    Importance: How important it is for an administrator to be able to perform the task.
    Data analysis
    Finally, we conduct statistical analysis of the survey responses. We compute statistics indicating, on average, how critical respondents rated each task. This analysis guides the determination of the final job task list.
    Objective Development
    The third major stage of development is converting the results from the Job Analysis Study to develop the actual objectives for the exam(s). Objectives express specific things that Linux professionals must be able to do. Each objective is assigned a weighting value indicating its importance relative to other objectives.
    Initial Objective Drafting
    First, a small group of people with knowledge of both Linux technical issues and psychometric principles drafted an initial set of test objectives, basing them upon the results of the job analysis study.
    Objective Review and Revision
    After the draft objectives are created, they are placed online in a web based system for public review and comment. This system organizes objectives by exam and content topic, displaying the objectives themselves, along with links to additional documentation about the objectives. Public comments about objectives are collected and then supervisors review the comments and revise the objectives as necessary. The most recent review and revision of the objectives is posted publicly on our LPI Exam Development wiki and we send them to our community and ExamDev mailing list for comments and input.
    When the objectives are finalized, we post them to and let our community as well as courseware and training providers know, so that the training materials can be updated to reflect the new exam material.
    Item Development
    Once the objectives are finalized, we being the process of writing questions, called items, for exams. Security is a major concern in item development. All items are kept as confidential as possible by having those involved in the process sign non-disclosure agreements agreeing not to disclose item content to anyone. LPI also takes other undisclosed security precautions.
    Item writing
    Historically, the process used to develop the items for most other IT certification exams was to fly a group of subject-matter experts into a location for a week or more, give them training in how to write items, and then have them work intensely to create the questions.
    But this technique is expensive and exclusive. At LPI, during our initial exam development phase we leveraged the power of the community through the internet to encouraged everyone who was interested and knowledgeable to help with item writing.
    Since then, LPI has developed new items for exam rotation in house by tapping the knowledge of subject matter experts, online volunteers and participants in item writing workshops.
    Item Screening
    Supervisors screened all submitted exam items, and accepted, rejected or reworded them. They focused on three criteria:
    Redundancy: Items that are substantially identical to previously submitted items are rejected.
    Phrasing and Clarity: Items phrased in confusing or otherwise inappropriate ways are rejected or reworded. Supervisors pay attention to ensure that questions can be understood by non-native English speakers.
    Accuracy: Supervisors rejected or reworded items that are not technically accurate.
    Item Technical Review
    Next, LPI uses a group of Linux experts to put items through a technical review. Each item is reviewed by multiple experts. Each expert classifies items as approved, rejected or “other” for rewording or review by others.
    The primary technical criteria:
    Appropriateness of distractors (for multiple-choice items): Reviewers ensure that the distractor answer choices are incorrect but reasonably plausible.
    Phrasing and clarity: Reviewers ensure items are worded in appropriate language.
    Expected difficulty
    Supervisors then collect the reviews to determine if each item was:
    Accepted based on consensus
    Rejected based on consensus
    Accepted after further review: If reviewers did not agree, the supervisor might accept it, perhaps based on the opinion of another reviewer.
    Rejected after further review: If reviewers did not agree, the supervisor might reject it, perhaps based on the opinion of another reviewer.
    Accepted after revision: In some cases, reviewers might suggest rewording the item and the supervisor might accept the item after rewording it.
    Exam Creation
    Live Form Creation
    The next stage of development involves assembling items into exams for global deployment. Each test has multiple forms. If candidates fails one form and retake the exam, they receive the different form of the exam on retake attempt.
    The Pearson VUE test engine randomly orders the questions of each form when someone takes the exam to ensure two candidates taking the same exam are not tested on the same questions in the same order.
    Initial Exam Publishing
    Once the LPI psychometric staff has determined the composition of forms, the exam must be converted from text-based items into the actual exam file format to deployed globally through LPI’s network of testing centers.
    The exam enter a period of initial testing to determine if the questions are in fact measuring skills and competencies. In IT certification, this period is known as the beta testing period.
    During the beta period, candidates can register for tests and complete them at local events. They receive credit, but candidates do not receive scores back immediately after the exam. Beta exams often involve extra questions with an extended-time format as well as additional survey and demographic questions. Several simultaneous processes determine the cut score, so that exams may be evaluated and scored.
    Obtaining Enough Exams
    Before the passing score can be set, LPI had to accumulate an adequate number of exams taken by people who are similar to the target job description. As our support has grown, our target data numbers continue to grow, helping to generate the most accurate results. As part of the beta exam process, demographic data is taken into account by psychometric staff when reviewing the validity of questions.
    Reviewing the Questions
    As tests results roll in, psychometric staff start to examine the data. Asking questions such as: Are there questions that everyone gets correct? Are there questions that everyone fails? to determine if there anything wrong with the questions. Exam comments collected during the process are reviewed and questions and concerns are addressed.
    Modified Angoff Study
    While psychometric staff review incoming data, a separate pool of subject-matter experts simultaneously participated in a modified Angoff study. Their goal, to provide the psychometric staff with additional data to validate questions and assist in setting the passing score.
    During this process, the experts:
    Receive copies of the exam questions on each form.
    Look at each question independently and in consultation with each other and make judgments about how likely a minimally qualified person meeting the job requirements described in a specification sheet would be able to answer the question correctly. In other words, the experts consider the question from the perspective of someone who is at the bottom of the competence scale for job performance.
    Rate each question with their estimate of what percentage of people will answer correctly, keeping in mind that on multiple choice questions, some people will get it right by virtue of guessing.
    Ideally, the results from the Angoff study should parallel the actual results from the exams in the beta period. Beyond validating item performance, the results of the Angoff study are also used in helping to establish the passing score for exams.
    Distributing Score Results
    After all of the data collection, the analysis and the Angoff study, the psychometric staff set a passing score, and distribute scores to exam takers who participated in the beta.
    Exam Republishing
    Once the beta has been completed, the passing score has been set, and any bad items have been removed or fixed, the exam is ready to be re-published. This work involves significant review and can take a month or more to complete. Once this final review process is complete, we coordinate with Pearson VUE and our partner network to publish the finalized exams for all test takers worldwide.
    Why Written Exams
    Written exams are a global standard.
    Multiple choice is a common standard for most certification and licensure exams. Whether you want to be a doctor, lawyer, or chartered accountant, most professions require that you pass a multiple-choice exam. The procedures for producing high-quality multiple choice exams are firmly established. No such standard exists for hands-on exams. Therefore they tend to be ad hoc and rarely include pilot testing, item analysis, formal standard setting, and equating.
    Written exams are valid.
    Written job knowledge exams have approximately the same levels of predictive validity as job simulations (Roth et al., 2005)
    Written exams are more efficient.
    Written exams with individual questions are more efficient than exams with more complex item types. For example, Jodoin (2003) examined innovative item types on an IT certification exam that required examinees to construct answers (e.g. draw a network diagram). He found that these constructed response items provided more information but also took additional time. As a result, he concluded that, “multiple-choice items provide more information per unit time.”
    Written exams cover all objectives.
    Certification exams (like LPI’s) cover a broad range of knowledge areas. Using individual items, written exams can easily ensure adequate coverage of all objectives. Because of practical constraints, hands-on testing must either sample narrowly from these objectives or cover a much smaller body of knowledge.
    Written exams are more valuable.
    Hands-on testing is typically more expensive in all phases, including item development, pilot testing, administration, and scoring. If hands-on testing is more expensive but not more reliable or valid, then it offers less value.
    Written exams are more reliable and objective.
    Scoring practices for open-ended exams vary considerably, but the literature on scoring constructed responses suggests that subjective scoring is often less reliable than the scoring of traditional items. The literature on job performance suggests that objective measures of performance are also unreliable.
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