Find us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter





























What Killexams.com Experts says in regards to P2050-004 test prep | brain dumps | 3D Visualization

Each Pass4sure P2050-004 practice questions - VCE - examcollection - braindumps and exam prep are added to our Pass4sure exam test system to best set you up for the genuine P2050-004test - brain dumps - 3D Visualization

Pass4sure P2050-004 dumps | Killexams.com P2050-004 real questions | http://morganstudioonline.com/

P2050-004 IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Study steer Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


Killexams.com P2050-004 Dumps and real Questions

100% real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with elevated Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



P2050-004 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : P2050-004
Test designation : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor designation : IBM
: 30 real Questions

Save your time and money, read these P2050-004 and remove the exam.
Killexams.com P2050-004 braindump works. every single questions are proper and the solutions are correct. its miles well worth the cash. I exceeded my P2050-004 exam remaining week.


Get elevated scores in diminutive time for coaching.
Killexams.com P2050-004 braindump works. every single questions are genuine and the answers are correct. It is worth the money. I passed my P2050-004 exam last week.


Got no problem! 3 days preparation of P2050-004 dumps is required.
in case you want to exchange your destiny and ensure that happiness is your destiny, you want to travail hard. operatingtough on my own isnt enough to win to future, you want a few route in order to lead you toward the path. It wasdestiny that i institute this killexams.com every single through my exams because it lead me towards my destiny. My lot changed into getting accurate grades and this killexams.com and its teachers made it feasible my coaching they so well that I couldnt in every single likelihood fail by pass of giving me the gist for my P2050-004 exam.


what's simplest pass to apportion together and pass P2050-004 exam?
every time I want to pass my certification remove a view at to maintain my task, I immediately hotfoot to killexams.com and search the specified certification remove a view at, purchase and prepare the check. It clearly is worth admiring because, I constantly skip the check with exact scores.


it's miles incredible benchmark to apportion together P2050-004 examination with dumps.
killexams.com Dumps site helped me win access to various exam training material for P2050-004 exam. I was confused that which one I ought to pick, however your specimens helped me pick the best one. I purchased killexams.com Dumps course, which incredibly helped me contemplate every single the fundamental ideas. I solved every single questions in due time. I am blissful to acquire killexams.com as my tutor. Much appreciated


I necessity dumps of P2050-004 exam.
I organized P2050-004 with the profit of killexams.com and observed that they acquire got quite suitable stuff. i can pass for otherIBM checks as nicely.


P2050-004 actual test questions and solutions!
I exceeded the P2050-004 exam today and scored one hundred%! never notion I should finish it, however killexams.com grew to become out to subsist a gem in examination training. I had a terrific feeling approximately it because it appeared to cover every single topics, and there acquire been masses of questions provided. yet, I didnt assume to contemplate every single of the very questions in the actual exam. Very best marvel, and i quite suggest using Killexams.


Really worthy experience!
I even acquire become a P2050-004 certified final week. This profession direction may subsist very thrilling, so in case you are nonethelessconsidering it, ensure you win questions solutions to apportion together the P2050-004 examination. This is a gigantic time saver as you win precisely what you necessity to recognise for the P2050-004 exam. This is why I selected it, and that i never appeared lower back.


Do not expend gigantic amount on P2050-004 guides, win this question bank.
I though that if I could pellucid their P2050-004 test and yes that is when I came to know with my outmoded best friend that killexams.com is the one that would subsist the boon for me as it got me my intelligence finally back which I had lost for a while and I wish that this would never win over for me getting my P2050-004 test cleared after all.


worried for P2050-004 exam? win this P2050-004 query bank.
My brother saden me telling me that I wasnt going to undergo the P2050-004 examination. I subsist aware after I appearance out of doors the window, such a lot of one of a benign human beings want to subsist seen and heard from and that they sincerely want the eye human beings but im able to let you know that they students can win this interest whilst they pass their P2050-004 check and i will let you know how I cleared my P2050-004 test it become handiest when I acquire been given my acquire a view at questions from killexams.Com which gave me the wish in my eyes together every single the time.


IBM IBM Commerce Solutions Order

Did IBM overhype Watson fitness's AI promise? | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

5 vigour person counsel for Microsoft OneNote

IBM’s Cognitive solutions sales Slumped. What happened? | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

A key section of exotic enterprise Machines' (NYSE: IBM) turnaround ail is cognitive computing, which encompasses synthetic intelligence (AI) together with related applied sciences. Watson, IBM's cognitive computing device than debuted by means of profitable a video game of Jeopardy! in 2011, has been utilized to fields together with healthcare, fiscal capabilities, and even fantasy football.

Cognitive computing is a boom enterprise for IBM, however you wouldn't are aware of it looking on the enterprise's third-quarter effects. The cognitive solutions segment suffered a 5% earnings decline, even after adjusting for a currency-connected headwind. That feels relish Awful information for an organization having a stake its future on AI.

The cognitive options section should basically subsist known as the "cognitive options plus a bunch of other unrelated stuff" phase. It comprises Watson and other corporations with expand skills, however additionally stuff relish legacy transaction-processing software. it's benign of a seize bag of IBM organizations that don't fairly fit into its other segments.

That makes it involved to inform how neatly IBM's expand organizations are definitely doing, and it makes that 5% revenue decline a worthy deal less significant.

The IBM Watson logo.© IBM The IBM Watson emblem.

CFO James Kavanaugh went into some detail every single through the profits designation related to the performance of the cognitive options company. The segment is damaged into two accessories: options application and transaction processing application.

options utility includes software aimed at strategic verticals (Kavanaugh singled out the healthcare trade). It besides contains some analytics and security offerings, AI relish Watson, and blockchain. On desirable of every single that, "horizontal domains" relish collaboration and commerce are besides blanketed.

Transaction processing application contains "utility that runs mission-essential workloads leveraging their hardware platform," based on Kavanaugh. here is mainly on-premises application used by means of industries relish banking, airlines, and retail.

Transaction processing utility accounted for a minority of cognitive options earnings in the third quarter, but salary from that category declined by using eight% year over year. Kavanaugh pointed out that, while lots of the revenue for transaction processing software is annuity-primarily based, the timing of gigantic offers can acquire an consequence on revenue. Kavanaugh expects a recur to increase, in response to a robust pipeline of offers.

The options software component of the facet suffered a three% earnings decline, pushed by some areas where IBM is struggling. Secular shifts in the collaboration, commerce, and talent management markets are inflicting issues for the enterprise, and it subsist been adding AI and modernizing its offerings to fight those alterations. The shift to utility as a provider is additionally inserting drive on sales, with profits being realized over time rather than up front.

The elements of this facet with lengthy-term expand odds are the constituents which are turning out to be. Watson fitness, the company's ail to apply AI to the healthcare trade, loved extensive-based mostly growth every single over the third quarter. protection grew because of the enterprise's colossal portfolio of products. And the company made some gigantic moves within the blockchain market.

IBM introduced TradeLens, a blockchain-based platform for the international shipping business, in August. The answer, jointly developed with Maersk, had 94 contributors on board at the time of the announcement. IBM food acquire confidence, a brand unusual blockchain-based platform that makes it possible for meals to subsist traced from farm to save, counts Walmart and French grocery store chain Carrefour as individuals. IBM's blockchain efforts are nonetheless of their infancy, but each of these systems acquire the knowledge to develop into meaningful groups for the business.

With the cognitive options facet being dragged down by using legacy companies, the headline efficiency would not mirror the efficiency of IBM's more promising groups.

backed: 10 stocks they relish more suitable than IBM

When investing geniuses David and Tom Gardner acquire a stock tip, it will pay to hear. in any case, the e-newsletter they acquire precipitate for over a decade, Motley idiot stock advisor , has quadrupled the market.*

David and Tom simply revealed what they believe are the 10 finest shares for buyers to buy presently... and IBM wasn't one among them! that's amend -- they feel these 10 stocks are even enhanced buys.

click on prerogative here to study these picks!

*inventory advisor returns as of August 6, 2018

Timothy eco-friendly owns shares of IBM. The Motley idiot has no position in any of the shares outlined. The Motley fool has a disclosure policy.


Cloud Computing: IBM Acquires Sterling Commerce | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No result found, are attempting unusual key phrase!... solutions. "In aggregate with IBM's existing offerings, Sterling Commerce, Coremetrics and Unica are increasing IBM's capability to back businesses automate, manage and accelerate core traffic proce...

P2050-004 IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Study steer Prepared by Killexams.com IBM Dumps Experts


Killexams.com P2050-004 Dumps and real Questions

100% real Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with elevated Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



P2050-004 exam Dumps Source : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : P2050-004
Test designation : IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor designation : IBM
: 30 real Questions

Save your time and money, read these P2050-004 and remove the exam.
Killexams.com P2050-004 braindump works. every single questions are proper and the solutions are correct. its miles well worth the cash. I exceeded my P2050-004 exam remaining week.


Get elevated scores in diminutive time for coaching.
Killexams.com P2050-004 braindump works. every single questions are genuine and the answers are correct. It is worth the money. I passed my P2050-004 exam last week.


Got no problem! 3 days preparation of P2050-004 dumps is required.
in case you want to exchange your destiny and ensure that happiness is your destiny, you want to travail hard. operatingtough on my own isnt enough to win to future, you want a few route in order to lead you toward the path. It wasdestiny that i institute this killexams.com every single through my exams because it lead me towards my destiny. My lot changed into getting accurate grades and this killexams.com and its teachers made it feasible my coaching they so well that I couldnt in every single likelihood fail by pass of giving me the gist for my P2050-004 exam.


what's simplest pass to apportion together and pass P2050-004 exam?
every time I want to pass my certification remove a view at to maintain my task, I immediately hotfoot to killexams.com and search the specified certification remove a view at, purchase and prepare the check. It clearly is worth admiring because, I constantly skip the check with exact scores.


it's miles incredible benchmark to apportion together P2050-004 examination with dumps.
killexams.com Dumps site helped me win access to various exam training material for P2050-004 exam. I was confused that which one I ought to pick, however your specimens helped me pick the best one. I purchased killexams.com Dumps course, which incredibly helped me contemplate every single the fundamental ideas. I solved every single questions in due time. I am blissful to acquire killexams.com as my tutor. Much appreciated


I necessity dumps of P2050-004 exam.
I organized P2050-004 with the profit of killexams.com and observed that they acquire got quite suitable stuff. i can pass for otherIBM checks as nicely.


P2050-004 actual test questions and solutions!
I exceeded the P2050-004 exam today and scored one hundred%! never notion I should finish it, however killexams.com grew to become out to subsist a gem in examination training. I had a terrific feeling approximately it because it appeared to cover every single topics, and there acquire been masses of questions provided. yet, I didnt assume to contemplate every single of the very questions in the actual exam. Very best marvel, and i quite suggest using Killexams.


Really worthy experience!
I even acquire become a P2050-004 certified final week. This profession direction may subsist very thrilling, so in case you are nonethelessconsidering it, ensure you win questions solutions to apportion together the P2050-004 examination. This is a gigantic time saver as you win precisely what you necessity to recognise for the P2050-004 exam. This is why I selected it, and that i never appeared lower back.


Do not expend gigantic amount on P2050-004 guides, win this question bank.
I though that if I could pellucid their P2050-004 test and yes that is when I came to know with my outmoded best friend that killexams.com is the one that would subsist the boon for me as it got me my intelligence finally back which I had lost for a while and I wish that this would never win over for me getting my P2050-004 test cleared after all.


worried for P2050-004 exam? win this P2050-004 query bank.
My brother saden me telling me that I wasnt going to undergo the P2050-004 examination. I subsist aware after I appearance out of doors the window, such a lot of one of a benign human beings want to subsist seen and heard from and that they sincerely want the eye human beings but im able to let you know that they students can win this interest whilst they pass their P2050-004 check and i will let you know how I cleared my P2050-004 test it become handiest when I acquire been given my acquire a view at questions from killexams.Com which gave me the wish in my eyes together every single the time.


While it is very hard job to elect answerable certification questions / answers resources with respect to review, reputation and validity because people win ripoff due to choosing wrong service. Killexams.com acquire it sure to serve its clients best to its resources with respect to exam dumps update and validity. Most of other's ripoff report complaint clients arrive to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams happily and easily. They never compromise on their review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client assurance is famous to us. Specially they remove dependence of killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com ripoff report complaint, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. If you contemplate any unfounded report posted by their competitors with the designation killexams ripoff report complaint internet, killexams.com ripoff report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com complaint or something relish this, just retain in intelligence that there are always obnoxious people damaging reputation of ample services due to their benefits. There are thousands of satisfied customers that pass their exams using killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams practice questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their sample questions and sample brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will definitely know that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.


Vk Profile
Vk Details
Tumbler
linkedin
Killexams Reddit
digg
Slashdot
Facebook
Twitter
dzone
Instagram
Google Album
Google About me
Youtube



000-M31 practice questions | 640-803 exam questions | 000-959 practice test | PW0-205 real questions | JN0-730 study guide | EE0-502 mock exam | 00M-512 VCE | TB0-110 brain dumps | 00M-663 practice Test | HP0-J36 dumps questions | 1Z0-481 real questions | 1Z0-961 sample test | 000-057 test questions | 1D0-532 practice test | 9A0-079 exam prep | 000-M32 test prep | 190-825 braindumps | C2010-530 practice questions | 310-400 cram | JK0-U31 pdf download |


P2050-004 exam questions | P2050-004 free pdf | P2050-004 pdf download | P2050-004 test questions | P2050-004 real questions | P2050-004 practice questions

Exactly very P2050-004 questions as in real test, WTF!
We acquire Tested and Approved P2050-004 Exams. killexams.com gives the most particular and latest IT exam materials which about accommodate every single exam themes. With the database of their P2050-004 exam materials, you don't necessity to misuse your chance on examining tedious reference books and unquestionably necessity to consume through 10-20 hours to expert their P2050-004 real questions and answers.

Are you looking for IBM P2050-004 Dumps of real questions for the IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1 Exam prep? They provide most updated and quality P2050-004 Dumps. Detail is at http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/P2050-004. They acquire compiled a database of P2050-004 Dumps from actual exams in order to let you prepare and pass P2050-004 exam on the first attempt. Just memorize their and relax. You will pass the exam. killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for every single exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
OCTSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for every single Orders

The only pass to win success in the IBM P2050-004 exam is that you should obtain answerable preparatory materials. They guarantee that killexams.com is the most direct pathway towards Implementing IBM IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1 certificate. You will subsist victorious with replete confidence. You can view free questions at killexams.com before you buy the P2050-004 exam products. Their simulated tests are in multiple-choice the very as the real exam pattern. The questions and answers created by the certified professionals. They provide you with the sustain of taking the real test. 100% guarantee to pass the P2050-004 actual test.

killexams.com IBM Certification study guides are setup by IT professionals. Lots of students acquire been complaining that there are too many questions in so many practice exams and study guides, and they are just tired to afford any more. Seeing killexams.com experts travail out this comprehensive version while still guarantee that every single the knowledge is covered after abysmal research and analysis. Everything is to acquire convenience for candidates on their road to certification.

We acquire Tested and Approved P2050-004 Exams. killexams.com provides the most accurate and latest IT exam materials which almost accommodate every single knowledge points. With the aid of their P2050-004 study materials, you dont necessity to squander your time on reading bulk of reference books and just necessity to expend 10-20 hours to master their P2050-004 real questions and answers. And they provide you with PDF Version & Software Version exam questions and answers. For Software Version materials, Its offered to give the candidates simulate the IBM P2050-004 exam in a real environment.

We provide free update. Within validity period, if P2050-004 exam materials that you acquire purchased updated, they will inform you by email to download latest version of . If you dont pass your IBM IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1 exam, They will give you replete refund. You necessity to send the scanned copy of your P2050-004 exam report card to us. After confirming, they will quickly give you replete REFUND.

killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for every single exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
OCTSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for every single Orders


If you prepare for the IBM P2050-004 exam using their testing engine. It is smooth to succeed for every single certifications in the first attempt. You dont acquire to deal with every single dumps or any free torrent / rapidshare every single stuff. They proffer free demo of each IT Certification Dumps. You can check out the interface, question quality and usability of their practice exams before you determine to buy.

P2050-004 Practice Test | P2050-004 examcollection | P2050-004 VCE | P2050-004 study guide | P2050-004 practice exam | P2050-004 cram


Killexams HH0-200 VCE | Killexams 000-884 braindumps | Killexams HH0-230 bootcamp | Killexams 190-621 questions and answers | Killexams EX200 practice questions | Killexams IIAP-CAP mock exam | Killexams 000-M17 braindumps | Killexams M8010-242 braindumps | Killexams 77-601 exam prep | Killexams NS0-530 brain dumps | Killexams C2010-501 dump | Killexams 000-782 practice test | Killexams 920-458 test prep | Killexams 050-694 dumps questions | Killexams 9L0-063 study guide | Killexams P9510-020 real questions | Killexams HP2-K03 questions and answers | Killexams 190-522 brain dumps | Killexams LOT-980 sample test | Killexams IIA-CIA-Part1 test prep |


killexams.com huge List of Exam Braindumps

View Complete list of Killexams.com Brain dumps


Killexams HP0-J17 dumps questions | Killexams 9A0-056 free pdf download | Killexams HP0-052 exam prep | Killexams 132-S-911.2 mock exam | Killexams 201 cram | Killexams M2150-709 test prep | Killexams 9L0-012 exam prep | Killexams 000-M99 study guide | Killexams 1Z0-042 braindumps | Killexams ST0-91X real questions | Killexams HP5-H05D test prep | Killexams CPEA test prep | Killexams 642-995 brain dumps | Killexams E20-535 practice test | Killexams 00M-622 sample test | Killexams 000-139 real questions | Killexams HP2-K33 braindumps | Killexams 1Y0-A01 questions answers | Killexams 646-985 questions and answers | Killexams 000-M86 study guide |


IBM Commerce Solutions Order Mgmt Technical Mastery Test v1

Pass 4 sure P2050-004 dumps | Killexams.com P2050-004 real questions | http://morganstudioonline.com/

HP TouchPad Needs 6 to 8 Weeks for Additional Shipments | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

First Name: Last Name: E-mail Address: Password: Confirm Password: Username:

Title: C-Level/President Manager VP Staff (Associate/Analyst/etc.) Director

Function:

Role in IT decision-making process: Align traffic & IT Goals Create IT Strategy Determine IT Needs Manage Vendor Relationships Evaluate/Specify Brands or Vendors Other Role license Purchases Not Involved

Work Phone: Company: Company Size: Industry: Street Address City: Zip/postal code State/Province: Country:

Occasionally, they send subscribers special offers from select partners. Would you relish to receive these special colleague offers via e-mail? Yes No

Your registration with Eweek will comprise the following free email newsletter(s): word & Views

By submitting your wireless number, you disagree that eWEEK, its related properties, and vendor partners providing content you view may contact you using contact seat technology. Your consent is not required to view content or expend site features.

By clicking on the "Register" button below, I disagree that I acquire carefully read the Terms of Service and the Privacy Policy and I disagree to subsist legally bound by every single such terms.

Register

Continue without consent      

Modeled larval connectivity of a multi-species reef fish and invertebrate assemblage off the coast of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Introduction

Knowledge of population connectivity is necessary for effective management in marine environments (Mitarai, Siegel & Winters, 2008; Botsford et al., 2009; Toonen et al., 2011). For many species of marine invertebrate and reef fish, dispersal is mostly limited to the pelagic larval life stage. Therefore, an understanding of larval dispersal patterns is critical for studying population dynamics, connectivity, and conservation in the marine environment (Jones, Srinivasan & Almany, 2007; Lipcius et al., 2008; Gaines et al., 2010; Toonen et al., 2011). Many coastal and reef species acquire a bi-phasic life history in which adults parade limited geographic attain and elevated site fidelity, while larvae are pelagic and highly mobile (Thorson, 1950; Scheltema, 1971; Strathmann, 1993; Marshall et al., 2012). This life history strategy is not only common to sessile invertebrates such as corals or limpets; many reef fish species acquire been shown to acquire a home attain of <1 km as adults (Meyer et al., 2000; Meyer, Papastamatiou & Clark, 2010). Depending on species, the mobile planktonic stage can last from hours to months and has the potential to transport larvae up to hundreds of kilometers away from a site of origin (Scheltema, 1971; Richmond, 1987; Shanks, 2009). knowledge of larval dispersal patterns can subsist used to inform effective management, such as marine spatial management strategies that sustain source populations of breeding individuals capable of dispersing offspring to other areas.

Both biological and physical factors repercussion larval dispersal, although the relative significance of these factors is likely variable among species and sites and remains debated (Levin, 2006; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009; White et al., 2010). In situ data on pelagic larvae are sparse; marine organisms at this life stage are difficult to capture and identify, and are typically institute in low densities across big areas of the open ocean (Clarke, 1991; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). A variety of genetic and chemistry techniques acquire therefore been developed to evaluate larval connectivity (Gillanders, 2005; Leis, Siebeck & Dixson, 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2018). Computer models informed by realm and laboratory data acquire besides become a valuable utensil for estimating larval dispersal and population connectivity (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007; Botsford et al., 2009; Sponaugle et al., 2012; Kough, Paris & Butler IV, 2013; Wood et al., 2014). Individual-based models, or IBMs, can incorporate both biological and physical factors known to influence larval movement. Pelagic larval duration (PLD), for example, is the amount of time a larva spends in the water column before settlement and can vary widely among or even within species ( Toonen & Pawlik, 2001). PLD affects how far an individual can subsist successfully transported by ocean currents, and so is expected to directly move connectivity patterns (Siegel et al., 2003; Shanks, 2009; Dawson et al., 2014). In addition to PLD, adult reproductive strategy and timing (Carson et al., 2010; Portnoy et al., 2013), fecundity (Castorani et al., 2017), larval mortality (Vikebøet al., 2007), and larval developmental, morphological, and behavioral characteristics (Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007) may every single play a role in shaping connectivity patterns. Physical factors such as temperature, bathymetry, and current direction can besides substantially influence connectivity (Cowen & Sponaugle, 2009). In this study, they incorporated both biotic and abiotic components in an IBM coupled with an oceanographic model to predict fine-scale patterns of larval exchange around the island of Moloka‘i in the Hawaiian archipelago.

The main Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and are bordered by the North Hawaiian Ridge current along the northern coasts of the islands and the Hawaii Lee Current along the southern coasts, both of which precipitate east to west and are driven by the rife easterly trade winds (Lumpkin, 1998; Friedlander et al., 2005). The Hawai‘i Lee Countercurrent, which runs along the southern perimeter of the chain, flows west to east (Lumpkin, 1998). The pattern of mesoscale eddies around the islands is involved and varies seasonally (Friedlander et al., 2005; Vaz et al., 2013).

Hawaiian marine communities visage unprecedented pressures, including coastal development, overexploitation, disease, and increasing temperature and acidification due to climate change (Smith, 1993; Lowe, 1995; Coles & Brown, 2003; Friedlander et al., 2003; Friedlander et al., 2005; Aeby, 2006). Declines in Hawaiian marine resources squabble for implementation of a more holistic approach than traditional single-species maximum sustainable bow techniques, which acquire proven ineffective (Goodyear, 1996; Hilborn, 2011). There is a common movement toward the expend of ecosystem-based management, which requires knowledge of ecosystem structure and connectivity patterns to establish and manage marine spatial planning areas (Slocombe, 1993; Browman et al., 2004; Pikitch et al., 2004; Arkema, Abramson & Dewsbury, 2006). Kalaupapa National Historical Park is a federal marine protected zone (MPA) located on the north shore of Moloka‘i, an island in the Maui Nui involved of the Hawaiian archipelago, that includes submerged lands and waters up to 1 4 mile offshore (NOAA, 2009). At least five IUCN red-listed coral species acquire been identified within this area (Kenyon, Maragos & Fenner, 2011), and in 2010 the Park showed the greatest fish biomass and species diversity out of four Hawaiian National Parks surveyed (Beets, Brown & Friedlander, 2010). One of the major benefits expected of MPAs is that the protected waters within the zone provide a source of larval spillover to other sites on the island, seeding these areas for commercial, recreational, and subsistence fishing (McClanahan & Mangi, 2000; Halpern & Warner, 2003; Lester et al., 2009).

In this study, they used a Lagrangian particle-tracking IBM (Wong-Ala et al., 2018) to simulate larval dispersal around Moloka‘i and to evaluate the larval exchange among sites at the scale of an individual island. They acquire parameterized their model with biological data for eleven species covering a breadth of Hawaiian reef species life histories (e.g., habitat preferences, larval behaviors, and pelagic larval durations, Table 1), and of interest to both the local community and resource managers. Their goals were to examine patterns of species-specific connectivity, characterize the location and relative magnitude of connections around Moloka‘i, report sites of potential management relevance, and address the question of whether Kalaupapa National Historical Park provides larval spillover for adjacent sites on Moloka‘i, or connections to the adjacent islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, O‘ahu, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe.

Table 1:

Target taxa selected for the study, based on cultural, ecological, and/or economic importance.

PLD = pelagic larval duration. Short dispersers (3–25 day minimum PLD) in white, medium dispersers (30–50 day minimum PLD) in light gray, and long dispersers (140–270 day minimum PLD) in shadowy gray. Spawn season and timing from traditional ecological knowledge shared by cultural practitioners on the island. Asterisk indicates that congener-level data was used. Commonname Scientific name Spawn type # of larvae spawned Spawningday of year Spawning hour of day Spawning moon phase Larval depth (m) PLD (days) Habitat ’Opihi/ Limpet Cellana spp. Broadcast1 861,300 1–60 & 121–181 – New 0–5 3–181,2 Intertidal1 Ko’a/ Cauliflower coral Pocillopora meandrina Broadcast3 1,671,840 91–151 07:15–08:00 Full 0–54 5–90*5 Reef He’e/ Octopus Octopus cyanea Benthic6 1,392,096 1–360 – – 50–100 216 Reef, rubble7 Moi/ Pacific threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis Broadcast 1,004,640 152–243 – – 50–1008 259 Sand10 Uhu uliuli/ Spectacled parrotfish Chlorurus perspicillatus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Reef10 Uhu palukaluka/ Reddlip parrotfish Scarus rubroviolaceus Broadcast 1,404,792 152–212 – – 0–120*11 30*12 Rock, reef10 Kumu/ Whitesaddle Goatfish Parupeneus porphyreus Broadcast 1,071,252 32–90 – – 0–50*11 41–56*12 Sand, rock, reef10 Kole/ Spotted surgeonfish Ctenochaetus strigosus Broadcast 1,177,200 60–120 – – 50–10011 50*12 Rock, reef, rubble10 ‘Ōmilu/ Bluefin trevally Caranx melampygus Broadcast 1,310,616 121–243 – – 0–80*11 140*13,14 Sand, reef10 Ulua/ Giant trevally Caranx ignoblis Broadcast 1,151,040 152–243 – Full 0–80*11 14013,14 Sand, rock, reef10 Ula/ Spiny lobster Panulirus spp. Benthic15 1,573,248 152–243 – – 50–10016 27017 Rock, pavement16 Methods Circulation model

We selected the hydrodynamic model MITgcm, which is designed for the study of dynamical processes in the ocean on a horizontal scale. This model solves incompressible Navier–Stokes equations to report the motion of viscous fluid on a sphere, discretized using a finite-volume technique (Marshall et al., 1997). The one-km resolution MITgcm domain for this study extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N, an zone that includes the islands of Moloka‘i, Maui, Lana‘i, Kaho‘olawe, O‘ahu, and Hawai‘i. While Ni‘ihau and southern Kaua’i besides drop within the domain, they discarded connectivity to these islands because they equivocate within the 0.5° confine zone of the current model. confine conditions are enforced over 20 grid points on every single sides of the model domain. Vertically, the model is divided into 50 layers that expand in thickness with depth, from five m at the surface (0.0–5.0 m) to 510 m at the foundation (4,470 –4,980 m). Model variables were initialized using the output of a Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) at a horizontal resolution of 0.04° (∼four km) configured for the main Hawaiian Islands, using the common Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans database (GEBCO, 1/60°) (Jia et al., 2011).

The simulation runs from March 31st, 2011 to July 30th, 2013 with a temporal resolution of 24 h and shows seasonal eddies as well as persistent mesoscale features (Fig. S1). They finish not comprise tides in the model due to temporal resolution. Their model epoch represents a neutral ocean state; no El Niño or La Niña events occurred during this time period. To ground-truth the circulation model, they compared surface current output to real-time trajectories of surface drifters from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly seat (Fig. S2) (Elipot et al., 2016), as well as other current models of the zone (Wren et al., 2016; Storlazzi et al., 2017).

Biological model

To simulate larval dispersal, they used a modified version of the Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM, a 3D Lagrangian particle-tracking model written in the R programming language (R Core Team, 2017). The model takes the aforementioned MITgcm current products as input, as well as shoreline shapefiles extracted from the replete resolution NOAA Global Self-consistent Hierarchical High-resolution Geography database, v2.3.0 (Wessel & Smith, 1996). Their model included 65 land masses within the geographic domain, the largest being the island of Hawai‘i and the smallest being Pu‘uki‘i Island, a 1.5-acre islet off the eastern coast of Maui. To model depth, they used the one arc-minute-resolution ETOPO1 bathymetry, extracted using the R package ‘marmap’ (Amante & Eakins, 2009; Pante & Simon-Bouhet, 2013).

Each species was simulated with a separate model run. Larvae were modeled from spawning to settlement and were transported at each timestep (t = 2 h) by advection-diffusion transport. This transport consisted of (1) advective displacement caused by water flow, consisting of east (u) and north (v) velocities read from daily MITgcm files, and (2) additional random-walk displacement, using a diffusion constant of 0.2 m2/s−1 (Lowe et al., 2009). plumb velocities (w) were not implemented by the model; details of plumb larval movement are described below. Advection was interpolated between data points at each timestep using an Eulerian 2D barycentric interpolation method. They chose this implementation over a more computationally intensive interpolation mode (i.e., fourth-order Runge–Kutta) because they did not keep a difference at this timestep length. Biological processes modeled comprise PLD, reproduction timing and location, mortality, and ontogenetic changes in plumb distribution; these qualities were parameterized via species-specific data obtained from previous studies and from the local fishing and management community (Table 1).

Larvae were released from habitat-specific spawning sites and were considered settled if they fell within a roughly one-km contour around reef or intertidal habitat at the discontinue of their pelagic larval duration. Distance from habitat was used rather than water depth because Penguin Bank, a relatively shallow bank to the southwest of Moloka‘i, does not represent suitable habitat for reef-associated species. PLD for each larva was a randomly assigned value between the minimum and maximum PLD for that species, and larvae were removed from the model if they had reached their PLD and were not within a settlement zone. No data on pre-competency epoch were available for their study species, so this parameter was not included. Mortality rates were calculated as larval half-lives; e.g., one-half of every single larvae were assumed to acquire survived at one-half of the maximum PLD for that species (following Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Since their focus was on potential connectivity pathways, reproductive rates were calibrated to allow for saturation of possible settlement sites, equating from ∼900,000 to ∼1,7000,000 larvae released depending on species. Fecundity was therefore derived not from biological data, but from computational minimums.

Development, and resulting ontogenetic changes in behavior, is specific to the life history of each species. Broadcast-spawning species with weakly-swimming larvae (P. meandrina and Cellana spp., Table 1) were transported as passive particles randomly distributed between 0–5 m depth (Storlazzi, Brown & Field, 2006). Previous studies acquire demonstrated that fish larvae acquire a elevated degree of control over their plumb position in the water column (Irisson et al., 2010; Huebert, Cowen & Sponaugle, 2011). Therefore, they modeled broadcast-spawning fish species with a 24-hour passive buoyant facet to simulate eggs pre-hatch, followed by a pelagic larval facet with a species-specific depth distribution. For C. ignoblis, C. melampygus, P. porphyreus, C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus, they used genus-level depth distributions (Fig. S3) obtained from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton plumb distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996). P. sexfilis and C. strigosus larvae were randomly distributed between 50–100 m (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992). Benthic brooding species (O. cyanea and Panulirus spp.) finish not acquire a passive buoyant phase, and thus were released as larvae randomly distributed between 50–100 m. At each time step, a larva’s depth was checked against bathymetry, and was assigned to the nearest available layer if the species-specific depth was not available at these coordinates.

For data-poor species, they used congener-level estimates for PLD (see Table 1). For example, there is no evaluate of larval duration for Caranx species, but in Hawai‘i peak spawning occurs in May–July and peak recruitment in August–December (Sudekum, 1984; Longenecker, Langston & Barrett, 2008). In consultation with resource managers and community members, a PLD of 140 days was chosen pending future data that indicates a more accurate pelagic period.

Habitat selection

Spawning sites were generated using data from published literature and modified after input from endemic Hawaiian cultural practitioners and the Moloka‘i fishing community (Fig. 1). Species-specific habitat suitability was inferred from the 2013–2016 Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands (Costa & Kendall, 2016). They designated coral habitat as areas with 5–90% coral cover, or ≥1 site-specific coral species richness, for a total of 127 spawning sites on Moloka‘i. Habitat for reef invertebrates followed coral habitat, with additional sites added after community feedback for a total of 136 sites. Areas with a predicted reef fish biomass of 58–1,288 g/m2 were designated as reef fish habitat (Stamoulis et al., 2016), for a total of 109 spawning sites. Sand habitat was designated as 90–100% uncolonized for a total of 115 sites. Intertidal habitat was designated as any rocky shoreline zone not covered by sand or mud, for a total of 87 sites. Number of adults was assumed equal at every single sites. For regional analysis, they pooled sites into groups of two to 11 sites based on benthic habitat and surrounding geography (Fig. 1A). Adjacent sites were grouped if they shared the very benthic habitat classification and rife wave direction, and/or were section of the very reef tract.

Figure 1: Spawning sites used in the model by species. (A) C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, P. porphyreus, C. strigosus, C. ignoblis, and C. melampygus, n = 109; (B) P. meandrina, n = 129;(C) O. cyanea and Panulirus spp., n = 136; (D) P. sexfilis, n = 115; and (E) Cellana spp., n = 87. Region names are displayed over associated spawning sites for fish species in (A). Regions are made up of two to 11 sites, grouped based on coastal geography and surrounding benthic habitat, and are designated in (A) by adjacent colored dots. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green in (A). Source–sink dynamics and local retention

Dispersal distance was measured via the distm office in the R package ‘geosphere’, which calculates distance between geographical points via the Haversine formula (Hijmans, 2016). This distance, measured between spawn and settlement locations, was used to design dispersal kernels to examine and compare species-specific distributions. They besides measured local retention, or the percentage of successful settlers from a site that were retained at that site (i.e., settlers at site A that originated from site A/total successful settlers that originated from site A). To evaluate the role of specific sites around Moloka‘i, they besides calculated a source–sink index for each species (Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014; Wren et al., 2016). This index defines sites as either a source, in which a site’s successful export to other sites is greater than its import, or a sink, in which import from other sites is greater than successful export. It is calculated by dividing the difference between number of successfully exported and imported larvae by the sum of every single successfully exported and imported larvae. A value <0 indicates that a site acts as a net sink, while a value >0 indicates that a site acts as a net source. While they measured successful dispersal to adjacent islands, they did not spawn larvae from them, and therefore these islands represent exogenous sinks. For this reason, settlement to other islands was not included in source–sink index calculations.

We besides calculated settlement symmetry between different regions for each species (Calabrese & Fagan, 2004). They calculated the forward settlement proportion, i.e., the symmetry of settlers from a specific settlement site (s) originating from an observed inception site (o), by scaling the number of successful settlers from site o settling at site s to every single successful settlers originating from site o. Forward symmetry can subsist represented as Pso = Sos∕∑So. They besides calculated rearward settlement proportion, or the symmetry of settlers from a specific inception site (o) observed at settlement site (s), by scaling the number of settlers observed at site s originating from site o to every single settlers observed at site s. The rearward symmetry can subsist represented as Pos = Sos∕∑Ss.

Graph-theoretic analysis

To quantify connections between sites, they applied graph theory to population connectivity (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). Graph theoretic analysis is highly scalable and can subsist used to examine fine-scale networks between reef sites up to broad-scale analyses between islands or archipelagos, mapping to both local and regional management needs. It besides allows for both network- and site-specific metrics, enabling the comparison of connectivity between species and habitat sites as well as highlighting potential multi-generational dispersal corridors. Graph theory besides provides a powerful utensil for spatial visualization, allowing for rapid, intuitive communication of connectivity results to researchers, managers, and the public alike. This nature of analysis can subsist used to model pairwise relationships between spatial data points by breaking down individual-based output into a succession of nodes (habitat sites) and edges (directed connections between habitat sites). They then used these nodes and edges to examine the relative significance of each site and dispersal pathway to the greater pattern of connectivity around Moloka‘i, as well as differences in connectivity patterns between species (Treml et al., 2008; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). They used the R package ‘igraph’ to examine several measures of within-island connectivity (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). Edge density, or the symmetry of realized edges out of every single possible edges, is a multi-site measure of connectivity. Areas with a higher edge density acquire more direct connections between habitat sites, and thus are more strongly connected. They measured edge density along and between the north, south, east, and west coasts of Moloka‘i to examine possible population structure and degree of exchange among the marine resources of local communities.

The distribution of shortest path length is besides informative for comparing overall connectivity. In graph theory, a shortest path is the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. For example, two sites that exchange larvae in either direction are connected by a shortest path of one, whereas if they both partake larvae with an intermediate site but not with each other, they are connected by a shortest path of two. In a biological context, shortest path can correspond to number of generations needed for exchange: sites with a shortest path of two require two generations to acquire a connection. mediocre shortest path, therefore, is a descriptive statistic to evaluate connectivity of a network. If two sites are unconnected, it is possible to acquire infinite-length shortest paths; here, these infinite values were illustrious but not included in final analyses.

Networks can besides subsist broken in connected components (Csardi & Nepusz, 2006). A weakly connected component (WCC) is a subgraph in which every single nodes are not reachable by other nodes. A network split into multiple WCCs indicates separate populations that finish not exchange any individuals, and a big number of WCCs indicates a low degree of island-wide connectivity. A strongly connected component (SCC) is a subgraph in which every single nodes are directly connected and indicates a elevated degree of connectivity. A region with many small SCCs can testify elevated local connectivity but low island-wide connectivity. Furthermore, component analysis can identify Cut nodes, or nodes that, if removed, demolish a network into multiple WCCs. Pinpointing these Cut nodes can identify potential famous sites for preserving a population’s connectivity, and could inform predictions about the repercussion of site loss (e.g., a large-scale coral bleaching event) on overall connectivity.

On a regional scale, it is famous to note which sites are exporting larvae to, or importing larvae from, other sites. To this end, they examined in-degree and out-degree for each region. In-degree refers to the number of inward-directed edges to a specific node, or how many other sites provide larvae into site ‘A’. Out-degree refers to the number of outward-directed edges from a specific node, or how many sites receive larvae from site ‘A’. Habitat sites with a elevated out-degree seed a big number of other sites, and testify potentially famous larval sources, while habitat sites with a low in-degree reckon on a limited number of larval sources and may therefore subsist conditional on connections with these few other sites to maintain population size. Finally, betweenness centrality (BC) refers to the number of shortest paths that pass through a given node, and may therefore testify connectivity pathways or ‘chokepoints’ that are famous to overall connectivity on a multigenerational timescale. BC was weighted with the symmetry of dispersal as described in the preceding section. They calculated in-degree, out-degree, and weighted betweenness centrality for each region in the network for each species.

As with the source–sink index, they did not comprise sites on islands other than Moloka‘i in their calculations of edge density, shortest paths, connected components, Cut nodes, in- and out-degree, or betweenness centrality in order to focus on within-island patterns of connectivity.

Results Effects of biological parameters on fine-scale connectivity patterns

The species-specific parameters that were available to parameterize the dispersal models substantially influenced final output (Fig. 2). The symmetry of successful settlers (either to Moloka‘i or to neighboring islands) varied widely by species, from 2% (Panulirus spp.) to 25% (Cellana spp.). Minimum pelagic duration and settlement success were negatively correlated (e.g., an estimated −0.79 Pearson correlation coefficient). Species modeled with batch spawning at a specific moon facet and/or time of day (Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis) displayed slightly higher settlement success than similar species modeled with constant spawning over specific months. On a smaller scale, they besides examined mediocre site-scale local retention, comparing only retention to the spawning site versus other sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). Local retention was lowest for Caranx spp. (<1%) and highest for O. cyanea and P. sexfilis (8.1% and 10%, respectively).

Figure 2: Summary statistics for each species network. Summary statistics are displayed in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right. Heatmap colors are based on normalized values from 0–1 for each analysis. Successful settlement refers to the symmetry of larvae settled out of the total number of larvae spawned. Local retention is measured as the symmetry of larvae spawned from a site that settle at the very site. Shortest path is measured as the minimum number of steps needed to connect two sites. Strongly connected sites refers to the symmetry of sites in a network that belong to a strongly connected component. subsist substantive dispersal distance is measured in kilometers from spawn site to settlement site.

We measured network-wide connectivity via distribution of shortest paths, or the minimum number of steps between a given two nodes in a network, only including sites on Moloka‘i (Fig. 2). O. cyanea and P. sexfilis showed the smallest shortest paths overall, significance that on average, it would remove fewer generations for these species to demographically bridge any given pair of sites. Using maximum shortest path, it could remove these species three generations at most to connect sites. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, by comparison, could remove as many as five generations. Other medium- and long-dispersing species showed relatively equivalent shortest-path distributions, with trevally species showing the highest subsist substantive path length and therefore the lowest island-scale connectivity.

The number and size of weakly-connected and strongly-connected components in a network is besides an informative measure of connectivity (Fig. 2). No species in their study group was broken into multiple weakly-connected components; however, there were species-specific patterns of strongly connected sites. O. cyanea and P. sexfilis were the most strongly connected, with every single sites in the network falling into a single SCC. Cellana spp. and P. meandrina each had approximately 60% of sites included in a SCC, but both parade fragmentation with seven and six SCCs respectively, ranging in size from two to 22 sites. This SCC pattern suggests low global connectivity but elevated local connectivity for these species. Medium and long dispersers showed larger connected components; 70% of parrotfish sites fell within two SCCs; 40% of P. porphyreus sites fell within two SCCs; 70% of C. strigosus sites, 55% of C. melampygus sites, and 40% of Panulirus sites fell within a single SCC. In contrast, only 26% of C. ignoblis sites fell within a single SCC. It is besides famous to note that the lower connectivity scores observed in long-dispersing species likely reflect a larger scale of connectivity. Species with a shorter PLD are highly connected at reef and island levels but may parade weaker connections between islands. Species with a longer PLD, such as trevally or spiny lobster, are likely more highly connected at inter-island scales which reflects the lower connectivity scores per island shown here.

Figure 3: Dispersal distance density kernels. Dispersal distance is combined across species by minimum pelagic larval duration (PLD) length in days (short, medium, or long). Most short dispersers settle immediate to home, while few long dispersers are retained at or near their spawning sites.

Minimum PLD was positively correlated with subsist substantive dispersal distance (e.g., an estimated 0.88 Pearson correlation coefficient with minimum pelagic duration loge-transformed to linearize the relationship), and dispersal kernels differed between species that are short dispersers (3–25 days), medium dispersers (30–50 days), or long dispersers (140–270 days) (Fig. 3). Short dispersers travelled a subsist substantive distance of 24.06 ± 31.33 km, medium dispersers travelled a subsist substantive distance of 52.71 ± 40.37 km, and long dispersers travelled the farthest, at a subsist substantive of 89.41 ± 41.43 km. However, regardless of PLD, there were essentially two peaks of subsist substantive dispersal: a short-distance peak of <30 km, and a long-distance peak of roughly 50–125 km (Fig. 3). The short-distance peak largely represents larvae that settle back to Moloka‘i, while the long-distance peak largely represents settlement to other islands; the low point between them corresponds to deep-water channels between islands, i.e., unsuitable habitat for settlement. Median dispersal distance for short dispersers was substantially less than the subsist substantive at 8.85 km, indicating that most of these larvae settled relatively immediate to their spawning sites, with rare long-distance dispersal events bringing up the average. Median distance for medium (54.22 km) and long (91.57 km) dispersers was closer to the mean, indicating more even distance distributions and thus a higher probability of long-distance dispersal for these species. Maximum dispersal distance varied between ∼150–180 km depending on species, except for the spiny lobster Panulirus spp., with a PLD of 270 d and a maximum dispersal distance of approximately 300 km.

Settlement to Moloka‘i and other islands in the archipelago

Different species showed different forward settlement symmetry to adjacent islands (Fig. 4), although every species in the study group successfully settled back to Moloka‘i. P. meandrina showed the highest percentage of island-scale local retention (82%), while C. ignoblis showed the lowest (7%). An mediocre of 74% of larvae from short-dispersing species settled back to Moloka‘i, as compared to an mediocre of 41% of medium dispersers and 9% of long dispersers. A big symmetry of larvae besides settled to O‘ahu, with longer PLDs resulting in greater proportions, ranging from 14% of O. cyanea to 88% of C. ignoblis. Moloka‘i and O‘ahu were the most commonly settled islands by percentage. Overall, settlement from Moloka‘i to Lana‘i, Maui, Kaho‘olawe, and Hawai‘i was partially lower. Larvae of every species settled to Lana‘i, and settlement to this island made up less than 5% of settled larvae across every single species. Likewise, settlement to Maui made up less than 7% of settlement across species, with P. meandrina as the only species that had no successful paths from Moloka‘i to Maui. Settlement to Kaho‘olawe and Hawai‘i was less common, with the exception of Panulirus spp., which had 16% of every single settled larvae on Hawai‘i.

Figure 4: Forward settlement from Moloka’i to other islands. Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from Moloka‘i by species, organized in order of increasing minimum pelagic larval duration from left to right.

We besides examined coast-specific patterns of rearward settlement symmetry to other islands, discarding connections with a very low symmetry of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species settling to other islands). Averaged across species, 83% of larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i were spawned on the north shore of Moloka‘i, with 12% spawned on the west shore (Fig. S4). Spawning sites on the east and south shores contributed <5% of every single larvae settling to O‘ahu from Moloka‘i. The east and south shores of Moloka‘i had the highest mediocre percentage of larvae settling to Lana‘i from Moloka‘i, at 78% and 20% respectively, and to Kaho‘olawe from Moloka‘i at 63% and 34%. Of the species that settled to Maui from Moloka‘i, on mediocre most were spawned on the east (53%) or north (39%) shores, as were the species that settled to Hawai‘i Island from Moloka‘i (22% east, 76% north). These patterns testify that multiple coasts of Moloka‘i acquire the potential to export larvae to neighboring islands.

Temporal settlement profiles besides varied by species (Fig. 5). Species modeled with moon-phase spawning and relatively short settlement windows (Cellana spp. and C. ignoblis) were characterized by discrete settlement pulses, whereas other species showed settlement over a broader epoch of time. Some species besides showed distinctive patterns of settlement to other islands; their model suggests specific windows when long-distance dispersal is possible, as well as times of year when local retention is maximized (Fig. 5).

Figure 5: Species-specific temporal recruitment patterns. Proportion densities of settlement to specific islands from Moloka‘i based on day of year settled, by species. Rare dispersal events (e.g., Maui or Lana‘i for Cellana spp.) emerge as narrow spikes, while broad distributions generally testify more common settlement pathways. Regional patterns of connectivity in Moloka‘i coastal waters

Within Moloka‘i, their model predicts that coast-specific population structure is likely; averaged across every single species, 84% of individuals settled back to the very coast on which they were spawned rather than a different coast on Moloka‘i. Excluding connections with a very low symmetry of larvae (<0.1% of total larvae of that species that settled to Moloka‘i), they institute that the symmetry of coast-scale local retention was generally higher than dispersal to another coast, with the exception of the west coast (Fig. 6A). The north and south coasts had a elevated degree of local retention in every species except for the long-dispersing Panulirus spp., and the east coast besides had elevated local retention overall. Between coasts, a elevated symmetry of larvae that spawned on the west coast settled on the north coast, and a lesser amount of larvae were exchanged from the east to south and from the north to east. With a few species-specific exceptions, larval exchange between other coasts of Moloka‘i was negligible.

Figure 6: Coast-by-coast patterns of connectivity on Moloka‘i. (A) mediocre rearward settlement symmetry by species per pair of coastlines, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by every single settled larvae at site s. Directional coastline pairs (Spawn > Settlement) are ordered from left to prerogative by increasing median settlement proportion. (B) Heatmap of edge density for coast-specific networks by species. Density is calculated by the number of every single realized paths out of total possible paths, disregarding directionality.

We besides calculated edge density, including every single connections between coasts on Moloka‘i regardless of settlement symmetry (Fig. 6B). The eastern coast was particularly well-connected, with an edge density between 0.14 and 0.44, depending on the species. The southern shore showed elevated edge density for short and medium dispersers (0.16–0.39) but low for long dispersers (<0.005). The north shore besides showed relatively elevated edge density (0.20 on average), although these values were smaller for long dispersers. The west coast showed very low edge density, with the exceptions of O. cyanea (0.37) and P. sexfilis (0.13). Virtually every single networks that included two coasts showed lower edge density. One exception was the east/south shore network, which had an edge density of 0.10–0.65 except for Cellana spp. Across species, edge density between the south and west coasts was 0.12 on average, and between the east and west coasts was 0.04 on average. Edge density between north and south coasts was particularly low for every single species (<0.05), a divide that was especially distinct in Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, which showed zero realized connections between these coasts. Although northern and southern populations are potentially weakly connected by sites along the eastern ( P. meandrina) or western (Cellana spp.) shores, their model predicts very little, if any, demographic connectivity.

To explore patterns of connectivity on a finer scale, they pooled sites into regions (as defined in Fig. 1) in order to resolve relationships between these regions. Arranging model output into node-edge networks clarified pathways and regions of note, and revealed several patterns which did not ensue simple predictions based on PLD (Fig. 7). Cellana spp. and P. meandrina showed the most fragmentation, with several SCCs and low connectivity between coasts. Connectivity was highest in O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, which had a single SCC containing every single regions. Medium and long dispersers generally showed fewer strongly connected regions on the south shore than the north shore, with the exception of C. strigosus. P. porphyreus showed more strongly connected regions east of Kalaupapa but lower connectivity on the western half of the island.

Figure 7: Moloka’i connectivity networks by species. Graph-theoretic networks between regions around Moloka’i by species arranged in order of minimum pelagic larval duration. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Node size reflects betweenness centrality of each region, scaled per species for visibility. Node color reflects out-degree of each region; yellow nodes acquire a low out-degree, red nodes acquire a medium out-degree, and black nodes acquire a elevated out-degree. Red edges are connections in a strongly connected component, while gray edges are not section of a strongly connected component (although may still represent substantial connections). Edge thickness represents log-transformed symmetry of dispersal along that edge.

Region-level networks showed both species-specific and species-wide patterns of connectivity (Fig. 8). With a few exceptions, sites along the eastern coast—notably, Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor—showed relatively elevated betweenness centrality, and may therefore act as multigenerational pathways between north-shore and south-shore populations. In Cellana spp., Leinapapio Point and Mokio Point had the highest BC, while in high-connectivity O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the west coast had elevated BC scores. P. meandrina and C. strigosus showed several regions along the south shore with elevated BC. For Cellana spp. and P. meandrina, regions in the northeast had the highest out-degree, and therefore seeded the greatest number of other sites with larvae (Fig. 8). Correspondingly, regions in the northwest (and southwest in the case of P. meandrina) showed the highest in-degree. For O. cyanea and P. sexfilis, regions on the western and southern coasts showed the highest out-degree. For most species, both out-degree and in-degree were generally highest on the northern and eastern coasts, suggesting higher connectivity in these areas.

Figure 8: Region-level summary statistics across every single species. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the number of paths that pass through a certain region; a elevated score suggests potentially famous multi-generation connectivity pathways. In-degree and out-degree refer to the amount of a node’s incoming and outgoing connections. Betweenness centrality, in-degree, and out-degree acquire every single been normalized to values between 0 to 1 per species. Local retention is measured as the symmetry of larvae that settled back to their spawn site out of every single larvae spawned at that site. Source-sink index is a measure of net export or import; negative values (blue) testify a net larval sink, while positive values (red) testify a net larval source. White indicates that a site is neither a strong source nor sink. Gray values for Cellana spp. denote a want of suitable habitat sites in that particular region.

Several species-wide hotspots of local retention emerged, particularly East Kalaupapa Peninsula/Leinaopapio Point, the northeast point of Moloka‘i, and the middle of the south shore. Some species besides showed some degree of local retention west of Kalaupapa Peninsula. While local retention was observed in the long-dispersing Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., this amount was essentially negligible. In terms of source–sink dynamics, Ki‘oko‘o, Pu‘ukaoku Point, and West Kalaupapa Peninsula, every single on the north shore, were the only sites that consistently acted as a net source, exporting more larvae than they import (Fig. 8). Kaunakakai Harbor, Lono Harbor, and Mokio Point acted as net sinks across every single species. Puko‘o, Pauwalu Harbor, and Cape Halawa were either fragile net sources or neither sources nor sinks, which corresponds to the elevated levels of local retention observed at these sites. Pala‘au and Mo‘omomi acted as either fragile sinks or sources for short dispersers and as sources for long dispersers.

Only four networks showed regional cut-nodes, or nodes that, if removed, demolish a network into multiple weakly-connected components (Fig. S5). Cellana spp. showed two cut-nodes: Mokio Point in northwest Moloka‘i and La‘au Point in southwest Moloka‘i, which if removed isolated small Bay and Lono Harbor, respectively. C. perspicillatus, and S. rubroviolaceus showed a similar pattern in regards to Mokio Point; removal of this node isolated small Bay in this species as well. In C. ignoblis, loss of Pauwalu Harbor isolated Lono Harbor, and loss of Pala‘au isolated Ilio Point on the northern coast. Finally, in Panulirus spp., loss of Leinaopapio Point isolated Papuhaku Beach, since Leinapapio Point was the only larval source from Moloka‘i for Papuhaku Beach in this species.

Figure 9: Connectivity matrix for larvae spawned on Kalaupapa Peninsula. Includes larvae settled on Molokaí (regions below horizontal black line) and those settled on other islands (regions above horizontal black line), spawned from either the east (E) or west (W) coast of Kalaupapa. Heatmap colors represent rearward proportion, calculated by the number of larvae settling at site s from site o divided by every single settled larvae at site s. White squares testify no dispersal along this path. The role of Kalaupapa Peninsula in inter- and intra-island connectivity

Our model suggests that Kalaupapa National Historical Park may play a role in inter-island connectivity, especially in terms of long-distance dispersal. Out of every single regions on Moloka‘i, East Kalaupapa Peninsula was the single largest exporter of larvae to Hawai‘i Island, accounting for 19% of every single larvae transported from Moloka‘i to this island; West Kalaupapa Peninsula accounted for another 10%. The park besides contributed 22% of every single larvae exported from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, and successfully exported a smaller percentage of larvae to Maui, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe (Fig. 9). Kalaupapa was not marked as a cut-node for any species, significance that replete population breaks are not predicted in the case of habitat or population loss in this area. Nevertheless, in their model Kalaupapa exported larvae to multiple regions along the north shore in every single species, as well as regions along the east, south, and/or west shores in most species networks (Figs. 9 and 10). The park may play a particularly famous role for long-dispersing species; settlement from Kalaupapa made up 18%–29% of every single successful settlement in Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp., despite making up only 12% of spawning sites included in the model. In C. strigosus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus, Kalaupapa showed a particularly elevated out-degree, or number of outgoing connections to other regions, and West Kalaupapa was besides one of the few regions on Moloka‘i that acted as a net larval source across every single species (Fig. 8). Their study has besides demonstrated that different regions of a marine protected zone can potentially fulfill different roles, even in a small MPA such as Kalaupapa. Across species, the east coast of Kalaupapa showed a significantly higher betweenness centrality than the west (p = 0.028), while the west coast of Kalauapapa showed a significantly higher source–sink index than the east (p = 2.63e−9).

Figure 10: Larval spillover from Kalaupapa National Historical Park. Site-level dispersal to sites around Moloka‘i from sites in the Kalaupapa National Historical Park protected area, by species. (A–D) Short dispersers (3–25 days), (E–G) medium dispersers (30–50 days), and (H–J) long dispersers (140–270 days). Edge color reflects symmetry of dispersal along that edge; red indicates higher symmetry while yellow indicates lower proportion. Kalaupapa National Historical Park is highlighted in light green. Discussion Effects of biological and physical parameters on connectivity

We incorporated the distribution of suitable habitat, variable reproduction, variable PLD, and ontogenetic changes in swimming skill and empirical plumb distributions of larvae into their model to expand biological realism, and assess how such traits repercussion predictions of larval dispersal. The Wong-Ala et al. (2018) IBM provides a highly flexible model framework that can easily subsist modified to incorporate either additional species-specific data or entirely unusual biological traits. In this study, they included specific spawning seasons for every single species, as well as spawning by moon facet for Cellana spp., P. meandrina, and C. ignoblis because such data was available for these species. It proved difficult to obtain the necessary biological information to parameterize the model, but as more data about life history and larval conduct become available, such information can subsist easily added for these species and others. Some potential additions to future iterations of the model might comprise density of reproductive-age adults within each habitat patch, temperature-dependent pelagic larval duration (Houde, 1989), ontogenetic-dependent behavioral changes such as orientation and diel plumb migration (Fiksen et al., 2007; Paris, Chérubin & Cowen, 2007), pre-competency period, and larval habitat preferences as such information becomes available.

In this study, they acquire demonstrated that patterns of fine-scale connectivity around Moloka‘i are largely species-specific and can vary with life history traits, even in species with identical pelagic larval duration. For example, the parrotfish S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus parade greater connectivity along the northern coast, while the goatfish P. porphyreus shows higher connectivity along the eastern half of the island. These species acquire similar PLD windows, but vary in dispersal depth and spawning season. Spawning season and timing altered patterns of inter-island dispersal (Fig. 5) as well as overall settlement success, which was slightly higher in species that spawned by moon facet (Fig. 2). While maximum PLD did emerge play a role in the probability of rare long-distance dispersal, minimum PLD appears to subsist the main driver of mediocre dispersal distance (Fig. 2). Overall, species with a shorter minimum PLD had higher settlement success, shorter subsist substantive dispersal distance, higher local retention, and higher local connectivity as measured by the amount and size of strongly connected components.

The interaction of biological and oceanographic factors besides influenced connectivity patterns. Because mesoscale current patterns can vary substantially over the course of the year, the timing of spawning for certain species may subsist critical for estimating settlement (Wren et al., 2016; Wong-Ala et al., 2018). Intermittent ocean processes may influence the probability of local retention versus long-distance dispersal; a big symmetry of larvae settled to O‘ahu, which is partially surprising given that in order to settle from Moloka‘i to O‘ahu, larvae must cross the Kaiwi Channel (approx. 40 km). However, the intermittent presence of mesoscale gyres may act as a stabilizing pathway across the channel, sweeping larvae up either the windward or leeward coast of O‘ahu depending on spawning site. Likewise, in their model long-distance dispersal to Hawai‘i Island was possible at certain times of the year due to a gyre to the north of Maui; larvae were transported from Kalaupapa to this gyre, where they were carried to the northeast shore of Hawai‘i (Fig. S6). preparatory analysis besides suggests that distribution of larval depth influenced edge directionality and size of connected components (Fig. 7); surface currents are variable and primarily wind-driven, giving positively-buoyant larvae different patterns of dispersal than species that disperse deeper in the water column (Fig. S7).

Model limitations and future perspectives

Our findings acquire several caveats. Because fine-scale density estimates are not available for their species of interest around Moloka’i, they assumed that fecundity is equivalent at every single sites. This simplification may lead us to under- or over-estimate the might of connections between sites. want of adequate data besides necessitated estimation or extrapolation from congener information for larval traits such as larval dispersal depth and PLD. Since it is difficult if not impossible to identify larvae to the species flush without genetic analysis, they used genus-level larval distribution data (Boehlert & Mundy, 1996), or lacking that, an evaluate of 50–100 m as a depth layer that is generally more enriched with larvae (Boehlert, Watson & Sun, 1992; Wren & Kobayashi, 2016). They besides estimated PLD in several cases using congener-level data (see Table 1). While specificity is benchmark for making informed management decisions about a certain species, past sensitivity analysis has shown that variation in PLD length does not greatly repercussion patterns of dispersal in species with a PLD of >40 days (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016).

Although their MITgcm current model shows annual consistency, it only spans two and a half years chosen as neutral status ‘average’ ocean conditions. It does not span any El Niño or La Niña (ENSO) events, which occasions wide-scale sea-surface temperature anomalies and may therefore move patterns of connectivity during these years. El Niño can acquire a particularly strong repercussion on coral reproduction, since the warm currents associated with these events can lead to severe temperature stress (Glynn & D’Croz, 1990; Wood et al., 2016). While there has been diminutive study to date on the effects of ENSO on fine-scale connectivity, previous travail has demonstrated increased variability during these events. For example, Wood et al. (2016) showed a lessen in eastward Pacific dispersal during El Niño years, but an expand in westward dispersal, and Treml et al. (2008) showed unique connections in the West Pacific as well as an expand in connectivity during El Niño. While these effects are difficult to predict, especially at such a small scale, additional model years would expand assurance in long-term connectivity estimations. Additionally, with a temporal resolution of 24 h, they could not adequately address the role of tides on dispersal, and therefore did not comprise them in the MITgcm. Storlazzi et al. (2017) showed that tidal forces did move larval dispersal in Maui Nui, underlining the significance of including both fine-scale, short-duration models and coarser-scale, long-duration models in final management decisions.

We besides confine their model’s scope geographically. Their goal was to determine whether they could resolve predictive patterns at this scale pertinent to management. Interpretation of connectivity output can subsist biased by spatial resolution of the ocean model, since involved coastal processes can subsist smoothed and therefore repercussion larval trajectories. To confine this bias, they focused mainly on coastal and regional connectivity on scales greater than the current resolution. They besides used the finest-scale current products available for their study area, and their results parade common agreement with similar studies of the region that expend a coarser resolution (Wren & Kobayashi, 2016) and a finer resolution (Storlazzi et al., 2017). Also, while knowledge of island-scale connectivity is famous for local management, it does disregard potential connections from other islands. In their calculations of edge density, betweenness centrality and source-sink index, they included only settlement to Moloka‘i, discarding exogenous sinks that would warp their analysis. Likewise, they cannot predict the symmetry of larvae settling to other islands that originated from Moloka‘i, or the symmetry of larvae on Moloka‘i that originated from other islands.

It is besides famous to note scale in relation to measures of connectivity; they anticipate that long-dispersing species such as Caranx spp. and Panulirus spp. will parade much higher measures of connectivity when measured across the total archipelago as opposed to a single island. The cut-nodes observed in these species may not actually demolish up populations on a big scale due to this inter-island connectivity. Nevertheless, cut-nodes in species with short- and medium-length PLD may indeed ticket famous habitat locations, especially in terms of providing links between two otherwise disconnected coasts. It may subsist that for certain species or certain regions, stock replenishment relies on larval import from other islands, underscoring the significance of MPA selection for population maintenance in the archipelago as a whole.

Implications for management

Clearly, there is no single management approach that encompasses the breadth of life history and conduct differences that repercussion patterns of larval dispersal and connectivity (Toonen et al., 2011; Holstein, Paris & Mumby, 2014). The spatial, temporal, and species-specific variability suggested by their model stresses the necessity for multi-scale management, specifically tailored to local and regional connectivity patterns and the suite of target species. Even on such a small scale, different regions around the island of Moloka‘i can play very different roles in the greater pattern of connectivity (Fig. 8); sites along the west coast, for example, showed fewer ingoing and outgoing connections than sites on the north coast, and therefore may subsist more at risk of isolation. Seasonal variation should besides subsist taken into account, as mesoscale current patterns (and resulting connectivity patterns) vary over the course of a year. Their model suggests species-specific temporal patterns of settlement (Fig. 5); even in the year-round spawner O. cyanea, local retention to Moloka‘i as well as settlement to O‘ahu was maximized in spring and early summer, while settlement to other islands mostly occurred in late summer and fall.

Regions that parade similar network dynamics may profit from similar management strategies. Areas that act as larval sources either by symmetry of larvae (high source–sink index) or number of sites (high out-degree) should receive management consideration. On Moloka‘i, across every single species in their study, these sources fell mostly on the northern and eastern coasts. Maintenance of these areas is especially famous for downstream areas that depend on upstream populations for a source of larvae, such as those with a low source–sink index, low in-degree, and/or low local retention. Across species, regions with the highest betweenness centrality scores fell mainly in the northeast (Cape Halawa and Pauwalu Harbor). These areas should receive consideration as potentially famous intergenerational pathways, particularly as a means of connecting north-coast and south-coast populations, which showed a want of connectivity both in total number of connections (edge density) and symmetry of larvae. Both of these connectivity measures were included because edge density includes every single connections, even those with a very small symmetry of larvae, and may therefore comprise rare dispersal events that are of diminutive relevance to managers. Additionally, edge density comparisons between networks should subsist viewed with the caveat that these networks finish not necessarily acquire the very number of nodes. Nevertheless, both edge density and symmetry parade very similar patterns, and comprise both demographically-relevant common connections as well as rare connections that could influence genetic connectivity.

Management that seeks to establish a resilient network of spatially managed areas should besides deem the preservation of both weakly-connected and strongly-connected components, as removal of key cut-nodes (Fig. S5) breaks up a network. Sites within a SCC acquire more direct connections and therefore may subsist more resilient to local population loss. dependence should subsist taken to preserve breeding populations at larval sources, connectivity pathways, and cut-nodes within a SCC, since without these key sites the network can fragment into multiple independent SCCs instead of a single stable network. This practice may subsist especially famous for species for which they evaluate multiple small SCCs, such as Cellana spp. or P. meandrina.

Kalaupapa Peninsula emerged as an famous site in Moloka‘i population connectivity, acting as a larval source for other regions around the island. The Park seeded areas along the north shore in every single species, and besides exported larvae to sites along the east and west shores in every single species except P. meandrina and Cellana spp. Additionally, it was a larval source for sites along the south shore in the fishes C. perspicillatus, S. rubroviolaceus, and C. strigosus as well as Panulirus spp. Western Kalaupapa Peninsula was one of only three regions included in the analysis (the others being Ki‘oko‘o and Pu‘ukaoku Point, besides on the north shore) that acted as a net larval source across every single species. Eastern Kalaupapa Peninsula was particularly highly connected, and was section of a strongly connected component in every species. The Park besides emerged as a potential point of connection to adjacent islands, particularly to O‘ahu and Hawai‘i. Expanding the spatial scale of their model will further elucidate Kalaupapa’s role in the greater pattern of inter-island connectivity.

In addition to biophysical modeling, genetic analyses can subsist used to identify persistent population structure of relevance to managers (Cowen et al., 2000; Casey, Jardim & Martinsohn, 2016). Their finding that exchange among islands is generally low in species with a short- to medium-length PLD agrees with population genetic analyses of marine species in the Hawaiian Islands (Bird et al., 2007; Rivera et al., 2011; Toonen et al., 2011; Concepcion, Baums & Toonen, 2014). On a finer scale, they predict some flush of shoreline-specific population structure for most species included in the study (Fig. 6). Unfortunately, genetic analyses to date acquire been performed over too broad a scale to effectively compare to these fine-scale connectivity predictions around Moloka‘i or even among locations on adjacent islands. These model results warrant such small scale genetic analyses because there are species, such as the coral P. meandrina, for which the model predicts pellucid separation of north-shore and south-shore populations which should subsist simple to test using genetic data. To validate these model predictions with this technique, more fine-scale population genetic analyses are needed.

Conclusions

The maintenance of demographically connected populations is famous for conservation. In this study, they contribute to the growing body of travail in biophysical connectivity modeling, focusing on a region and suite of species that are of relevance to resource managers. Furthermore, they demonstrate the value of quantifying fine-scale relationships between habitat sites via graph-theoretic methods. Multispecies network analysis revealed persistent patterns that can profit define region-wide practices, as well as species-specific connectivity that merits more individual consideration. They demonstrate that connectivity is influenced not only by PLD, but besides by other life-history traits such as spawning season, moon-phase spawning, and ontogenetic changes in larval depth. elevated local retention of larvae with a short- or medium-length PLD is consistent with population genetic studies of the area. They besides identify regions of management importance, including West Kalaupapa Peninsula, which acts as a consistent larval source across species; East Kalaupapa Peninsula, which is a strongly connected region in every species network, and Pauwalu Harbor/Cape Halawa, which may act as famous multigenerational pathways. Connectivity is only one piece of the perplex of MPA effectiveness, which must besides account for reproductive population size, long-term persistence, and post-settlement survival (Burgess et al., 2014). That being said, their study provides a quantitative roadmap of potential demographic connectivity, and thus presents an effective utensil for estimating current and future patterns of dispersal around Kalaupapa Peninsula and around Moloka‘i as a whole.

Supplemental Information Current patterns in the model domain.

Current direction and velocity is displayed at a depth of 55 m below sea surface on (A) March 31st, 2011, (B) June 30th, 2011, (C) September 30th, 2011, and (D) December 31st, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, elevated velocity). Domain extends from 198.2°E to 206°E and from 17°N to 22.2°N. The island of Moloka‘i is highlighted in red.

Subset of validation drifter paths.

Drifter paths in black and corresponding model paths are colored by drifter ID. every single drifter information was extracted from the GDP Drifter Data Assembly seat (Elipot et al., 2016). Drifters were included if they fell within the model domain spatially and temporally, and were tested by releasing 1,000 particles on the amend day where they entered the model domain, at the uppermost depth layer of their oceanographic model (0–5 m).

Selected larval depth distributions.

Modeled plumb larval distributions for Caranx spp. (left), S. rubroviolaceus and C. perspicillatus (middle), and P. porphyreus (right), using data from the 1996 NOAA ichthyoplankton plumb distributions data report (Boehlert & Mundy 1996).

Coast-specific rearward settlement patterns by island

Proportion of simulated larvae settled to each island from sites on each coast of Moloka‘i, averaged across every single species that successfully settled to that island.

Regional cut-nodes for four species networks

Mokio Point and La‘au Point were cut-nodes for Cellana spp., Mokio Point was a cut-node for C. perspicillatus and S. rubroviolaceus, Pauwalu Harbor and Pala‘au were cut-nodes for C. ignoblis, and Leinaopapio Point was a cut-node for Panulirus spp.

Selected dispersal pathways for Panulirus spp. larvae

500 randomly sampled dispersal pathways for lobster larvae (Panulirus spp.) that successfully settled to Hawai‘i Island after being spawned off the coast of Moloka‘i. Red tracks testify settlement earlier in the year (February–March), while black tracks testify settlement later in the year (April–May). Most larvae are transported to the northeast coast of Hawai‘i via a gyre to the north of Maui, while a smaller symmetry are transported through Maui Nui.

Eddy differences by depth layer.

Differences in eddy pattern and might in surface layers (A, 2.5 m) vs. abysmal layers (B, 55 m) on March 31, 2011. Arrowhead direction follows current direction, and u/v velocity is displayed through arrow length and color (purple, low velocity, red, elevated velocity). While big gyres remain consistent at different depths, smaller features vary along this gradient. For example, the currents around Kaho‘olawe, the small gyre off the eastern coast of O‘ahu, and currents to the north of Maui every single vary in direction and/or velocity.


Fujitsu Begins Education back System affliction in Indonesia | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

System to expend tablets to contribute to improved academic skill for adolescent adults in Indonesia, which has the largest population in Southeast Asia

TOKYO, Nov 7, 2016 - (JCN Newswire) - Fujitsu Limited and PT. Fujitsu Indonesia today announced that they will hold a affliction of an education back system using tablets at the SMA Negeri 74 Jakarta elevated school from November7 through December 23.

In this trial, teachers and students will acquire expend of the FUJITSU Tablet ARROWS Tab Q704/H tablets in classes, as well as the Fujitsu Education Solution K-12 Learning Information Utilization System V1 Chietama. Using the Chietama solution, teachers can easily prepare materials for lessons using ICT, and can besides expend such information as automatically stored lesson records and student learning records to further improve students' academic abilities. In addition, because students can partake their various answers and creations on the tablet screens, the system improves students' vigorous participation in lessons and their teamwork when working in groups. The companies will validate the effectiveness of this education solution, which has already produced results in Japan and Thailand, through this affliction in the front lines of education in Indonesia.

This initiative was launched by Fujitsu Indonesia with the cooperation of the Global Peace Foundation (GPF) Indonesia, which is a non-governmental organization (NGO) aimed at improving the capabilities of students in Indonesia.

Background

Indonesia has the largest population in Southeast Asia at over 250 million people, and about 40% of that population is under the age of 18. In order to improve the capabilities and educational standards of these adolescent people, the Jakarta Department of Education and the GPF launched a program called the Character & Creativity Initiative (CCI) at 12 elevated schools, including SMA Negeri 74, in August of 2015. Under this program, a variety of initiatives acquire been undertaken, such as travail sustain programs, in order to improve the students' "character", relating to their initiative, teamwork, and communication ability, and their "creativity," relating to their innovative sensibility and problem solving ability.

Since 2014, Fujitsu has provided the Chietama solution in Japan, and in 2015 began offering it in Thailand. Now, through this first affliction of Chietama solution in Indonesia, after demonstrating the effectiveness of education using ICT, Fujitsu will contribute to increasing academic skill in Indonesia, which has about 50 million students from elementary school through elevated school, and about three million teachers.

Photo: Students taking section in the realm affliction at SMA Negeri 74 Jakarta elevated schoolhttp://www.acnnewswire.com/topimg/Low_FujitsuIndonesia117.jpg

Trial Summary

1. affliction Location

SMA Negeri 74 Jakarta elevated School (number of students: 737)

2. affliction Period

November 7 , 2016 - December 23, 2016

3. System Structure

ARROWS Tab Q704/H enterprise tablets - two for teachers, 18 for students"Chietama solution" learning information utilization system for tablet

4. System Summary

1) Improving lesson sustain and achieving collaborative learning

Teachers can easily prepare lessons using ICT by just dragging and dropping the data for the materials they map to expend on a schedule in the Chietama solution. In addition, because information on the teaching materials used and video of the writing on the blackboard are automatically stored, and information such as the date and subject being taught are automatically attached, teachers can expend this lesson record data to resolve their lessons. Moreover, because teachers can search each student's records from birth school till graduation, and visualize their growth process, it can besides subsist useful in education customized to the individual student.

In addition, by having bi-directional communication with teachers on the tablet screens, students can not only participate in lessons as though being taught in a one-on-one teaching environment, they can besides partake other students' answers and work, which can lead to education from a more multifaceted viewpoint and improvements in teamwork in group learning.

2) Training for ICT back staff

Based on the knowledge gained from the Learning Project of Tomorrow(1), Fujitsu besides carried out training for the school's ICT back staff. By having the ICT back staff profit students and teachers learn how to expend the system, they are supporting the digitalization of lessons, such that the school can hope to achieve ongoing utilization of ICT going forward.

(1) Learning Project of Tomorrow

A project in which Fujitsu loaned every single the devices and software necessary for lessons using ICT to six elementary and middle schools, five in five different regions in Japan and one in the ASEAN region, to back the evolution of schools and learning suited to the 21st century.

About PT. Fujitsu Indonesia

All company or product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Information provided in this press release is accurate at time of publication and is subject to change without foster notice.

About Fujitsu Ltd

Fujitsu is the leading Japanese information and communication technology (ICT) company, offering a replete attain of technology products, solutions, and services. Approximately 159,000 Fujitsu people back customers in more than 100 countries. They expend their sustain and the power of ICT to shape the future of society with their customers. Fujitsu Limited (TSE:6702; ADR:FJTSY) reported consolidated revenues of 4.7 trillion yen (US$41 billion) for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016. For more information, gratify contemplate http://www.fujitsu.com.

* gratify contemplate this press release, with images, at:http://www.fujitsu.com/global/about/resources/news/press-releases/

Source: Fujitsu Ltd

Contact:

Fujitsu Limited Public and Investor Relations Tel: +81-3-3215-5259 URL: www.fujitsu.com/global/news/contacts/

Copyright 2016 JCN Newswire . every single rights reserved.



Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [47 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1530 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [368 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [269 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





References :


Issu : https://issuu.com/trutrainers/docs/p2050-004
Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/11445791
Wordpress : http://wp.me/p7SJ6L-hl
Scribd : https://www.scribd.com/document/356951779/Pass4sure-P2050-004-IBM-Commerce-Solutions-Order-Mgmt-Technical-Mastery-Test-v1-exam-braindumps-with-real-questions-and-practice-software
weSRCH : https://www.wesrch.com/business/prpdfBU1HWO000GKEQ
Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12025404
Youtube : https://youtu.be/Gv_LTLG2oow
Blogspot : http://killexams-braindumps.blogspot.com/2017/10/real-p2050-004-questions-that-appeared.html
RSS Feed : http://feeds.feedburner.com/ExactlySameP2050-004QuestionsAsInRealTestWtf
Vimeo : https://vimeo.com/241758545
publitas.com : https://view.publitas.com/trutrainers-inc/dont-miss-these-ibm-p2050-004-dumps
Google+ : https://plus.google.com/112153555852933435691/posts/aCKVKrkh9P7?hl=en
Calameo : http://en.calameo.com/books/0049235264ee523fabbb0
Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/gfhkcqzns76iqwbl50f6m33vjyzarboy
zoho.com : https://docs.zoho.com/file/5ce0zb0a6e08cc1444f15b39eb6c155b5d92b
coursehero.com : "Excle"






Back to Main Page





Killexams P2050-004 exams | Killexams P2050-004 cert | Pass4Sure P2050-004 questions | Pass4sure P2050-004 | pass-guaratee P2050-004 | best P2050-004 test preparation | best P2050-004 training guides | P2050-004 examcollection | killexams | killexams P2050-004 review | killexams P2050-004 legit | kill P2050-004 example | kill P2050-004 example journalism | kill exams P2050-004 reviews | kill exam ripoff report | review P2050-004 | review P2050-004 quizlet | review P2050-004 login | review P2050-004 archives | review P2050-004 sheet | legitimate P2050-004 | legit P2050-004 | legitimacy P2050-004 | legitimation P2050-004 | legit P2050-004 check | legitimate P2050-004 program | legitimize P2050-004 | legitimate P2050-004 business | legitimate P2050-004 definition | legit P2050-004 site | legit online banking | legit P2050-004 website | legitimacy P2050-004 definition | >pass 4 sure | pass for sure | p4s | pass4sure certification | pass4sure exam | IT certification | IT Exam | P2050-004 material provider | pass4sure login | pass4sure P2050-004 exams | pass4sure P2050-004 reviews | pass4sure aws | pass4sure P2050-004 security | pass4sure cisco | pass4sure coupon | pass4sure P2050-004 dumps | pass4sure cissp | pass4sure P2050-004 braindumps | pass4sure P2050-004 test | pass4sure P2050-004 torrent | pass4sure P2050-004 download | pass4surekey | pass4sure cap | pass4sure free | examsoft | examsoft login | exams | exams free | examsolutions | exams4pilots | examsoft download | exams questions | examslocal | exams practice |

www.pass4surez.com | www.killcerts.com | www.search4exams.com | http://morganstudioonline.com/


<

MORGAN Studio

is specialized in Architectural visualization , Industrial visualization , 3D Modeling ,3D Animation , Entertainment and Visual Effects .