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In trendy ever greater linked world buyers occupy plenty greater expectations of the companies they deal with.
They wish corporations to endure in mind their preferences and deliver a personalised, lucrative event. What's extra they are expecting this every solitary the time not just on the aspect of sale.
To advocate groups bring for their customers IBM is the exercise of its Smarter Commerce international pinnacle in Florida to unveil ExperienceOne, an integrated portfolio of cloud-based mostly and on premise offerings to assemble advertising, income and repair practices and help create deeper, greater helpful client engagements.
IBM ExperienceOne draws on innovation from IBM research as well as greater than $3 billion invested in biological edifice and acquisitions. it's additionally built on most efficient practices drawn from IBM's journey of working with over 8,000 agencies throughout the globe.
"Smarter Commerce is ready helping customers at every solitary times reinvent themselves across the customer journey," says Craig Hayman, well-known manager, industry Cloud options at IBM. "IBM ExperienceOne provides a at ease and simplified portfolio -- together with innovation from more than 1,200 partners -- to aid shoppers design and deliver greater positive client engagements. With cloud, on premise and hybrid options, IBM ExperienceOne immediately scales to interact each customer within the second while holding their privateness".
New capabilities aid to enrich understanding of client relationships, maximize earnings by using directing the remedy offer to the remedy customer, and gain exercise of cell and gregarious media to carry better consumer adventure. Combining ExperienceOne with SoftLayer cloud infrastructure IBM is too capable of present client records, customer analytics and digital commerce as a service.
The enterprise is aiming to carry identical degrees of client insight to the B2B sector as smartly with the launch of latest partner and service provider rendezvous software by the exercise of its Smarter Commerce initiative. This includes a Multi-enterprise Relationship management (MRM) platform for greater collaboration. IBM Sterling B2B capabilities Reporting and Analytics to monitor transactions and assist company spot traits and gain counseled decisions. Plus other tools present stronger adherence to compliance requisites and faster and more efficient sharing of facts.
"Now greater than ever, the lot of any enterprise is deeply intertwined with the success of its network of companions and suppliers world wide," says John Mesberg, vice president, B2B & Commerce solutions at IBM. "by using orchestrating these complicated engagements with wonderful precision and perception, companies can create fresh gateways to exchange that allow organizations to deliver splendid customer experiences. With these days’s news, IBM essentially transforms these dynamics with partners and customers to force faster time to income throughout the extended cost chain".
you could find greater about IBM ExperienceOne on the company's website. there is additionally an infographic on how Smarter Commerce can convey more desirable consumer rendezvous below.
photograph credit: Sergey Nivens / Shutterstock
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There is a war a-brewin’, but this war will exist fought with wits and not brutish strength. Ever since Russian President Vladimir Putin’s declaration that “the nation that leads in AI (Artificial Intelligence) will exist the ruler of the world,” the press and analysts occupy created hysteria regarding the ramifications of ersatz intelligence on everything from public education to unemployment to healthcare to Skynet.
Note: ersatz intelligence (AI) endows applications with the skill to automatically learn and adapt from suffer via interacting with the surroundings / environment. notice the blog “Artificial Intelligence is not Fake Intelligence” for a more detailed explanation on ersatz intelligence and machine learning.
The quickly Company article “How to stop Worrying and esteem the considerable AI War of 2018,” projected that the AI battle would ultimately boil down between the “AI titanic 6”: Alphabet/Google, Amazon, Apple, Facebook, IBM, and Microsoft. However, there are other contenders worthy of consideration including GE, Tesla, Netflix, Baidu, Tencent, and Albaba.
But what are the characteristics of organizations that will exist the ultimate winners in this considerable AI War? What are the behaviors and actions that will distinguish those organizations that capitalize on this AI gold rush while others “fumble the future”?
I believe that the AI winners will occupy the following characteristics:
Let me status my case.
#1 Users, Not Purveyors, of AI TechnologyThe Market Capitalization Leaderboard shown in device 1 offers needful clues as to which organizations will likely exist the AI winners. What will set these organizations apart will exist not the selling of technology, but their skill leverage AI for “value capture.”
Figure 1: Marketing Capitalization Leaders as of May 26, 2017.
By the way, I contemplate Kleiner Perkins was slothful in classifying “Industry Segment.” The market leaders are less purveyors of AI technology than they are users of AI technology.
Mastering Value Capture. Just having the technology is not sufficient; it’s how you exercise the technology to derive and then drive fresh sources of customer, business, operational, and fiscal value that matters. Ultimately, the AI war is about “value capture.”
The companies listed in device 1 are trying to dominate markets, not technology. For example:
Each of these AI leaders seeks to extend their value capture capabilities into fresh markets, including transportation (autonomous vehicles), healthcare, finance, media, and entertainment.
Other market leaders are too stirring aggressively to exploit the power of AI to capture more customer, products and operational value. JPM Morgan (#11) is focused on edifice an AI platform (see “JPMorgan Takes AI exercise to the Next Level”) that will allow JPMC to dominate fiscal trading. And GE (#16) has made a strategic ante with their Predix platform (see “GE’S titanic ante on Data and Analytics”) as the platform for dominating the Industrial Internet of Things.
Microsoft (#3) is the one exception as Microsoft is a purveyor of technology. But even Microsoft is branching beyond just selling technology into trying to dominate markets such as digital media, entertainment, and gregarious media where their AI “chops” can give them competitive advantages (see “The Jewel of Microsoft’s Earnings”).
#2 Embrace Open Source for Technology Agility (Independence)AI leaders will exploit open-source business models to establish platform dominance/standardization, and create technology agility and independence. They will develop an enabling technology, and then give it away via open source. This enables them to inspirit the growing community of developers, especially those up-and-coming developers in universities and research labs, to build out and create de facto standards around their enabling technologies.
Open Source Leaders. The Global AI winners are significant contributors to the ersatz intelligence and machine learning open source communities. This includes developments such as Amazon Machine Learning, Google TensorFlow, Facebook Caffe2, Microsoft Azure ML Studio, Microsoft Distributed Machine Learning Toolkit, Facebook GraphQL, and Facebook Torch.
The leadership role that the “Great AI War” combatants are playing can exist seen in many open source projects. For example, Torch is an open source machine learning library and scientific computing framework. The “official maintainers” of Torch are:
Training and Education. Another strategy from the Global AI leaders the creation of community or industry training and education opportunities around their open source technologies. For example, Google is committing $1 billion to train American workers to build fresh businesses with Google’s AI tools (see “Google Commits $1 Billion in Grants to Train U.S. Workers for High-Tech Jobs”).
Avoiding Technology Lock-in. But equally needful is that these AI leaders are seeking to avoid technology and architecture lock-in. They occupy watched passe school organizations struggle with proprietary software packages that took months if not years for upgrades and bug fixes, while paying a exacting annual maintenance fees (33% of list cost means you’re buying the entire software package again every 3 years). In a world where the enabling data and analytic technologies are changing nearly daily, technological and architecture agility (at scale) and independence is mandatory for organizations looking to win the considerable AI War.
#3 Mastery of titanic DataEveryone knows about the astounding growth of titanic data over the last decade as organizations focused on capturing detailed customer, product, operational and market data. Initially fueled by commerce, web and gregarious media data, titanic data has accelerated with the growth of video, wearables, and the Internet of Things. (See device 2).
However, organizations occupy struggled to monetize this wealth of data. Enter ersatz intelligence.
Figure 2: Fueling the Insatiable Appetite for Data
More Data = Better AI. ersatz intelligence can exploit massive data sets to identify patterns on a scale that flummox traditional business Intelligence “slice and dice” and query technologies. Data is the food that feeds AI. The more data the AI models consume, the smarter AI gets. For example, Facebook is mastering facial recognition via its DeepFace abysmal Learning application by virtue of owning the world’s largest repository of photos.
To illustrate the symbiotic relationship between titanic data and AI, let’s recognize at autonomous vehicles (AV). AV require immense quantities of data to feed the AV machine learning algorithms. It would assume tens of thousands of hours of real-world driving data across a variety of driving scenarios to train cars how to navigate on their own. To address this data volume problem, AV companies are using the video game “Grand Theft Auto” to assist generate enough data in order to train Autonomous Vehicles (see “GTA is Teaching Self-Driving Cars How to Navigate Better in the true World”).
Data Lake. Leading AI organizations are exploiting the data lake concept to not only store the growing wealth of structured and unstructured (internal and publicly-available) data, but to provide an elastic, scalable, self-provisioning data science platform for “collaborative value creation” in edifice the machine learning and ersatz intelligence models (see “Data Lake business Model Maturity Index” for more details on data lake business model maturation).
Exploiting the Economic Value of Data. Leading AI organizations realize that data and analytics are unlike any traditional corporate assets. Data and analytics are digital assets that never wear out, never deplete, and can exist used simultaneously at near-zero marginal cost across an eternal business and operational exercise cases. Understanding the legal economic value of the organization’s data can assist to prioritize technology and business investments that accelerate value capture from these data sources (see University of San Francisco research paper “Determining the Economic Value of Data” for more details).
Conclusion: How to Become an AI WinnerAs has been discussed many times in my blog series, and explored in detail in my book, “Big Data MBA: Driving business Strategies with Data Science,” AI winners will ultimately exist those organizations that are the most efficacious at leveraging data and analytics to power their business models (see device 3).
Figure 3: How efficacious Is Your Organization at Leveraging Data and Analytics to Power Your business Models?
Ultimately, AI winners will master three key characteristics:
So in conclusion, let’s occupy some fun with this blog and contemplate outside of the box about some hypothetical scenarios in which companies exploit this AI gold rush:
As the world prepares for the impending considerable AI war, now is not the time for organizations to exist bashful or to cling to old, outdated business models.
Fortune Favors the Brave.
Figure 1: ScoopNest “2017 global market capitalization leader board: tech is 40% of top 20 companies and 100% of top 5” and Consultancy UK “Market capitalisation of world’s 100 biggest companies hits $17.4 trillion”
The post 3 Keys to Winning the considerable ersatz Intelligence (AI) War! appeared first on InFocus Blog | Dell EMC Services.
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2. The Up & Comers: Health and Auto are titanic evolution areas for AI/ML due to the copious amount of data being created in those industries. For example, patient records house vital information related to disease identification and treatment. In Ontario alone, there are over 2.3 billion medical test results from 11.1 million Ontarians. On the other suspension of the spectrum, automobiles are constantly generating slews of data — distance traveled, medium speed, destination — that can exist used for optimizing traffic, city planning and accident prevention. For AI/ML to exist effectively implemented within the enterprise, it needs to exist integrated into core conclusion making processes within a company; just recognize at Facebook’s newsfeed algorithm and Uber’s surge pricing and route optimization system. AI/ML will supplant a lot of the grunt work in the enterprise, freeing employee time for more value-add activities (e.g. Amy, x.ai’s robot assistant, who saves me from so many unnecessary emails when scheduling a meeting). Near-term opportunities in the enterprise are in data optimization, data search and messaging (think: commerce, payments and gaming), and you’ll likely notice this quickly penetrate areas such as Enterprise Optimization, Law, Security and Sales.
By Tyler Titherington
I am a restaurateur. I’m behind schedule. Again. Not because I am disorganized or occupy too much to do, more so because I occupy a hierarchy of tasks that are addressed based on priority. Guest needs are my first priority, staff needs are a nigh second and everything else last. There is a tertiary hierarchy in the last basket as well. Some tasks with a lower priority tumble through the cracks. Not because they are unimportant, but rather there just was not enough time. The veracity is that I am obsessively organized. I esteem “To Do” lists, calendars, current charts and the accomplishment of tasks. I consume projects for breakfast, while live on the edge of chaos and complete catastrophe. Short staffed? Yawn. Drains flooding? Been there, done that. POS system crash during service on a weekend? Bring it. I am the duck – level-headed above water and feet stirring nonstop below. However, how Do I manage every solitary the curveballs and silent manage to gain time without compromising any of my other priorities? It is very simple – adapt and embrace technology wherever possible, specifically, cloud-based computing solutions that allow one to exist in many places at one time. These applications simplify daily tasks for management teams and staff, which will ultimately leverage senior management down to focus on the bigger picture. Maybe even score a day off…
Over the last 10 years or so, the increased availability of cloud-based computing solutions (using network computers over the internet rather than property-based arduous drives) has been a major paradigm shift for many industries. However, as with most technological advances, the restaurant industry has been very tedious to adapt. tight margins, resistance to change, and shake of unknown outcomes occupy long driven the restaurateur’s decision-making process. However, with increased options, cheaper costs, and ease of use, that mindset is quickly becoming a thing of the past. Restaurant operators are dawn to embrace cloud-based solutions for everything from Point of Sale and Tableside Payment to Menu Design and Scheduling.
Our foray into cloud computing began with an hapless set of circumstances that the entire industry was facing. The year was 2010 and the impending doom of PCI Compliance was upon us. At best, their network infrastructure was dated and they needed to act quickly to score it into compliance. like most operators, their hand was forced and they had no choice. What is PCI Compliance? The reply depends on who you ask.
Your guests occupy never heard of it and occupy no thought what it is. Most restaurant operators will bid you that PCI Compliance is an almost unachievable set of network security standards designed to protect the credit card giants, who already permeate them course too much for credit card processing and continually squeeze them with a plethora of monthly fees. The definition of PCI Compliance is below, according to PCI ComplianceGuide.org
“The Payment Card Industry Data Security touchstone (PCI DSS) is a set of security standards designed to ensure that every solitary companies that accept, process, store or transmit credit card information maintain a secure environment. The PCI Security Council Card focuses on improving payment account security throughout the transaction process. It is an independent cadaver that was created by the major payment card brands (Visa, MasterCard, American Express, learn and JCB.).”[i]
PCI DSS is mandatory for any and every solitary businesses that accept credit cards. It involves a process of assessment, remediation and reporting. Operators must identify network vulnerabilities, physical vulnerabilities, and operational vulnerabilities that could result in a credit card breach and fix them. In summary, it is a painfully tedious, extremely time consuming, and potentially expensive process.
It is extremely needful for the security of their guest’s payment information, both for ensuring trust with their customers and limiting legal liabilities. In 2017-8, major retail stores including Home Depot, Macy’s, Sears, Kmart, Best Buy and Lord & Taylor made headlines across the country for data breaches possibly compromising customer’s credit card personal information. The restaurant industry is too plagued with security breaches, including large chains such as Darden (Cheddar’s), Panera Bread, Sonic and Arby’s. The number of customers whose credit card information may exist compromised totals into the millions.[ii]
At Grafton Group, the process of obtaining Credit card security involved working directly with their IT vendor and POS vendor to achieve PCI compliance. The first order of business was to score their network infrastructure in order. Some of the major network upgrades that they undertook were upgrading wiring, locking down patch panels, securitizing external ports, adding wireless access points (WAPs), and replacing firewalls. The WAPs and fresh firewalls were the heart of the upgrades and would ultimately allow us to operate unencumbered in the cloud. The fresh access points give their guests their own network and avert them from accessing ours. The security firewalls avert intrusions and too allow their IT vendor remote access so they can gain changes without actually being in the restaurant. What used to exist a scheduled visit from their IT vendor that may occupy taken weeks, is now a simple email and can often exist addressed online in minutes. In a nutshell, PCI DSS forced us to upgrade their network, which ultimately allowed us to operate in the cloud. This unintended outcome to a painful requirement was truly a blessing in dissimulate and it pushed us into fresh territory – the cloud! Being in the cloud has allowed us access to exciting applications and services that would otherwise exist unavailable to us.
IBM defines cloud computing as “the delivery of on-demand computing resources — everything from applications to data centers — over the internet on a pay-for-use basis.”[iii] For their purposes, these on claim computing resources primarily consist of “SaaS” or Software as a Service. Here are some of the areas where cloud computing can streamline their operation.Point of Sale
POS systems are the most incandescent belt of cloud-based solutions for restaurant operators. Legacy systems such as Positouch, Micros, and Aloha are bulkier, more expensive, and much harder to program and implement. There are quite a few cloud-based POS options, most notably Boston-based Toast. Toast has done a considerable job streamlining and simplifying the interface for both front and back suspension users. Management can access the system remotely for screen programming, troubleshooting or reviewing sales. It is extremely intuitive, like using a smartphone, thus needing very petite training. As wireless POS solutions evolve, legacy systems will eventually exist phased out. It is only a matter of time.Tableside Payment
EMV (Europay, MasterCard and Visa) is another set of regulations that are coming to the restaurant industry. “EMV is a global touchstone for cards equipped with computer chips and the technology used to authenticate chip-card transactions.”[iv] Used in Europe for years, the credit card never leaves the customer and every solitary transactions are processed tableside with a handheld device. One example of an EMV compliant, cloud-based device for tableside payments that they at Grafton Group are currently analyzing and purpose on implementing is Pay My Tab. Pay My Tab will fully integrate with their POS system and eliminates many bulky PCI DSS requirements. Many similar systems are already in exercise at quick service operations, where guests and staff occupy easily adapted to them. In addition to tougher security, the implementation should diminish payment time, liquidate paper receipts (emailed instead) and simplify the process for management to search for specific receipts.
Reservations and Floor Management
There are a variety of solutions for reservations and floor management systems. Their arduous has been using OpenTable for over 15 years, so when they rolled out their cloud-based system, GuestCenter, they were early adopters. This has been one of the solitary best applications in terms of roll out, ease of use, and seamless integration. It is iPad-based and eliminates every solitary the wiring and host stand true estate. It is compatible to smart phones that allows for remote access, allowing management to check current of service, identify unique reservations, and gain sure that waitlists are being managed appropriately. Soon to further is an interface with POS systems that automatically applies any “guest notes” from GuestCenter to the server’s check, such as special occasions, etc. Most importantly, due to its intuitive design, their millennial hosts exercise the system seamlessly.Private Event Management
Private events are the foundation of most full service restaurant operations. They are the variation between a sociable week and a considerable week. However, it can exist a very confusing process with every solitary of the stirring parts. In order to wait organized, they exercise TripleSeat to manage leads, create BEOs and track their events calendar. The cloud-based event management system allows their Private Event Coordinators to respond at any given time from anywhere, giving them a leg up on the competition, giving them the occasion to rate fees for each event. Since their coordinators receive an administrative fee for each event, they delight in responding when available off-site; sociable communication is key for making sure work-life equilibrium is maintained.Bar at the Russell House Tavern in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com Inventory
An belt which the cloud has really saved their restaurants time is with food & beverage inventories. No more paper and no more transposing paper to spreadsheet. Inventories can exist uploaded in true time using a tablet, laptop or even a smart phone. BevSpot is used for both their food and beverage inventories. They occupy too given access to their accounting firm, in order to reduce bulky invoice scans and uploads. every solitary information can exist entered into the cloud and accessed by every solitary of their approved users. It too allows for multiple people to assume inventory simultaneously. One person can exist on the bar, another in the walk in fridge, and another in the liquor room, every solitary at the very time. In addition to being a major time saver, it has helped Grafton Group to reduce sitting inventory by a significant amount across every solitary properties.Scheduling
Staff scheduling is a weekly administrative headache for managers, but there are cloud-based scheduling applications that lessen the pain. They occupy create HotSchedules to felicitous their needs as it interfaces with their POS system and allows their arduous to Do some creative reporting in regards to budgeting and forecasting, as well as taking employees requests and requirements into consideration.Email and File Sharing
Grafton Group has further a long course from sharing access to a desktop version of Outlook and toggling between accounts. They were able to liquidate their main server entirely and now they exercise Office 365 for their email and file sharing needs. Not only is this highly securitized, it has redundancy so their information is always backed up. They access both their email and files from anywhere in the world. This has greatly improved productivity and allowed their management teams to communicate in true time.Grafton Street in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com Computer Hardware
Our office hardware now consists of much less expensive “Network Computers”, which Do not require expanded reminiscence for giant programs, CD drives for downloading drivers, or expansion slots for extraneous drives. They can purchase more computers at a reduced cost and their managers no longer occupy to partake computer access in the office.Menu Design
For their menu design need, they occupy create InDesign to exist the most efficient program, which is partake of the Adobe Creative Cloud. This program can now exist selected a la carte from Adobe’s menu of programs and paid for on a month to month basis for under $20. This is much more palatable than paying $600 for the entire Adobe suite.
These are just a handful examples of how cloud computing has impacted their operations and ultimately saved time for their management team and staff. Ten seconds here, 5 minutes there, an hour tomorrow – it adds up to impactful chunks of time that can exist better spent elsewhere. They occupy only scratched the surface as an industry – they will notice more and more options for cloud-based solutions to true world restaurant problems. Although the solutions highlighted above create efficiency and reclaim time, they Do not serve guests and they don’t understand the expertise of hospitality. It is imperative that as restaurateurs they continue to create a positive environment, embrace innovation, and engage and train their employees in the expertise and skill of hospitality.
There are some things you will never occupy time for in the restaurant industry, regardless of cloud-based advancements. “Lunch”, for example, I occupy heard is a meal that takes status in the middle of the day. For me, “lunch” is the sandwich that I consume in 30 seconds somewhere between 2pm and 6pm standing over a trash can in the back of the kitchen. There is no technology for that…
PDF Version Available HereReferences [i] “PCI Compliance sheperd FAQ.” PCIComplianceGuide.Org. September, 2018. https://www.pcicomplianceguide.org/faq/#1. [ii] Green, D. and Hanbury, M. (Aug. 22, 2018). “If you shopped at these 16 stores in the last year, your data might occupy been stolen.” https://www.businessinsider.com/data-breaches-2018-4 [iii] “What Is Cloud Computing?” IBM.com. September, 2018. https://www.ibm.com/cloud/learn/what-is-cloud-computing. [iv] Kossman, Sienna. ” 8 FAQs about EMV credit cards.” CreditCards.com. August 29, 2017. https://www.creditcards.com/credit-card-news/emv-faq-chip-cards-answers-1264.php. Tyler was born and raised in Portland, Maine and has lived in the Boston belt since attending Boston University. After graduating from the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration, Mr. Titherington operated a handful of bars and restaurants in Boston. He has been with Grafton Group since October 2007.
By Christopher Muller
In partake 1 of this analysis of the restaurant delivery system they looked at the owner/operator models which silent offer some measure of control over cost and quality. This is quickly becoming an issue with the surge of the Ghost Kitchen where the ODP is an integral partake of the equation. Here they present the larger challenges from the paramount ODP control of the marketplace. It is sociable to recollect that most of the ODPs themselves are silent looking to find profits in what they do, a suggestion that those profits will exigency to further at the expense of the restaurant providers in one course or another.5. The Aggregator or On-Line Delivery Provider (ODP) – No Driver Fleet
If someone were to say, “Let me assume care of every solitary of your delivery problems for a wee prick of your revenues” many restaurant operators, especially those avid to score into the market with the least amount of upfront investment, would jump at the chance. Enter the On-Line Delivery Provider with a business model built upon a brand title customer-facing APP, website or phone number and an immense amount of back office computing power to drive order volume.
At its core, to exist successful the Aggregator needs to exist a world-class matchmaker for food orders, with both a large customer database of users and a broad assortment of restaurant menus offered in major cities. like many of what MIT’s Bill Aulet calls an Innovation Driven Enterprise (IDE) the cost of customer acquisition is the key hurdle in entering this distribution channel. What it doesn’t exigency is its own fleet of employee delivery drivers. Capitalizing on the DIY gig economy, drivers are hired on a contractual basis, working as independent delivery agents with their own vehicles.
The barrier to lowering this elevated cost of entry has favored early market entrants and large well-funded digital innovators. Worldwide, the fastest growing ODP is Uber Eats, the natural extension of car service provider, Uber, with its existing immense data foundation of users, an ever expanding fleet of drivers, and the understanding for a driver that delivering food with an APP-based pre-payment system is considerably faster and easier than dealing with human passengers.
The upside for restaurant companies using an ODP such as Uber Eats, from those as paramount as McDonalds or as wee as the local pizzeria, is that there is no exigency to hire and train non-core employees. As touted by Uber Eats delivery service can commence almost immediately upon signing up. The downside, that has a potential for long term impact, is two-fold. The fee structure for traditionally low margin restaurants can exist between 20-30% of a menu item price, leaving petite to cover remaining expenses. Worse though is that the restaurant gives away its brand and trade dress image to the company making the delivery to the front door. McDonalds hamburgers may exist in the bag, but the title on the ordering APP and the uniform on the person handing it to the customer says Uber Eats.
6. The Consolidator – Bulk “Bus Stop”
As noted, the most expensive solitary piece of the delivery confound is getting food from the restaurant to the front door, what is called “the last mile.” One proven course to minimize that expense is to occupy the customer meet the food delivery at a central drop-off spot (see: Amazon ). A start-up, Yun Ban Bao, in fresh York City is taking advantage of ethnic Chinese food deserts through direct targeted marketing using the paramount Chinese online service provider, WeChat. By doing so it is creating a captive delivery market with the advantage of pre-ordering and payment.
Taking online requests for delivery on the next business day, then consolidating orders using a bulk delivery model, Yun Ban Bao is lowering the cost of delivery while maintaining control with its own fleet of drivers. It advertises a data analytics service for smaller restaurants as well as being a revenue growth accelerator for restaurants in suburban locations which otherwise could not find fresh or broader market opportunities.
Using a pre-arranged group delivery network, often outside parks, office towers or apartment buildings, the system mirrors a bus route, not the more traditional taxi route model of one-on-one delivery. This too affords the network of restaurants a course to lower operating costs by controlling the production process in advance.7. The Aggregator ODP – Owned Fleet
Some of the largest ODP players started in the delivery business by controlling their own fleets of employee managed delivery drivers. The global leader, Just Eat, has used this model throughout the UK, Europe and worldwide. But it too has worked directly with restaurants who occupy their own in-house deliver fleets to create a broad partnership. Just consume acts as the online ordering platform, but then allows the local branded company to exist the kisser at the door.
The skill to present a standardized customer facing brand identity means that trust may exist established with the customer directly. While this can further at the risk of the restaurant losing its direct brand relationship, what Just consume has been able to master is the collection of a vast customer database of its users. It has created a relationship with many of its restaurant partners to assist them in finding pattern store locations, menu item design and creative targeted pricing and promotions programs which would not otherwise exist affordable or even available to smaller companies.
For these ODP companies, the costs for maintaining their own fleets or working as a hybrid with a local restaurant creates a higher operating expense, but these are often offset with a higher fee partake from both the restaurant and the consumer. It too creates a competitive advantage by edifice a broader network of restaurants to pick from for the customer, which builds long term loyalty and habitual purchase behaviors.
8. The ODP Aggregator – shaded Kitchens
One of the greatest threats to the bricks and mortar restaurant delivery partners is the emerging concept of a shaded Kitchen. This is a space created by an OPD to facilitate the lowest cost per delivery mile from restaurant kitchen to the highest density of users. While this is similar to the Cloud Kitchen model, in this case the OPD establishes a cluster of wee dedicated but competitive restaurant kitchens in a solitary site. A shaded Kitchen is too similar to the trending food hall concept, but comes with no direct customer interaction—no walk-in guest visits these production facilities. In the UK this was pioneered by Deliveroo with its urban RooBox or Editions concepts. partner restaurants rent portable kitchen space from the delivery service and pay a larger percentage fee to cover the build-out costs for their space. Restaurants staff the kitchens at their own expense, as well.
Earlier this year, Grubhub invested $1 million in Green pinnacle Group (see Ghost Kitchen in partake I), a startup with nine virtual restaurants operating from a solitary kitchen. DoorDash is renting extra space from the Santa Clara Fairgrounds in San Jose, Calif., and making it available to foodservice operators who want to create delivery-only options. In Los Angeles, Postmates leased a commissary kitchen space so its restaurants can achieve fresh customers. And UberEATS is exploring the concept with Poke Café in Chicago — a virtual restaurant serving Hawaiian poke bowls.
“We can work with existing restaurant partners to create delivery-only menus. (They would) issue as entirely fresh restaurants on the UberEats app,” Ambika Krishnamachar, UberEats product manager, said in an article on Mashable.
And again, while on its kisser this appears to exist a positive occasion for independent or chain restaurants to lower costs or disaggregate the dine-in from the delivery production process, it is not cost free. In fact, as a ratiocinative progression would suggest, the OPD Deliveroo service has realized that the actual local restaurant in this coalesce is not a necessity for success. Instead by using its own “innovation fund” it will to vanish directly into the restaurant business itself, creating “from scratch” concepts by working with notable chefs and data mining information from its immense customer data base. 
As more of the OPDs recognize to find profits to pass along to the aggressive investors who occupy funded rapid growth, they will inevitably recognize to prick out the middleman and provide meals themselves to extend margins. The kitchen that may actually vanish “dark” is the local one on the corner down the street in an independent restaurant.
This is undoubtedly both an incandescent and a challenging time for the restaurant industry and the Online Delivery Providers who are feeding from it. Neither side seems to occupy figured out how to gain the fresh consumer claim for off-site delivery work to their complete advantage.
It is impossible to believe that any restaurant can survive if it gives away up to 30% of its top line revenues when the medium net profit is less than 10%. No amount of increased volume in sales will gain up for that. As Cameron Keng wrote in his column “Why Uber Eats Will consume You Into Bankruptcy” in March, 2018:
Based on the medium profit margins above, every restaurant that engages Uber Eats will lose money on every order they take. The more orders coming from Uber Eats, the more money a restaurant would lose.
At the very time, while it is arduous to score exact information, it appears that almost no partake of the largest On-Line Delivery Providers, in any of the described segments is actually showing a profit. Uber Eats is only profitable in 27 of its more than 100 urban markets, and while Deliveroo’s sales rose in 2017 to £277 million ($356 million), the company lost an astounding £185 million ($237 million). Yet Uber Eats is offering over $2 billion to purchase/merge with Deliveroo.
Finally, as Jonathan Maze wrote in his Bottom Line column in early October the restaurant industry is simply unprepared for what appears to exist a tectonic shift in traditional restaurant segments, consumer behavior, labor utilization, true Estate valuation and investor interest.
If delivery is the future of the restaurant business, the restaurant business as it is currently constructed is in trouble.
The service is growing rapidly. But it’s increasingly replacing existing restaurant business rather than taking business away from grocers or other food retailers. 
As they preeminent in the beginning, it took the lodging industry almost 20 years to commence to gain this kindly of tectonic change and it is nowhere near complete. A few very large hotel companies, through merger and acquisition, occupy consolidated enough power to start the Move away from handing over every solitary of their pricing to the OTA’s. In economic terms, hotel companies are trying to vanish from being cost Takers to cost Setters.
At this early stage of the restaurant OPD’s domination of the delivery cycle, it is not limpid that any restaurant organization is large enough to smash the fever, especially now that McDonald’s is partnering with Uber Eats. While it may issue that the On-line Delivery Provider is a restaurant’s partner, friend or even savior, it is no partake of those. In fact, in order to become profitable the OPD is looking to become a direct competitor.
What is sure is that few restaurant companies, and certainly no independent operations, can survive the next two decades letting third parties ordain what convenience and cost mean. In fact, this might exist a sociable time to score out of the house and vanish visit your favorite local restaurant. Sacrificing some convenience for a considerable suffer is a sociable value and that restaurant may not exist around the next time you want to expose up.
PDF Version Available HereReferences  notice Bill Aulet, Disciplined Entrepreneurship,  The Financial, October 25, 2018, https://www.finchannel.com/~finchannel/business/76317-amazon-expands-grocery-delivery-and-pickup  Menqi Sun, WSJ, September 9, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-to-get-food-delivered-from-your-favorite-faraway-restaurant-1536516000  See https://www.just-eat.com/  James Cook, business Insider, April 5, 2017, https://www.businessinsider.com/deliveroo-editions-pop-up-restaurants-roobox-2017-4  Tim York, The Packer, March 23, 2018, https://www.thepacker.com/article/rise-virtual-restaurant Sophie Witts, titanic Hospitality, May 21, 2018, https://www.bighospitality.co.uk/Article/2018/05/21/Deliveroo-to-create-own-restaurant-brands-using-5m-fund#  Cameron Keng, Forbes, March 26, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/cameronkeng/2018/03/26/why-uber-eats-will-eat-you-into-bankruptcy/#778a3b0621f6  Ibid., DealBook, September 21, 2018  BBC News, October 1, 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-45707700  Jonathan Maze, Restaurant business Online, October 17, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/financing/delivery-could-force-changes-restaurant-business-model Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the exercise of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email: email@example.com
By Christopher Muller
The entire restaurant industry, from the simplest quick service joint to the most intricate fine dining jewel, is caught in a veritable frenzy of delivery. It may be, unfortunately, a very risky path to travel for the uninitiated restaurant operation, but delivery is driving the investment community to a fever pitch.  They occupy entered into the time of the restaurant On-Line Delivery Provider (ODP) which mirrors in many ways the On-Line Travel Agent (OTA) which has so disrupted the lodging industry.
In two complimentary BHR articles here, they present a recognize at the 8 different models of restaurant delivery and how they are affecting both senior management and customer choices.
A Quick Lesson From Pricing History
For observers of the global Hospitality Industry this should route up warning flags. In a galaxy far, far away, the Lodging industry managed revenues by using simple seasonal or ascribe pricing models (On-, Shoulder- and Off-Peak rates, or premiums for “A margin With A View”) and sold some limited excess inventory through a network of independent Travel Agents (at an onerous 10% commission!).
Then, as the Internet expanded, and the travel market imploded after the 9-11 tragedy, a fresh and exciting model emerged – the On-Line Travel Agent (OTA) acting as a third party aggregator appeared. Hotel companies willingly gave open access to every solitary of their unsold margin inventory to the OTAs (Expedia, Travelocity, Priceline, Booking.com, Kayak, Trivago, etc.) to sell directly at abysmal discounts, often between 25 and 30% off posted Rack Rates. Occupancies rose, but medium Daily Rates plummeted, and profits quickly diminished. Hotels, relying on the passe pricing models were caught competing “with themselves” and watched as formerly loyal customers switched their buying habits and loyalties to the OTA that gave them the best rate. Customers could scroll through pages of prices, often for the exact very margin in the very hotel, searching for the cheapest rate. Hotel rooms, instead of being unique destinations became interchangeable commodities.
It has taken almost twenty years, but through brand consolidation and a total system-wide transformation into a Revenue Management based pricing model, the hotel business has been transformed and the OTAs are being aggressively challenged for dominance. This should exist a lesson for the restaurant owner/operator, the OTAs drove nothing but cost as a conclusion attribute, the ODPs are poised to Do the very thing with both cost and convenience, unfortunately restaurants probably won’t occupy decades to recover.
Today’s Restaurant Delivery Frenzy –The surge of the ODP
Whether it’s the savvy but shape-shifting Millennial, the rapidly aging Baby Boomer, or the rising youthful digital native from the i-Generation, it seems that customers in every solitary shapes and sizes just want to occupy their meals brought to them at home, the office, or somewhere in between. Breaking the code of the delivery model—becoming the customer’s altenative of who serves up breakfast, lunch or dinner at home, work or play—has emerged as the Holy Grail of the foodservice business. But it may exist more like the other mythic shaded Ages metaphor, the Plague, potentially killing upwards of 30% of existing restaurant units.
So, what exactly is “delivery” today, how did it evolve into such a big, expanding component of the restaurant offering and what are the implications going forward for the industry? Just how Do the On-Line Delivery Providers, the ODP, dominate the market?
We can commence by agreeing that delivery is a several and rapidly growing distribution channel, although it has been around in one contour or another for a very long time. And while not exactly a fresh technology, nor necessarily a profitable one, the exploding market for the delivery of food is poised for an inevitable shake out as it quickly approaches a mature side consolidation.
In late 2018 delivery is every solitary about instant gratification, not just for the diner but some would insinuate for the restaurant as well. At first glance, it every solitary feels so simple and easy. But like so much in restaurant management, there is more than one course to score something done, even the simplest of things.
Emerging Key Success Factors
Like so many emerging business models in the on-line digital age, food delivery is developing its own metrics and factors to exist considered and mastered. While silent evolving, among these now are:
Delivery of food, especially from a restaurant to a consumer, has become a multi-billion dollar segment of the industry. Some are predicting that it will overtake the traditional dine-in segment completely within a decade, although the complexity of getting it privilege and turning a profit while doing so, can silent exist elusive even for the largest players. And of course, no one should forget that Amazon is over in the corner waiting to notice how things evolve in an online delivery world they basically invented.
Traditional and Controlled
As noted, the delivery of food from a restaurant directly to a local customer is not a fresh thought although traditionally the customer came to the restaurant and picked up or carried out their food order. Both delivery and carry-out were best suited to a restaurant with a simple, easily transported menu. Where a significant amount of the value of the meal was the dining suffer and table service, meals to vanish were often comprised of a package of leftovers or the long gone term “doggie bags.”
Here is a recognize at four models with some measure of control for restaurant owners and operators over the quality and profitability of their offerings.
1. The Independent – One Shot
As a service provider a restaurant may resolve that in order to meet the needs of its local customer foundation it should provide a delivery option. At one time, only a few restaurants in an urban core would occupy delivery offers and these might typically exist delicatessens or Chinese restaurants with few seats and a very strong focus on offering takeout options. The food can exist cooked, boxed, wrapped and brought quickly to an office or apartment within a few blocks on foot or by bicycle.
This model is the most basic – a caller, the kitchen, and an employee bringing tart food directly to the customer. The restaurant controls the quality, manages the relationship with the diner and absorbs the full cost and every solitary the revenues. It typically comes with higher operating costs for labor (primarily from an in-house paid delivery driver fleet) and with premium rent from the exigency for an attractive customer-facing retail space. On the plus side, every solitary local customer information may exist controlled by the restaurant and there are no fees to partake with an outside third-party service.
But as the independent operator reaches for the brass ring on the delivery merry-go-round, they too exigency to exist careful not to lose their grip on their existing ride. A fresh distribution channel can exist much more challenging that just taking a customer order. As preeminent by Jennifer Marston:
…restaurants are under pressure to adapt…More and more, that means altering the physical restaurant space so it can better accommodate this influx of fresh orders. Extra meals require extra bodies to cook and package the food, after all, not to mention extra space for third-party devices, and somewhere to allot completed orders waiting to exist picked up by a delivery driver.
An incandescent twist on this solitary restaurant model of trying to find a course to both control and expand the delivery system while maintaining some measure of profitability is one recently proposed in the restaurant trade magazine Restaurant business Online:
He (CMO Nabeel Alamgir) explained that Bareburger is already striving to transmute customers ordering through third parties’ apps into users of the chain’s own channels. Patrons of an Uber Eats or Postmates might exist offered a 10% discount on their next order if it’s placed through Bareburger’s website. The chain can afford a discount that abysmal because the fiscal impact is silent less than the 20% or 30% discount an outside service typically charges.
Alamgir preeminent at the start of the panel’s presentation that a service started by restaurants for restaurants would occupy been an attractive alternative to some of the third-party giants. “Let’s gain their own platform. Let’s gain their own Grubhub,” he said.
2. The Cloud Kitchen – A Hub & Spoke System
It can exist argued that today’s focused delivery channel began in earnest when Domino’s offered up a “30 Minute or Free” guarantee in 1973. In order to gain this guarantee effective, the company created a hub and spoke system, in sequel edifice a string of franchised units in low cost locations. They were characterized by being geographically market-centered but with no exigency for a “High Street” customer facing address. This was directly in contrast to the overwhelming market advantage owned by Pizza Hut and its network of “Red Roof” full service pizzerias with their focus on dine-in and takeout service. But the competitive advantage that came from having units with no dine-in, limited customer carry-out, and which were serviced by a central commissary set in motion the shift away from the traditional eat-in model.
“The reality is, when the red roof restaurant was created, the thought of delivery wasn’t partake of the concept,” said Pizza Hut chief executive David Gibbs, a 26-year veteran at parent company Yum Brands…”so in many cases, their business has outgrown the capabilities of those restaurants…”
Now, four decades later Domino’s is the world leader in delivery, pizza or otherwise. It has done this by controlling the entire process or what is called the “full stack” in the delivery cycle. Now describing itself as an IT and logistics company that sells pizza, the backbone of the system is that they control the customer ordering process, the production quality process, and through a vast franchise network the delivery process.
Next to come, using fresh GPS and AI technologies, Domino’s predicts that it will exist able to gain deliveries not just to a formal edifice address, but to anywhere a customer can exist located by tracking their cellphone, even if that is a park bench or a blanket on the beach.
But Domino’s is not the only leader to exist expanding its Cloud Kitchen delivery system. Already designed on a commissary production system model, giant quickly casual leader, Panera Bread, tested delivery in Boston and then announced an expansion across the United States in early May, 2018 with a system based upon using its own delivery drivers.  Following the trend in October the largest chicken sandwich chain, Chick-fil-A, announced it was dawn to test the hub and spoke model of delivery in Nashville, TN and Louisville, KY.
Chick-fil-A is opening two fresh restaurants that don’t occupy something you commonly associate with the chain: seats.
Chick-fil-A, the Atlanta-based chicken sandwich chain, is testing catering and delivery locations in Nashville and Louisville, Ky., that will open this month.
The locations, according to an announcement on the chain’s website, occupy no dining rooms or drive thru’s and are designed to exist hubs for catering and delivery orders. The restaurants will not accept cash, either.
The Cloud Kitchen model can exist very efficacious for restaurant companies with large enough scale, whether in a solitary city or across a region, to assume advantage of a solitary production kitchen site with remote staging kitchens. Ultimately the “full stack” control from order to front door can further from as few as three restaurants or as many as 3000. This too means that the foundation is laid for vast proprietary customer data collection and eventually data mining by the most forward-looking operators.
It can exist argued that the Food Truck movement of the past decade is a subset of the Cloud Kitchen model. By most local health code laws, food trucks must occupy a “home kitchen” or commissary for their bulk production that meets every solitary health and sanitation code requirements. In many urban centers, to be successful a food truck company needs to occupy multiple trucks on the road acting as a distribution network. While this is too a classic Hub & Spoke model, it comes with similarities to a model in the next article, #6 The Consolidator, with distribution on a bus stop route and not a one-to-one last mile taxi route.
3. The Ghost Kitchen
One further refinement of the Cloud Kitchen is the Ghost Kitchen. As delivery becomes more of a threat to the traditional dine-in restaurant option, some insinuate that this model, in fact, is the future of restaurants—basically a highly efficient hybrid of menu concepts, specialized production and logistics, and low labor cost with no eat-in customers.
In that way, this model is identified by three key components.
First, it removes the dining margin or takeout from the restaurant completely, working out of a kitchen whose location is based on nearness to its core customer market yet in a typically low rent out-of-the-way space.
Second, it does not hire any paid employees to deliver, instead making exercise (through partnership or agreement) of the many third-party delivery companies like GrubHub, Postmates or Doordash.
Third, and possibly the most important, because of the flexibility of only needing an APP, website or traditional telephone ordering system, more than one cuisine can exist produced in the very kitchen space. easy to prepare, cook and deliver foods such as salads, sandwiches, Asian and other ethnic dishes, or gourmet pizza can every solitary exist offered while cross-utilizing similar ingredients in creative menu offerings.
This can best exist described as an “order only” restaurant. The most prominent or well-known of these Ghost Kitchens would exist Green pinnacle (see transition to #8 shaded Kitchen in partake 2). While garnering a sociable amount of press, the notable chef David Chang’s Maple, closed its operation in 2017 with some assets stirring to London and the delivery company Deliveroo. Chef Chang sold the physical kitchen space, Ando, to Uber Eats after ceasing operations in January, 2018. 
Because no customer ever sets foot through the front door the owners can allot every solitary of their investment in kitchen gear and the technology of ordering. A Ghost Kitchen offers customers large menu choices, and just as its cousin the Cloud Kitchen, has the option to keep track of its own proprietary customer data set through the direct ordering process. The tradeoff is that ownership sacrifices the customer interface at delivery of the Cloud Kitchen model. Operating and start-up costs are low and efficiency can exist very high. The risk is that a large portion of the margin (sometimes up to 30%) from market-driven menu prices is taken by the delivery partnership, who too control the brand image when customers receive their orders off-site.4. Virtual Restaurants
Along with disrupting the taxi business, Uber Eats is about to globally disrupt the restaurant delivery business. As of October, 2018, Uber Eats had over 1600 “virtual restaurants” around the globe, with almost 1000 in its US partnership portfolio. The majority of these are not the Cloud or shaded Kitchen models mentioned above, but are existing restaurants with fresh brands that only exist through Uber Eats. This model, while charging very elevated fees to the restaurant, allows them to technically not compete with themselves in the home delivery marketplace. Uber Eats gains more menus to offer, and limits any exigency for an investment in a commissary space.
For SushiYaa, Kim says the virtual restaurant concept has been transformative. “Because this concept worked so well for us, they actually changed one of their restaurants from a sushi buffet concept to a regular restaurant with 8 different virtual restaurant brands inside it. The buffet sales weren’t doing so well and the delivery side was doing better, so they thought — let’s change it completely so we’re focused more on delivery.” From a sales standpoint, he says it’s “almost as if they occupy another restaurant without paying additional rent and labor, even though [Uber Eats] takes about 30 percent.”
One other sort of Virtual Kitchen involves the licensing of existing restaurant recipes and menu items in a curated virtual model. The start-up concept sociable Uncle is using this to compete in the university meal purpose segment, offering a range of pricing options for higher quality prepared meals, delivered by their own delivery fleet using the bus stop common drop off method. This is a limited menu, limited target market, which benefits from a direct marketing approach, lower operating costs, and uses both a subscription and premium fee based pricing system. It is a Virtual Kitchen because there is no restaurant or other customer facing facility, it exists only online.
Part One – Conclusions
Delivery models, some traditional, some evolving, offer many opportunities for restaurant operators, especially those in the QSR and quickly Casual segments, where precipitate and cost and convenience are the drivers of consumer choice.
The challenge in today’s delivery market is how owners and operators can maintain both elevated quality and long-term profitability in the products/services they offer. For many meals, the time and distance from kitchen to table can exist more than 30 minutes or multiple miles. quality of presentation and flavor may quickly diminish. More importantly, where the medium annual profitability for restaurants across every solitary segments in the USA is considerably less than 10%, losing up to 30% of top line revenues is not a path to a successful future, (even if total sales extend by 20%).
PDF Version Available HereReferences  Heather Haddon and Julie Jargon, The Wall Street Journal online, October 24, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/investors-are-craving-food-delivery-companies-1540375578?mod=cx_picks&cx_navSource=cx_picks&cx_tag=contextual&cx_artPos=4#cxrecs_s  Liam Proud, DealBook, NYTimes, September 21, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/21/business/dealbook/uber-eats-deliveroo.html  Jennifer Marston, The Spoon, July 31, 2018, https://thespoon.tech/delivery-is-making-these-restaurants-literally-redesign-the-way-they-do-business/  Peter Romeo, Restaurant business Online, Oct. 19, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/operations/3-big-changes-looming-restaurants  Karen Robinson-Jabos, Dallas News, Jan 6, 2016. https://www.dallasnews.com/business/business/2016/01/06/pizza-hut-is-ditching-the-iconic-red-roof-for-a-more-modern-look  Janelle Nanos, Boston Globe, May 7, 2018, https://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2018/05/07/panera-expanding-its-delivery-service-cities/sZg4pO0yTw9cEdYpv514tL/story.html?event=event12  Jonathan Maze, Restaurant business Online, Oct. 09, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/financing/chick-fil-opening-new-delivery-focused-prototype  Neal Ungerleider, 01.20.17 quickly Company https://www.fastcompany.com/3064075/hold-the-storefront-how-delivery-only-ghost-restaurants-are-changing-take-out  Closing announcement from Maple, May 8, 2017 https://maple.com/letter/  Whitney Filloon, Eater, October 24, 2018, www.eater.com/2018/10/24/18018334/uber-eats-virtual-restaurants  notice the online Audiopedia site https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKO5JFbqKTA  Ibid, Eater, October 24, 2018  notice https://www.gooduncle.com/ Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the exercise of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
By Makarand Mody and Monica Gomez
For a long time, the hotel industry did not deem Airbnb a threat. Both the industry and Airbnb claimed they were serving different markets and had different underlying business models. Over the years, as Airbnb become more successful and grown to being larger than the companies in the hotel industry, the rhetoric has changed. The hotel industry began to realize they had something to worry about.
A stage of denial was followed by the American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) attacking Airbnb by sponsoring research to demonstrate its negative impacts on the economy and lobbying governments to impose taxes and regulations on homesharing. The association is arguing for a plane playing realm between homesharing and hotels (and rightly so). The next stage of this battle involves competition and integration. Not only are hotels looking to add homesharing-like attributes and experiences to their properties, to more effectively compete with Airbnb, but are too looking to tap into the platform-based business model that underlies Airbnb’s success.
The Past: How does Airbnb impact the hotel industry?
Airbnb’s disruption of the hotel industry is significant, both existentially and economically. A recent study by Dogru, Mody, and Suess (2018) create that a 1% growth in Airbnb supply across 10 key hotel markets in the U.S. between 2008 and 2017 caused hotel RevPAR to decease 0.02% across every solitary segments. While these numbers may not issue substantial at first, given that Airbnb supply grew by over 100% year-on-year over this ten year period means that the “real” diminish in RevPAR was 2%, across hotel segments. Surprisingly, it was not just the economy but too the frill hotel segment that was arduous hit by Airbnb supply increases, experiencing a 4% true decline in RevPAR. The impact of Airbnb on ADR and occupancy was less severe. In Boston, RevPAR has decreased 2.5%, on average, over the last ten years due to Airbnb supply increases. In 2016 alone, this 2.5% diminish in RevPAR amounted to $5.8 million in revenue lost by hotels to Airbnb. Brands that felt the impact the most were those in the midscale and frill segments, with a diminish in RevPAR of 4.3% and 2.3% respectively. These supply increases are too fueling Airbnb taking an increasing partake of the accommodation market pie. For example, in fresh York City, Airbnb comprised 9.7% of accommodation demand, equaling approximately 8,000 rooms per night in Q1 2016 (Lane & Woodworth, 2016). As a whole, Airbnb’s accommodated claim made up nearly 3% of every solitary traditional hotel claim in Q12016.
Buoyed by a growth rate of over 100% year on year, Airbnb now has over 4 million listings, with the U.S. being its largest market. The company too has significant margin to grow in other countries, particularly emerging markets in Africa and India. The company has Run into some competition in China, with local rivals Tujia and Xiaozhu. Also, within the U.S., the sociable intelligence is that Airbnb will not grow at 100% indefinitely and will eventually plateau as it reaches a saturation point (Ting, 2017a). In view of this, the company has turned to alternative strategies to continue to extend supply. It is now targeting property developers to gyrate entire buildings into potential Airbnb units, through its newest hotel-like brand, Niido. Currently, there are two Airbnb branded Niido buildings in Nashville, TN and Orlando, FL with over 300 units each and Airbnb plans to occupy as many as 14 home-sharing properties by 2020 (Zaleski, 2018). Niido works by encouraging tenants to list their units on Airbnb, with Airbnb and Niido taking 25% of the revenue generated. Airbnb has too clearly evolved from its original premise of “targeting a different market” to attracting segments traditionally targeted by hotels, such as the leisure family market, business travelers, and the upscale traveler, as evidenced through its latest offering, Airbnb Plus. These homes occupy been verified for quality, comfort, design, maintenance, and the amenities they offer. They too occupy easy check in, premium internet access, and fully equipped kitchens. Their hosts are typically rated 4.8+, and vanish above and beyond for their guests. Through Airbnb Experiences, travelers can partake in everything from the considerable outdoors—hiking and surfing—to “hidden” concerts and food and wine tours. In addition to these products, Airbnb has too “created” its own segments of travelers: novelty and suffer seekers who are looking for unique and unconventional accommodation like yurts, treehouses, and boats, every solitary things that a traditional hotel company cannot provide.
The Present: Understanding what consumers want lies at the heart of the battle between hotels and Airbnb
There are larger societal trends that are impacting what consumers seek travel, and they contemplate this has implications for the Airbnb and hotel dynamic. These trends include:
What Do these trends mean? They require marketers and suffer designers to re-think what the travel suffer means to the customer. The notion of the suffer economy was created by Pine and Gilmore in 1998, and included four dimensions: escapism, education, entertainment, and esthetic. Leveraging one, or ideally, more of these dimensions creates memorable experiences for customers, which in gyrate results in brand loyalty. This dynamic has been fairly well-established in the academic literature. However, Airbnb has changed the game for the suffer economy by emphasizing the sharing lifestyle and a sense of community, cleverly incorporating the above highlighted trends into its communications with customers. Because of Airbnb popularity and success, six fresh dimensions occupy been incorporated into the suffer economy, in the context of the travel experience: personalization, communitas, localness, hospitableness, serendipity, and ethical consumerism, as was presented by Mody in 2016.
Interestingly, in a recent study by Mody and colleagues (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, 2017), the researchers create that Airbnb outperformed hotels on every solitary the dimensions of this new, expanded, accommodation experiencescape. Airbnb outperforms hotels in the personalization dimension because of its wide array of homes and locations, enabling genuine micro-segmentation and the “perfect match” between guest and host (Dolnicar, 2018). Moreover, no one home is similar to another, giving customers a unique suffer every time, enhancing the serendipity associated with an Airbnb stay. Airbnb elevates the sense of community that consumers seek, particularly when sharing space with other travelers and/or with the host, and allows consumers unparalleled access to “the local”—that café or cute petite store that only locals know about. However, there are areas where hotels hold their own. For example, the pathways between these dimensions and memorability were just as strong for hotels as for Airbnb, emphasizing the exigency for hotels to engage customers by leveraging the “right” dimensions for the brand—dimensions that align with the brand’s mission, story, and personality.
One such dimension where hotels effect just as well as Airbnb is hospitableness, as confirmed in a study by Mody, Suess, and Lehto (2018). More “investor units” on the Airbnb platform means that the host is often not present when guests arrive to the home; moreover, every solitary communication is done electronically and with someone who “manages” the Airbnb unit and doesn’t necessarily own or live in it. In turn, hotels that leverage the human factor—the welcome of a friendly check-in agent, the helpfulness of the concierge, the warm greeting and genuine interaction between guest and food and beverage staff—create more positive emotions, which subsequently lead to higher brand loyalty. It is imperative that hotel brands really contemplate about the high-tech, elevated paw suffer they are looking to provide, particularly in the golden age of brand proliferation that they live in.
From a non-experience standpoint, regulation is another bone of contention that merits nigh inspection. After years of denying that Airbnb was a competitor, in 2016, the American Hotel & Lodging Association first began an extensive lobbying application for the imposition of taxes and regulations on Airbnb that plane the playing field. Over the last pair of years, the voices of the hotel lobby and other community groups occupy translated into governments taking some action, in the U.S. and abroad. However, in a study of regulation across 12 European and American cities, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) create that governments occupy been fairly lenient towards short-term rentals with petite to no (meaningful) regulations thus far. Moreover, regulations occupy been designed to alleviate the negative externalities of Airbnb on neighborhoods and communities rather than to plane the playing realm between Airbnb and hotels. Another challenge with regulating the peer to peer economy has been enforcement. In fresh York City, under the Multiple Dwelling law, it is illegal for a unit to exist rented out for less than 30 days unless the owner is present in the unit at the time the guest is renting. However, it is silent viable to find “entire homes” on Airbnb in fresh York City, even though, in principle, these typically include homes where the host is not present during the guest’s stay. Moreover, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) and Hajibaba and Dolnicar (2017) occupy create that regulations watch to exist very similar across cities, without accounting for the specificities of a particular location, which makes the process perfunctory and superficial. There too remains the danger of over-regulating Airbnb, given that there is silent very petite erudition about efficacious ways of regulating these innovations in the sharing economy, thus stifling their potential. Avoid over-regulation is critical, since Airbnb has significant welfare effects in the economy. In addition to stimulating travel to previously inaccessible markets, Airbnb too creates customer surplus (Farronato & Fradkin, 2018), an needful economic value measure. Moreover, other research has suggested that the medium resident is not as negative towards the Airbnb as media rhetoric might insinuate (Mody, Suess, & Dogru, 2018). The exigency for a data-driven approach to Airbnb regulation remains paramount.
The Future: Competing with the sharing economy requires re-thinking the brand and the experience
While regulation is outside the control of the hotel industry, the brand and the customer suffer are not. They contend that these are the areas where hotel companies’ efforts exigency to exist focused. Hotels exigency to re-think the brand promise, both for the parent brand as well as individual brands in the portfolio, and how it defines and shapes the guest experience. Recent research by Mody and Hanks (2018) indicates that while Airbnb leverages the authenticity of the travel experience—by enabling local experiences that provide a sense of self and sense of place, hotel brands that are perceived as being authentic—original, genuine, and sincere—can generate higher brand loyalty. Thus, while it’s arduous to compete with homesharing in terms of experiential authenticity, brand authenticity is a pillar on which hotels can build a strong foundation for loyal brand relationships. This is particularly needful because while Airbnb promotes experiential authenticity as a key intuition to exercise the brand, most travelers watch to wait with the brand for much more functional requirements, such as space and cost (Chen & Xie, 2017; Dogru & Pekin, 2017)
There is no one definition for or manifestation of an “authentic” brand. It’s a perception, a ardor that consumers occupy about what you stand for. An unquestionable brand has at its core the brand promise, an unquestionable value proposition that gives consumers a raison d’etre for associating with the brand. However, what an unquestionable brand does require is efficacious storytelling. A brand is perceived to exist authentic, if it has an unquestionable narrative that feeds it. Brand stories can further from many sources: a brand’s values, personality, heritage, uniqueness, or its quest and purpose. What is needful is telling compelling and coherent stories across the brand’s various touchpoints to engage consumers at a visceral, emotional level. Taking off industry blinders, and looking for inspiration outside the hotel industry, is critical. Tom’s Shoes is an excellent example of leveraging its quest—One for One—in creating a compelling brand story. As another example, in an industry typically focused on the in-store, “physical” experience, Burberry has set the gold touchstone for authentic, digitally-led and emotive storytelling, by looking within and leveraging over 150 years of history (Watch the YouTube Video here). In this vein, they contemplate that Fairfield Inn and Suites’ revert to “where it every solitary began”—the Marriott family’s Fairfield Farm in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia— to craft the brand suffer of the future, from a design and communications standpoint, is an excellent example of leveraging authenticity and crafting a compelling brand pledge (Ting, 2017b).
Another thought that lies at the heat of the brand pledge is what they call the experiential value proposition, or EVP. For the longest time, hotel marketers occupy relied on the guest margin as the primary source of value for the guest. But contemplate about the last time you traveled. Was it the prospect of the hotel margin that got you excited about your trip? Or was it everything that the hotel enables you to Do – the suffer outside the guestroom? From experiencing expertise and music in the lobby to its proximity to the must-do craft beer garden, hotel marketers must realize that it’s the complete package—what’s inside and outside the room—that customers exercise as cues for making their conclusion to pick an accommodation. They call this proposition offered by the hotel—what’s inside and outside the guest room, enclosed within an suffer of hospitableness and a connection to humanity—its EVP. They present the EVP in device 1. The EVP mirrors the value paradigm of the modern traveler, something that must exist reflected in the hotel brand’s sales, marketing and pricing and revenue management efforts. Thinking about a brand through the lens of the EVP paradigm has the power to re-orient the customer’s mindset from one of price-shopping to experience-shopping.
Figure 1. The Experiential Value Proposition Framework
How does a hotel marketer apply the EVP paradigm? Its application can open up many avenues. Hotels can start by rethinking the design of their primary digital channels, led by the website by adding more rich, vivid content that goes beyond the guestroom, in order to better integrate aspects of the wider hotel and local experience. The touchstone Hotels serves as an excellent example (http://www.standardhotels.com/) Its website feels more like a local lifestyle and culture magazine than a digital media property “selling” a hotel room. The website’s moneyed images and stories draw the visitor into wanting to learn more about what the brand has to offer. While not every hotel can or would want to vanish the touchstone way, since the brand has its own several voice and personality, there is a case to exist made for going beyond static images of beds in guestrooms, which watch to blend into one indistinguishable total after a point, particularly on OTA websites. When was the last time the image of a hotel bed excited you to want to wait there? Yet, when you recognize at the imagery allot out by most hotels, this is what marketers silent focus on.
Placing an accent on humanity and providing a sense of hospitableness can too enhance a brand’s EVP. Instead of technology replacing the human connection, the industry needs to recognize for ways in which technology can actually free up employees so that they can disburse their time crafting more personal and unique experiences, delighting guests instead of performing routine transactions. Moreover, if the human connection is what people seek out when traveling with Airbnb, why is it that hotel confirmation emails silent score sent out by automated systems that highlight the “facelessness” of the hotel entity. Why not exercise that as an occasion to truly welcome the guest; a simple paw such as a welcome epistle from the GM with his/her photo, or that of an employee who is “assigned” as “your personal host” during your wait can vanish a long course in emulating the human connection that the sharing economy enables.
The design of the hotel’s public spaces can exist used to enhance the guest’s suffer of “communitas”. Ian Schrager would accord (Schaal, 2017). After all, with much of Airbnb’s supply being dominated by investor units that provide petite or no host contact, what better an occasion for hotel brands to expose that they are the original connectors of human beings? Sheraton has been prudent in incorporating some of these communal elements into its brand makeover by introducing productivity tables and studio spaces and a day-time coffee bar that transforms into a bar at night. In terms of another design element, Airbnb’s attractiveness to family and group travelers can exist offset by offering connecting and/or multiple rooms for one price, with other suffer value-adds thrown in (as with the Marriott family margin connecting rooms package.
Finally, the role of the loyalty program cannot exist emphasized enough. Loyalty programs must Move beyond programmatic levels to being able to leverage data from guest history, gregarious media, and other marketing data sources, powered by predictive analytics, to personalize and individualize the guest suffer of the brand. In an age of instant gratification, the loyalty program has to exist gamified to unlock value-adds and offer creative bundling.
At the plane of the hotel company, beyond the individual brand, the hotel industry has started participating in the home sharing business and is increasingly looking to integrate these platform business models. For example, while Accor purchased Onefinestay, Marriott has teamed up with Hostmaker to create Tribute Portfolio Homes, a partnership that was recently expanded to four European cities (Fox, 2018). From an organic brand evolution standpoint, Accor’s newest Jo & Joe brand mimics the sharing economy within the confines of a traditional hotel space. Other, more innovative and bold ways of integrating the sharing economy ethos into a hotel could include offering an “Airbnb floor”, an antithesis to the club floor, one that would not offer housekeeping and other hotel services and thus exist offered at a lower price. With hotel brands becoming “branded marketplaces” for accommodation and not just hotel rooms, perhaps there is merit in listing hotel rooms on alternative accommodation platforms. HomeAway is already adding hotels to its platform through the Expedia Affiliate Network, while Airbnb is making a propel for bed-and-breakfasts and boutique hotels. Homesharing providers hope that by adding these options to their listings, they will fulfill their goal of being “for everyone”, while allowing independent and boutique hotels to reap the benefits of branded distribution at a lower cost than traditional OTA brands.
In sum, hotels must adopt a sales, marketing, and revenue management approach that is both strategic and tactical.
At a strategic level, hotel brands exigency to re-think their story, and how they portray and fulfill their authenticity and brand promises. At a tactical level, it’s the suffer and value beyond the guestroom that must exist factored into what is presented to current and potential guests, what they are charged for it, and how it is leverage to create “memorable memories” that lead to higher net promotor scores and brand loyalty. They present a graphical summary of the past, present, and future of Airbnb vs. hotels in device 2.
Figure 2. Summarizing the past, present and future of Airbnb vs. hotels
PDF Version Available HereReferences Chen, Y., & Xie, K. (2017). Consumer valuation of Airbnb listings: a hedonic pricing approach. International Journal of coincident Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2405–2424. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2016-0606 Dogru, T., Mody, M., & Suess, C. (2018). Adding evidence to the debate: Quantifying Airbnb’s disruptive impact on ten key hotel markets. Dogru, T., & Pekin, O. (2017). What Do guests value most in Airbnb accommodations? An application of the hedonic pricing approach. Boston Hospitality Review. Dolnicar, S. (2018). Unique Features of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 1–14). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Farronato, C., & Fradkin, A. (2018). The Welfare Effects of Peer Entry in the Accommodation Market: The Case of Airbnb. Fox, J. (2018). Marriott expands homesharing program in Europe. Hotel Management. Retrieved from https://www.hotelmanagement.net/own/marriott-expands-homesharing-program-to-3-european-cities Hajibaba, H., & Dolnicar, S. (2017). Regulatory Reactions Around the World. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 120–136). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Lane, J., & Woodworth, M. (2016). The Sharing Economy Checks In: An Analysis of Airbnb in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cbrehotels.com/EN/Research/Pages/An-Analysis-of-Airbnb-in-the-United-States.aspx Mody, M. A., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2017). The accommodation experiencescape: a comparative assessment of hotels and Airbnb. International Journal of coincident Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2377–2404. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2016-0501 Mody, M., & Hanks, L. (2018). Parallel pathways to brand loyalty: Mapping the consequences of unquestionable consumption experiences for hotels and Airbnb. Mody, M., Suess, C., & Dogru, T. (2018). Not in my backyard? Is the anti-Airbnb discourse truly warranted? Annals of Tourism Research. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.05.004 Mody, M., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2018). Going back to its roots : Can hospitableness provide hotels competitive advantage over the sharing economy ? International Journal of Hospitality Management. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.05.017 Nieuwland, S., & van Melik, R. (2018). Regulating Airbnb: how cities deal with perceived negative externalities of short-term rentals. Current Issues in Tourism, 0(0), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2018.1504899 Schaal, D. (2017). Ian Schrager Calls Out Hotel Industry’s Airbnb Strategy as Misguided. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/12/08/ian-schrager-calls-out-hotel-industrys-airbnb-strategy-as-misguided/ Ting, D. (2017a). Airbnb Growth narrative Has a Plot Twist — A Saturation Point. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/11/15/airbnb-growth-story-has-a-plot-twist-a-saturation-point/ Ting, D. (2017b). Marriott and altenative assume Varied Approaches to Reviving Classic Midscale Brands. Skift. Zaleski, O. (2018). Airbnb and Niido to Open as Many as 14 Home-Sharing Apartment Complexes by 2020. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-08-14/airbnb-and-niido-to-open-as-many-as-14-home-sharing-apartment-complexes-by-2020 Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a quality Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer conduct within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of coincident Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His work involves the extensive exercise of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand too serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In tumble 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and too holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland. Monica Gomez is a graduate student in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management from the University of Florida and has held previous internship positions in hotel operations and event management. She is a member of the Hospitality Sales and Marketing International Association and is interested in hotel revenue management.
By Christian E. Hardigree, J.D.
Today’s hospitality conversations are rife with dialogue about sustainability, initiatives ranging from linen reuse programs, to donating toiletries, to auto dimming lights, to food sourcing, etc. Hospitality practitioners’ quest to define the ROI (return on investment) is often at foiled by a concept that includes intangible metrics and differing definitions of what “sustainability” really means. The oft-used “Triple Bottom Line – People, Planet, Profit” embodies the commonly agreed upon themes of sustainability, which include ensuring a vigorous environment, improving economic prosperity, and implementing gregarious justice initiatives that ensure the well-being and quality of life for current and future generations.
Companies struggle to determine what role they play in advancing and addressing gregarious and global challenges while enhancing their brand, ensuring consumer loyalty, and expanding their market share. Many companies evaluate and refine their efforts for engaged brand activism, particularly through marketing, which they equilibrium with efforts to implement higher standards for suppliers, ameliorate equality among workers, and keep pricing competitive – falling in line with the generic categories of most corporate gregarious responsibility efforts: 1) environmental efforts; 2) philanthropy; 3) ethical labor practices; and 4) volunteering.The “Arms Race” of Corporate gregarious Responsibility Reporting
For many companies, particularly in hospitality, corporate gregarious responsibility (CSR) reporting has emerged as a key business approach to articulate the benefits to the company’s stakeholders through strategic initiatives. According to the Governance and Accountability Institute, sustainability reporting by S&P 500 companies increased from 19% in 2011 to 85% in 2017.[i]
Companies now value the marketing value of CSR reporting, particularly as a mechanism to attract and retain customers. Increased societal pressure for greater regulation and transparency, coupled with research showing that consumers demonstrate a preference toward companies they perceive are more responsible, occupy resulted in a fresh “arms race” with companies are making operational decisions that are more tightly linked to ethical values, environmental stewardship, and respect for the human equity. They want to ensure those efforts are known to their stockholders, investors, and the public.
While many CSR disclosures are currently willful in the United States, there are increasing requirements mandated by various statutes. Such mandates, commonplace in the European Union, are increasingly required in the United States. In particular, there is growing market claim for a more accountable and transparent corporate supply chain. Current statutory requirements range from the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases rule for large emitters of greenhouse gases to the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010 to ensure that large retailers and manufacturers provide consumers with information regarding their efforts to eradicate slavery and human trafficking from their supply chains.[ii] The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which impacted virtually every partake of the US fiscal services industry too includes provisions for sure reporting on their exercise of due diligence in the source and chain of custody of sure minerals that are associated with armed conflicts in and around the Democratic Republic of the Congo, minerals that are associated with the manufacturing of devices such as cell phones, computers, and digital cameras.[iii] Most recently, the European Union’s sweeping Global Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) went into sequel May 25, 2018. Intended to give EU citizens greater control of their own, widely-define personal data, GDPR has far reaching implications for any company doing business with citizens of the EU. For the hospitality industry, fresh processes are required to exist implemented to protect things like IP addresses and cookie data, similar to the protections currently provided to ensure privacy for addresses and gregarious security numbers. In the three months prior to GDPR going into effect, it was estimated that 79% of companies were unprepared.[iv] The mandatory disclosure landscape is changing fast, and hospitality is challenged to keep up.Not every solitary Changes Are Mandated
As consumers are holding corporations accountable for effecting gregarious change in their business practices and beliefs, ultimately impacting the bottom line, companies refine their sustainability initiatives as a result of public advocacy, stockholder proposals, or consumer feedback. A 2017 study by Cone Communications illustrated some key elements, including:[v]
To illustrate, on February 6, 2018, in a commitment associated with improved packaging in betterment of the planet, Dunkin’ Donuts announced it would side out the exercise of polystyrene foam cups by 2020 and supplant them with double-walled paper cups, estimated to occupy a net impact of eliminating over a billion cups annually from the fritter stream.[vi] This was on the heels of McDonald’s announcing in January that it would side out the exercise of foam packaging in every solitary global markets by the suspension of 2018.[vii] Straws and stirrers gain up over 7% of plastic create in the environment, an issue initially addressed (and banished) by George McKerrow, co-founder of the restaurant chain Ted’s Montana Grill, that has gained widespread attention as consumers are reminded that they exercise 500 million straws a day, a habit that widely impacts wildlife and the oceans.[viii] Just this month, Bon Appétit announced they were banning plastic straws from their over 1000 café locations in 33 states.[ix] As cities like Miami and Malibu occupy banned solitary exercise straws (and in Malibu, banned every solitary single exercise plastic utensils and stirrers), they find some municipalities are forcing hospitality businesses to incorporate sustainable practices.Avoid Greenwashing
As hospitality companies seek to out-promote each other, they would exist well-advised to avoid greenwashing – today’s version of “snake oil”, more akin to “eco-fraud” – when a company holds itself out as more environmentally friendly than it actually is in practice. Clearly consumer preferences demonstrate an increasing trend for purchasing products and services that are sustainable – for their impact on the environment, in how they are manufactured, and/or how the workers are treated. Between 2009 and 2010, the number of “greener” products increased by 73%.[x] In order to capitalize on this trend, many brands are trying to competitively out-do each other with their eco-credentials – exaggerating their claims, or at times, completely manufacturing them. In legalese, greenwashing may amount to deceptive marketing, misrepresentation, and/or fraud.
In the “sins” of greenwashing, hospitality entities would exist prudent to avoid vague, over-reaching, or unverifiable assertions. Hotels increasingly inspirit their guests to embrace green practices – shut off lights, reuse towels, avoid changing the linen as frequently, etc. Research by faculty at Washington status University create that a perceived ulterior motive of a hotels’ environmental claims evoked consumer skepticism, which negatively influenced consumer’s purpose to participate in the linen reuse program, as well as negatively effecting the consumers’ purpose to revisit the hotel.[xi] At a time when as many as 79% of travelers accord that eco-friendly practices is an needful factor in their altenative of lodging, companies risk losing valuable reiterate customers if their motives are self-serving. As a result, to avoid the negative aspects, hoteliers are cautioned to install comprehensive green programs, train their staff to implement practices, and ensure their green claims are accurate and not overreaching, perhaps through third party certification.For Goodness Sakes, Don’t Greenwash the Food
Greenwashing is of particular concern in today’s environment, particularly in the context of food. For example, in 2016, organic food sales jumped 8.4%, to over $43 billion, while overall food sales only increased 0.6%.[xii] Similarly, organic non-food items jumped 88% to $3.9 billion in sales. As restaurants and hotels are asked questions by their customers about the source of their products, facilities exigency to exist alert of the claims they are making to ensure they are not overreaching or deceptive, as greenwashing has become the “flavor of the month” in consumer class litigation. Claims challenging products advertised as “natural” are the most frequent suits encountered.
While no definition of “natural” is provided by the FDA, food products in the US labeled as “natural” gain up roughly $40 billion in sales, and are growing by an medium of 6.6% annually. According to Food Navigator, there were 20 food labeling class actions pending in federal court in 2008 – a number that rose to 425 by 2016. Cases that specifically focus on “natural” claims increased by 22% from 2016 to 2017, notably with suits against generic Mills’ Nature Valley bars and Dr. Pepper Snapple’s Mott’s Apple Sauce. Of particular note is that three quarters of federal court food class actions are in four states: California (36%), fresh York (22%), Florida (12%), and Illinois (7%).[xiii] Many of the suits are rooted in claims that items such as elevated fructose corn syrup, elevated maltose corn syrup, soy flour, soy lecithin, and GMA yellow corn flour, as well as synthetically derived vitamins, are not “natural”, and thus such claims are fraudulent.[xiv] Overreaching statements can exist a source of eroding consumer confidence, destroying customer loyalty, and/or litigation.Conclusion
Sustainability initiatives will continue to exist an imperative partake of a hospitality entities’ brand, evaluated by every solitary stakeholders. In order to ensure consumer confidence, it is imperative that those initiatives exist unquestionable in their implementation, supported by third party verification, and in alignment with the legal requirements of the jurisdiction. In doing so, their efforts in supporting the three E’s – environment, economic, and equity – their industry will collectively surge in to ameliorate the future for ourselves and for future generations.
PDF Version Available HereReferences [i] Retrieved May 30, 2018 from https://www.ga-institute.com/press-releases/article/flash-report-85-of-sp-500-indexR-companies-publish-sustainability-reports-in-2017.html [ii] 40 CFR partake 9; and California Civil Code §1714.43 [iii] https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-111publ203/pdf/PLAW-111publ203.pdf [iv] Retrieved April 6, 2018 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2018/03/27/u-s-businesses-cant-hide-from-gdpr/#33b76ef052c8 [v] Retrieved April 6, 2018 from http://www.conecomm.com/research-blog/2017-csr-study [vi] Retrieved April 16, 2018 from https://news.dunkindonuts.com/news/dunkin-donuts-to-eliminate-foam-cups-worldwide-in-2020 [vii] Retrieved April 16, 2018 from https://www.bizjournals.com/chicago/news/2018/01/10/mcdonalds-phasing-out-foam-packaging-this-year.html [viii] Retrieved May 30, 2018 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/megykarydes/2018/05/23/the-future-of-take-out-exhibit-how-we-can-eliminate-packaging-waste/#37a1213c7580 [ix] Retrieved May 31, 2018 from https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2018/05/31/615580695/last-straw-for-plastic-straws-cities-restaurants-move-to-toss-these-sippers [x] Retrieved April 6, 2018 contour http://sinsofgreenwashing.com/index5349.pdf [xi] Rahman, I., Park, J., & Geng-qing Chi, C. (2015). “Consequences of “greenwashing”: Consumers’ reactions to hotels’ green initiatives”, International Journal of coincident Hospitality Management, Vol. 27 Issue: 6, pp.1054-1081, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2014-0202 [xii] Retrieved May 31, 2018 from https://www.foodbusinessnews.net/articles/9394-u-s-organic-food-sales-jump-more-than-8 [xiii] Retrieved May 31, 2018 from http://www.instituteforlegalreform.com/uploads/sites/1/TheFoodCourtPaper_Pages.pdf [xiv] Examples include Janney et al. v. generic Mills, 3:12-cv-03919, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California; Rojas v. generic Mills, Inc. 3:12-cv-05099, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California; Bohac v. generic Mills, Inc., 3:12-cv-05280, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California; Van Atta v. generic Mills, 1:12-cv-02815, U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado
As Founding Director and Professor of the Michael A. Leven School of Culinary Sustainability and Hospitality at Kennesaw status University, Dr. Hardigree oversees the Bachelor of Science degree program which houses over 260 majors and services over 1500 students enrolled in classes each semester. Addressing both “sustainability on the plate” as well as “sustainability beyond the plate” in terms of water, fritter and energy efficiencies, this highly material management program provides a competitive advantage and discernible point of differentiation as the epicenter for teaching, research and best practices in sustainable culinary and hospitality management. The flexibility of the program’s curriculum allows students to emphasize careers in beverage management, event planning, specialized cuisines, and the hotel industry. Christian conducts research and presents nationally at industry conferences as related to her areas of expertise, including food safety, risk management, sustainability, workplace violence and employment/management issues. She is a national expert on bed bug litigation, speaking across the country on the subject. After obtaining her B.S., cum laude, from the William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration at UNLV, Christian obtained her Juris Doctorate from the Walter F. George School of Law at Mercer University, focusing on employment discrimination, arbitration/mediation, and labor management relations. She is of counsel with the law arduous of Parnell & Associates. Christian serves on a variety of committees and advisory boards, including the ConServe Sustainability Advisory Council for the National Restaurant Association, the KSU Brian Jordan headquarters for Excellence and Professional evolution at LakePoint Sporting Community, and formerly on the Women in Lodging Advisory Council for the American Hotel & Lodging Association.
By Martin Zsarnoczky
Digitalization is among the most needful changes in their rapidly evolving world. Digital innovations and technological novelties are engines of evolution and expose their impact everywhere, especially in the realm of manufacturing, ICT and other service industries. Given the fact that tourism is based on the cooperation between a wide range of services and products, the benefits of the digital revolution in the sector are quite obvious.
Our live environment is a combination of online and offline spaces that co-exist together, defining their everyday habitat. In tourism, the special exercise of spaces has always been a unique feature of the industry, and as of today, the spaces of the digital world occupy become partake of it. The rapid evolution of the digital world brings novel and innovative solutions into the digital tourism spaces by the day. Peer-to-peer communication is outstandingly needful in the technological environment of tourism. This sort of communication, together with the spreading of smart devices occupy revolutionized scheduling, administration and finances, and too opened fresh horizons for the introduction of innovative sales and marketing technologies in the total tourism industry. As a result of the digital revolution, the international evolution trends in tourism occupy opened the course for novel solutions like cloud-based booking sites or information and suffer sharing via digital platforms.
In line with the fresh trends of travelling, there is a dynamically growing claim for special tailor-made offers beyond mass tourism, as conscious consumers await personalized solutions that reply their individual needs. As of today, the vast majority of tourism market stakeholders occupy access to detailed information on their consumers and can closely succeed and track consumer conduct and its changes. These novel systems of personalized products and services are available thanks to various springy follow-up techniques like CRM client databases. The cloud-based CRM client database systems – ones that create offers by analyzing previous sales records and demographic data – occupy evolved rapidly. As of today, they can dissect huge datasets by titanic data analysis and scaling methods in a cost efficacious and anonymous way, searching for significant event points. Although titanic data research is based on working with large samples, it is the most efficient course to divulge individual personal preferences (Stadler, 2015).How did sharing economy pave the course to personalized tourism services?
In previous decades, the results of digital evolution occupy opened the door for the true life implementation of shared economy theories. It was almost ten years ago that Chris Anderson (2009) introduced his pricing theory in digitalization, basically suggesting giving away products for free, based on the principle of shared goods and resources. Although at the time Anderson’s theory was considered as a technological solution, the principle of digital sharing occupy induced sedate gregarious changes as well. One of the most needful positive messages of shared economy is the maximum exercise of resource capacities for the purpose of gregarious well-being (Sundararajan, 2014). gregarious well-being is too a key priority in tourism, because a well-managed tourism industry brings profit not only for the business operators but too for the local communities.
In the sharing economy model, the stakeholders – who are too consumers at the very time – offer their excess capacities for collective exercise in order to maximize the exploitation of their goods and resources. These economic processes consist of so-called hybrid transactions with maximum capacity exercise (Hyde, 2007), for both commercial and gregarious purposes. An needful drive in the evolution of collaborative consumption theory was the realization of the fact that using or possessing the very consumer goods can result in different advantages. The core component of the model is that sellers offer their excess capacities, while the consumers in exigency exercise them in revert for payment. In the sharing economy (based on the aforementioned primary idea), more and more industrial, commercial and service providers offer innovative solutions.
The principle of sharing is not a fresh thought in the tourism industry. In the case of some accommodation services, seasonal cost reduction has always been a practice. Hostels and youth hotels occupy always been well-liked – these facilities are often used as dormitories throughout the academic year and lease their rooms for backpackers in the summer season, when the students are away. Of course, these seasonal options would not occupy been enough for creating a fresh market sector; the dawn of the fresh business era was marked with the emergence of wide platform solutions like Airbnb, Booking.com, Agoda, etc.
In the strategy of digital platform tourism businesses, consumers are considered as partners in the business activities. This shared operation can exist best defined as a postmodern business model. Although the intricate thought of postmodernism is quite difficult to describe, its main characteristics – shared participation and the subjective ardor of each contributor – can lead closer to understand the phenomenon. It is limpid that postmodernism will change some processes of the classic market laws in the near future. While “shared experience” has become a key marketing term for selling goods and services, specialized offers inevitably lead to a market fragmentation that will result in the fragmentation of users as well. In a disintegrated market, consumers will behave differently in fragmented times and spaces, paving the course for personalized services and tailor-made solutions. At the very time, individualism has become the key characteristics of the younger generations (McCrindle et al., 2009); a phenomenon that will occupy to exist taken into account whilst creating business strategies. Due to the emergence of individualism, more and more youthful people are trying to create something unique that can serve the long-term benefit of the community. Their drive for creating businesses based on their own ideas and suffer accounts for the increasing popularity of start-up businesses. These aspects of uniqueness, community thinking and experience-centered approach hold a huge occasion for the future of the tourism industry.The Future: AI, VR/AR, Blockchain
While looking through their photos, tourists usually occupy a positive suffer remembering their travels, experiences and the destination they had visited. Some specialized digital technologies can offer this assumed positive suffer in a searchable and changeable form. With regards to true life objects, their connections and relations, there is only a limited amount of information available in a format that could exist handled by computers. The main problem is that computers exigency enough coding solutions created by ersatz intelligence to exist able to store, ply and organize information. The methods of coding for tourism suffer purposes strike the speed, efficiency and knowledge/experience-based computing abilities of today’s computers.
According to the forecasts of product evolution strategies in various industries, almost every solitary of their everyday objects and gear will exist accessible through the internet in the future. As a result, every solitary devices that are capable of two-way communication will belong in the framework of IoT (Internet of Things). The devices of the future, unlike the devices of today, will communicate in a bidirectional way, where robust safe data handling, personalized differentiation and enough conclusion management will exist partake of the user experience. As a result of the continuous data collection during the exercise of these devices, every solitary material information will eventually suspension up in a final centralized system at the top of the dataset.
Previously, tourism used to exist an industry based on personal relations and connections, where the trends – and therefore travelers’ decisions – were set out by a limited number of large international tourism and travel enterprises. As a result of the digital revolution, the transparency of “hidden markets” had been revealed and numerous other factors occupy to exist taken into account (Fig.1.).
The early evolution of ICT resulted not only in the better capacity utilization of airlines, but too on the compatibility of the prices; and soon, the emergence of the discount airlines had led to the innovation of the total industry and forced out efficiency in every solitary segments. The novel travel recommendation sites (Expedia, Orbitz, Kayak, etc.) were created with the aim to gain travelers’ decisions easier; however at the very time, a lot of tourism service providers who could not keep up with the fresh challenges were forced out of the market. Although the fresh trends like travel packages (including car rental) or taking into account the reviews of previous travelers (Lonely Planet) were from many aspects contrary to the former business models, the rapidly increasing popularity of online offers required quick and user-friendly tourism product evolution from the industry.
With the arrival of Google, which was able to rank the sites’ appearance in internet searches, a fierce competition begun between blogs, tourism recommendation sites and price-comparing OTA systems. The bidirectional communication started with the exercise of cookies 2.0; since then, consumers occupy become an integral partake of the business models, because businesses who seek to exist successful in the long run, exigency to know their customers’ demands in detail. The evolution of digital services require the identification of the user, information on their individual preferences and a decision-based calibration (by AI). In AI-based conclusion making solutions, the former definitive factors are replaced by a virtual personal assistant, which is able to map the consumer’s preferences based on their digital footprint, and create an optimal personalized offer from the available titanic data systems (Fig. 2.)
The technological evolution cannot exist stopped; however, with enough flexibility and openness, tourism businesses can prepare for the upcoming challenges. In the tourism of the future, the fresh consumers will bring forth fresh priorities and fresh demands. As a revolutionary approach, the members of the IoP (Internet of People) community offer their free time in order to achieve joint IT/industrial goals, where frameworks are created in line with the preferences of other people, for a yet not specified consumer segment (Miranda et al., 2015). Beyond innovative technologies, total fresh spaces occupy opened in tourism, completely different from the accustomed destinations. University researchers occupy been carried out to study the possibilities of online tourism spaces and their opportunities for the tourism and hospitality industry. In virtual reality, with a special “glass”, the user can recognize into an optional tourism space, from which the true world is completely shut out. The Augmented reality is a different technological solution, where digital elements are projected into a true life space.
The newest technological developments and the innovation in the exercise of live spaces are every solitary connected to the alternative payment options that can exist used in tourism as well. The emergence of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies has led to the creation of a novel payment system. The Blockchain payment system is a shared database, which records a continuously growing list of data blocks, preventing any counterfeiting or alteration of the data. One obstruct consist of a list of transactions and the results of computations made by the stored programs. For example, if a customer buys some cryptocurrency or any other kindly of currency, and then transfers it to anywhere in the world to another partner, who exchanges it instantly, both partners can avoid any loss caused by exchange rate fluctuations; furthermore, the total transaction takes only minutes instead of the accustomed pair of business days. This solution can signify a revolutionary innovative payment option for everyone in the tourism industry.
The applicability of the blockchain system is independent from currency rates. In the case of cryptocurrencies, it is not the exchange rate that really matters – instead, the legal value of the currency lies in the safety of the blockchain technology and in the authentic, transparent, unalterable and decentralized recording system (Pilkington, 2016). This payment system offers a fresh plane of encryption safety and intervention-free operation, and the data handled in the system cannot exist modified in any way. Another huge benefit of the system is that the transactions are realized without any intermediate agents, thus eliminating any additional transaction costs. By the time of the “maturity” of blockchain payment solutions, today’s large service intermediators like Airbnb, Booking.com, Agora, etc. are foreseen to lose some of their market positions, as consumers and service providers will probably deal with their transactions directly.Will ersatz Food exist the next meal on the table?
With the worldwide population boom, the claim for food is too increasing. To answer this growing exigency for food, the extension of agricultural areas is required for food material production, and at the very time, enough land management is needed for animal husbandry. The greatest challenge of sustainable agriculture lies in the fact that the agricultural areas can only exist further expanded at the expense of forested lands. In addition, the current changes in the environment has too led to the diminish of fishing possibilities, another hardship in the availability of food materials.
The decreasing resources of food materials will force the food production industry to re-think their former concepts. fresh technologies like 3D food printers can even bring the quickly food era to an end. The novel inventions of food production and food engineering – like artificially flavored drinks, chocolates and dairy products – occupy been on the market of more than a decade now, and so far, they occupy not had a negative sequel on the common savor of consumers.
In the concept of 3D food printing, popular sweets and delicacies are synthesized by a layered printing technology, using the various pre-mixed powders, flavorings, fixers and oils that are stored in the “toners” of the printer. These ersatz foods are already available: specialized franchise restaurants like the Food Ink chain offer a wide variety of printed meals for consumers who are inquisitive about the future of gastronomy. It is too likely that with the next generation of the food printers, they will exist able to calibrate the nutritional values and energy content of the meals.
The 3D food printing technology is not only needful for HoReCa businesses, but holds a considerable occasion for the health industry, too, especially in the realm of special diets and medication. Using 3D food printing for these purposes can extend cost-effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability, thus supporting the food industry and hospitality and tourism businesses alike.
The option of personalized 3D food printing is just one of the innovative technological solutions in the tourism and hospitality industry. The Henn-na Hotel  in Huis Ten Bosch, Japan is the first hotel in the world, where customers are served exclusively by robots. At another Asian location in China, there are 24/7 cafés that succeed the no-staff business model of Amazon Go. As for the restaurant market, the Chinese food brand Wufangzhai has recently opened the first unmanned restaurant in Hangzhou, capital city of east China’s Zhejiang Province.
The question is: how long will it assume until food production and consumption will exigency no human resources at all?Summary
For innovative enterprises, the efficiency of interactivity is of key importance for the success of their business. The rapid evolution of ICT solutions has brought immense changes in the tourism industry. Previously, consumers’ conclusion making was mainly affected by the industrial environment. The era of digital tourism spaces – preceded by theme parks and thematic destinations – started with the emergence of information websites; however, this targeted information current used to exist one-directional with narrow choices. In today’s digital era, the fresh generation of commercial activities assume status in VR or AR spaces, and the instant analysis of the customer’s reactions and conduct advocate the enhancement of their buying willingness. The traditional conclusion making processes are gradually being replaced with personalized offers, further increasing the importance of AI.
With the evolution of shared economy, greater accent is allot on gregarious well-being, as user suffer slowly becomes more needful than ownership. This fresh approach is too expressed in novel forms of payment, which can seriously diminish the profits of intermediate activities. The fresh trends Do not look to exist problematic in the tourism industry, mostly because in this sector, the exact costs and incomes are not clearly visible yet. On the other hand, the quality evolution of the 3D printing technology holds a considerable occasion for the tourism and hospitality sector. The evolution of digitalization has finally reached a plane where it can truly advocate the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of industrial food production, paving the course to the future of tourism and hospitality businesses.
PDF Version Available HereReferences Anderson, C. (2009). Free: The Future of a Radical Price. Hyperion, fresh York. Hyde, L. (2007). The Gift: Creativity and the Artist in the Modern World. fresh York: Random House Inc. McCrindle, M. – Wolfinger, E. (2009). The ABC of XYZ: Understanding the Global Generations, University of fresh South Wales Press, Sidney. pp. 1-22. Miranda, J. – Mäkitalo, N. – Garcia-Alonso, J. – Beroccal, J. – Mikkonen, T. – Canal, C. – Murillo, M. J. (2015) From the Internet of Things to the Internet of People. IEEE Internet Computing, 19 (2): 40-47. Stadler, G. (2015). titanic data – tömeges adatelemzés gyorsan. HTE Medianet 2015, Kecskemét. LLX. pp. 44-48 Pilkington, M. (2016). Blockchain technology: priciples and applications. Research Handbook on Digital Transformation. Edward Elgar Publishing, Northampton, MA. pp. 225-253. Sundararajan, A. (2014). Peer-to-Peer Businesses and the Sharing (Collaborative) Economy: Overview, Economic Effects and Regulatory Issues. NYU headquarters for Urban Science and Progress, fresh York. Zsarnoczky, M. (2017a). How does ersatz Intelligence strike the Tourism Industry? Vadyba Journal of Management 31 (2): 85-90. Zsarnoczky, M. (2017b). The future of sustainable pastoral tourism development: the impacts of climate change. Annals of the Polish Association of Agricultural and Agribusiness Economists. XIX. (3): 337-344. Martin Zsarnoczky, Ph.D. has several years of suffer in the huge tourism and hospitality industry. He has worked with P&O Princess Cruises, Intercontinental and Marriott Hotels in Budapest. Between 2005 and 2015, he was the founder, developer and CEO of Casa de la Musica Hostel and Event’s Hall, one of the largest multifunctional private tourism & hospitality businesses in Budapest downtown. He holds a BSc degree in Tourism and Hospitality from the Budapest business School, and graduated at MSc/Med plane as Teacher of Economics in Tourism and Hospitality. During his studies, he had spent short a term mobility period at Utwente University in the Netherlands, and later earned his Ph.D. in Regional Sciences at Szent Istvan University. At the moment, he is silent very vigorous as an entrepreneur and is actively involved in community development. He is too a board member of the Budapest Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and works as a mentor for the youthful Entrepreneurs Association Hungary. With regards to his academic career, he is a full time helper professor at the Institute of Marketing and Media at the Tourism Department of Corvinus University of Budapest.
By Leora Lanz and Namrata Sridhar
In the Winter 2018 edition of the Boston Hospitality Review, they brought forth suggestions for the 10 Best Practices for Organic Visibility —ways to ameliorate search results through organic search, or Do not cost the company a monetary investment. Rather, these rankings were based on elements such as keywords, location, and mobile friendliness. Suggestions for improving a company’s organic search include utilization of backlinks, hyperlinks between websites, and content enhancement in relation to local listings such as ensuring quick website load speed, elevated quality imagery, and conspicuous links to gregarious media channels.
This second installation of a two-part string will talk to the matter of search engine functionalities as a result of paid queries. For independent or smaller companies, this brief but powerful set of tips obtained from industry experts can enable a business to become more “searchable” for optimal revert on investment.Search Engine Marketing (SEM) Best Practices: 1. Understand the Paid Media Landscape:
According to the Associate Director for Organic Search and Content Strategy at Boston-based Connelly Partners, Dan Hurley, the most needful partake of SEM is to comprehend the paid media landscape. It is faultfinding to know who one’s competitors truly are and understand how they are marketing, from a tactical standpoint.1 It is too needful to research the types of ad drive structures that are surfacing in the category of interest, on both desktop and mobile devices. Then one must adopt those that issue efficacious and felicitous business goals appropriately. For restaurants and hotel-related queries, “this strategy is especially pertinent because these searches generally transmute very quickly; mobile searchers will likely patronize a restaurant within a few hours.”
In order to exist the most efficient with a company’s paid advertisements, Todd Philie, president of Southcoast Marketing Group in Wareham, MA, too encourages companies to learn how consumers are searching for them on the Internet. For example, “utilize the query search utensil via the Google AdWords™ platform to learn what terms and phrases are used to achieve your own site and then display your ads.”
Additionally, Kym Parker, associate search marketing director at Connelly Partners, emphasizes the importance of using the company’s brand to ensure a strong search presence. By utilizing paid search bids, a hotel or restaurant can exist the first result a web surfer sees when conducting a search.2
“Sometimes, competitors will bid on your brand terms – which means that if someone searches for your company name, for example, the competitor could expose up ahead of you in the search results,” Parker notes. “You can avert this by ‘protecting’ your brand terms. Always exist bidding on them, at least a petite bit, to ensure that you occupy a better haphazard of staying on top of the results when someone searches your title and other brand terms.”2: exercise of Google AdWords™:
The major player in the world wide web is Google, which has created various platforms to optimize searching. Using keywords, Google users can pay to promote their advertisements for a set budget. This Google functionality allows a company (hotel or restaurant) to understand how it ranks in comparison to direct competitors.
Also keep ‘negative keywords’ in mind, adds Philie. “Negative terms generally means terms that you are not specifically telling AdWords™ that you Do not want to issue in specific results for other searches. For example, suppose you are marketing a seafood restaurant that does not offer steak on its menu. You want to bid on the phrase ‘best restaurant in Boston’ but you Do not want to fritter money on clicks from customers who want steak. You might set ‘steak’ and ‘steakhouse’ as negative terms so that if someone searched ‘best steak restaurants in Boston” you Do not expose up in that search.
The Google AdWords™ functionality too offers companies the haphazard to enhance the listing. An incredibly important, yet often overlooked, input is the “click to call” functionality and its presence on a mobile site, too known as the call extension. “These additional factual details, known as “ad extensions” too include location, information from different pages on your website, and even testimonial reviews,” adds Seth Cargiuolo, director of communication strategy at Chestnut Hill, MA-based D50 Media. “Making exercise of ad extensions is essential because it helps the customer learn more about the business with a quick glance pre-click, and can assist differentiate a hotel or restaurant (or any product) against its competitors.” Ad extensions too extend the visual footprint of an ad, which can propel competitors’ ads and organic listings down the page and out of view, particularly on mobile devices.
For marketers just starting to utilize SEM and Search Engine Optimization (SEO), Google AdWords™ too offers free tutorials and trainings. Zachary Azar, D50 Media’s senior manager of paid search notes, “These tutorials provide clients with the occasion to score the most out of the program and create efficacious campaigns.”
To properly manage an efficacious AdWords campaign, Google Analytics can exist a helpful utensil as it reveals which content on a website is most useful and incandescent to customers. This will assist in the creation of resonating ad copy and can too exist a sheperd for aligning keyword selection and website copy to extend the “Quality Score” of an ad campaign.
However, Philie too cautions individuals not to exist completely reliant on Google’s suggestions for keywords. “Often times, these keywords are pluralized and can occasions companies to disburse more or not exist as effective.” He warns companies to pick how to allot their key words “out there” when bidding. Companies must pick best matched keywords for their ads and pick between “exact match,” “phrase match,” “broad search” and “modified broad search” – every solitary of which will yield varied returns. Campaigns should utilize a equilibrium of every solitary match types, but should “skew more heavily towards exact and phrase, utilizing broad match only for keyword prospecting and expansion opportunities.”3. Always Start with Non-Paid Efforts or SEO
When optimizing a company’s searches, Cargiuolo and Azar insinuate the first thing that the company should focus on is actually the SEO. First and foremost, it is needful to ensure that a website is user- and mobile-friendly. Another needful factor is a quick load speed. “Google has create that sites that assume longer than three seconds to load lose 40% of their traffic, and for mobile traffic, that jumps to 53%,” reports Azar. This is needful for paid search as well; Cargiuolo adds, “It’d exist foul enough for a user to abandon your page when it’s an organic search – but now imagine if you’d paid for that click and those dollars were totally wasted.”
In order to reduce the load speed, it is needful to not occupy “big” images—think kilobytes, not megabytes. Web copy should exist concise and “bandwidth-hogging” scripts and plugins minimized. “Additionally, given that over half of web traffic is on mobile devices, ensure that pdfs (which you want to avoid anyway) recognize acceptable on a smart phone too,” Cargiuolo says.
Kristin Metzler, Print and Web Marketing Coordinator of Frasca Design Group, too echoes that mastery of SEO is the first step in a successful digital marketing campaign. Websites built with a strong attention to keywords and content will minimize spending on pay-per-click campaigns.4. Don’t disburse on Paid Search if You Can’t Afford It
Hurley cautions that one exigency not disburse money on advertising to score traffic. Because so much information is provided in the search results, there may not exist any clicks on your page during the search process. Companies should never allot any money into paid search, display advertising or paid gregarious that the company cannot afford to lose.3
Cargiuolo emphasizes that when a company starts advertising, it should not await an immediate return,4 which is oftentimes an assumption that businesses make. Initially, many may not exist familiar with the bidding process; keywords; or how to build, optimize, and manage an efficacious campaign. exist cautious not to disburse money needed for other resources. Start tedious and disburse time learning before committing titanic budgets.
One final word of caution: There are easily incurred expenses that can further from paid search marketing, such as additional costs from agencies that assume a portion of a monthly budget. Being conscious of your daily budget is faultfinding in avoiding overspending.
When taking the steps to build a search campaign, it is faultfinding to Do research and Move slowly at the beginning. Understand how the market is reflected in consumer searches and what keywords are being utilized. Before jumping into methods that require payment, a company should ensure that its website is optimized for searches and never disburse more than what can exist budgeted, as it will assume time to notice a revert on investment.
As Cargiuolo reminds, businesses must recollect that Google serves the user first. Thus as the marketer, one must contemplate as a user would when edifice a paid search campaign. People further to Google with questions. The marketer that best answers the user’s questions, both pre-click and post-click, is going to exist one that is most successful.
PDF Version Available Here1 Inc. Staff. “How to Conduct Competitive Research.” Inc. Magazine. May 2010 2 Ratcliff, Christopher. “What is PPC and Why Do You exigency it?” Econsultancy. 13 November 2013. 3 Kumar, A.J. “SEO vs PPC: Knowing Which is Better for Your Website.” Entrepreneur. Editorial. 21 May 2012 4 Steimle, Josh. “How Long Does SEO assume to Start Working?” Editorial. Forbes. 7 February 2015. Namrata Sridhar is a marketing communications coordinator at LHL Communications and a rising senior at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (BU SHA). She has too previously worked in marketing communications capacities at RealFood Consulting where she helped design an internal marketing purpose to rebrand their company. Namrata too serves as the President of the Student Government of BU SHA. She is an vigorous member of the National Society of Minorities in Hospitality, the American Hotel and Lodging Association, and the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association International. Leora Halpern Lanz, ISHC, is principal of LHL Communications, a hospitality-focused marketing communications, branding, and media relations advisory. She is too a full time faculty member at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (SHA), teaching advanced strategic marketing and digital marketing for hospitality at the undergraduate and graduate levels. She was named among the Top 25 Minds in Hotel Marketing for 2016 by the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International and was named 2017 Professor of the Year by the student government of SHA.
By Sarah AndersenAfter completing the senior capstone Hospitality Leadership course at Boston University, I had the haphazard to reflect on the class topics and apply the teachings to my personal life. The course explored several different levels of leadership, from the head of a major corporation role to developing self-leadership. I scholarly the importance of a mission, vision, and values in an organization, better understood the components of change management, and worked with a group throughout the semester to develop my teamwork skills. I was able to critically dissect concepts and models presented in leadership literature as well as ameliorate my own leadership skills. I then interviewed three prominent leaders in hospitality and create connections between their industry insights and my leadership class discussions. Dan Donahue, President of Saunders Hotel Group, Len Wolman, Chairman and CEO of Waterford Hotel Group, and Geoff Ballotti, President and CEO of Wyndham Hotel Group kindly shared their experiences and explained their personal values and company’s culture, revealing the five keys to successful leadership.
“Leadership is the capacity totranslate vision into reality.”
-Warren G. BennisEstablishing Shared Beliefs, Values, and Goals
When an organization wants to achieve its goals, it needs a vision. Effective leadership starts with the skill to recognize and profile those goals and inspire others to follow. Leaders paint a picture of how that vision will strike the company as a whole, as well as each individual. A leader’s skill to articulate that vision into a mission statement corresponds to the vigorous implementation of goals and the company’s bottom line success. A productive vision goes beyond a written organizational mission statement, but instead permeates throughout every solitary levels of a company and manifests into actions and beliefs. John P. Kotter, author of business Leadership, writes, “A vision says something that helps clarify the direction in which an organization wants to Move [and] is relatively easy to communicate, appealing to customers, stockholders, and employees.”1 It is therefore up to hospitality leaders to set and clearly communicate a vision, and to inspire those around them to partake and implement it.
A vision does not belong only to a leader. It must exist a shared vision that attracts everyone to sustain elevated levels of motivation and withstand challenges. According to The Leadership Challenge, by James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, leaders can envision the future by imagining the possibilities and finding a common purpose.2 In addition, leaders must spark a sense of acceptation and purpose in those around them. Dan Donahue agrees that, “My job, as someone who has the vision, is to score you inspired and committed to sharing that vision and sharing that creativity to the point where you occupy buy-in.”
After seven years of rigorous research, a landmark study of the observations from more than 100 CEOs and over 8,000 employees create that “leaders who were limpid about their values delivered as much as five times greater returns for their organizations as did leaders of frail character.”3
So how Do illustrious CEOs and successful leaders in their industry shape the parameters for success through a shared vision for a future? How Do they empower and inspire those around them to gain decisions and work towards their goals?
Balancing Accountability and Autonomy
When asked what his core values were, Len Wolman responded, “First and foremost, their organization has been built on integrity and transparency. They occupy four core values that they live by on a daily basis which are to (1) to wow the customer, (2) to continuously improve, (3) to exist a passionate and committed team, and (4) to partake and sustain their bottom line success.”
Dan Donahue, established that, “Our values are simple. Their values are people. They allow them the flexibility and latitude to Do their jobs under the sheperd of taking care of the guest, but too taking care of themselves as well.” To strengthen others, exemplary leaders extend people’s belief in their skill to gain a difference. They Move from being in control to giving over control. Developing associates into leaders and enhancing self-determination creates a culture of empowerment and confidence. Geoff Ballotti agrees that, “In terms of motivating others, it is letting them gain decisions. It’s not micromanaging, but rather letting them further up with the solutions.”
Geoff Ballotti continues, “Our core value statement is three words, ‘Count On Me,’ which is every solitary about accountability. It is about people being able to exist counted on at any time, for any issue, any question, any decision, and any advocate that their owners, franchisees, and associates need. It is built on the principal of integrity in terms of taking personal responsibility for your actions.” Accountability is needful because it results in an extremely efficient and productive team. According to the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, accountability in the workplace is linked to higher performance and increases in commitment to work and employee morale.4
Dan Donahue, states, “A vision has to exist fluid. To score to an achievable goal and vision, whether short term or long term, you exigency to exist present, you exigency to understand that if you want it to exist successful you exigency to exist there, you exigency to exist accountable to it, and you exigency to exist accountable to the people that want to partake that.” When accountability becomes embedded into culture, company’s are able to set meaningful goals, develop team buy-in, build trust through advocate and encouragement, and celebrate successes together. Accountability is about creating a culture where people value responsibility. When associates understand that accountability involves a sure degree of autonomy, mutual respect develops between every solitary levels of an organization.
Mr. Ballotti adds, “The third leg of their values is every solitary about respect. Respecting everyone everywhere both on their ownership side and the community side.” When leaders develop mutual respect, associates are more likely to work harder to accomplish shared goals. Harvard business Review examined employee needs and determined through a query of more than 19,000 workers that most employees wish renewal, value, focus and purpose.5 ardor a sense of value and respect can instill an employee with aplomb and motivation. Len Wolman adds that, “I’ve been in the industry for many years, I was educated in the industry and then worked my course up through the industry, so I’m fortunate in that I occupy the perspective of having worked in various positions. So I occupy empathy, understanding, and respect for each position. Everyone needs to exist treated with mutual respect and understanding.”
Modeling by Example
An needful partake of being an efficacious leader is educating others on what the organization stands for and why it matters. When leaders sincerely express a commitment to their core values, they’re too making a commitment on behalf of the entire organization. Therefore, leaders must gain sure there is collective agreement on the shared values amongst everyone they lead.So how Do leaders become a role model for what the organization stands for?
The reply is pretty simple. They set the example for others to follow. Holding others accountable to values and standards means leaders must live the values themselves. Dan Donahue responds, “I would never await an employee to Do something I wouldn’t Do myself.” Len Wolman agrees adding, “You always want to set an example and never want to await anyone to Do anything that you wouldn’t Do yourself.” Researcher on behavioral integrity demonstrates that the alignment between a leader’s words and actions has a powerful impact on how much constituents trust the leader and on their subsequent performance levels.6 considerable leaders effectively translate purpose into reality by acting on the values they train and the things they bellow to those around them.Showing Vulnerability and Visibility
Confidence is an needful skill to possess as a leader. However, having vulnerability as a leader is just as essential to recognize and appreciate. Every leader has vulnerability, but great leaders have the self-awareness to recognize this fact and feel cozy expressing their weaknesses. Showing vulnerability is a relatable trait and Geoff Ballotti finds that, “The greatest leaders I know out there are very cozy talking about their weaknesses, about what it is that they exigency to work on, to ameliorate upon, and to Do better.” efficacious leaders invest the thinking, the time, the energy and are prepared for the vulnerability of connecting with others.So how Do these leaders rate trust, inspire, and build bonds with those they lead?
Great leaders inspire their associates and guests by genuinely connecting to them through a consistent presence and visibility. Visibility as a leader not only includes having a physical presence, but too aligning everyone to the purpose behind their shared vision through natural conversations and casual exchanges on a daily basis. When asked how he communicates company goals and the overall vision, Dan Donahue replied, “If you occupy a presence, it happens organically. It doesn’t exigency to exist contrived.” The purpose of this sincere visibility is not about the exigency to “check on employees,” but rather an honest wish to interact with associates in order to gauge motivation and learn if employees exigency advocate or help. Mr. Wolman agrees that, “It is faultfinding to operate with an open door policy and listen to everyone’s perspective and ideas, particularly the people who are executing the day to day functions, and I contemplate you’ve got to exist constantly evaluating that.”
Mr. Ballotti adds, “I too contemplate showing empathy is key and the best course considerable leaders Do that is through the expertise of storytelling when they’re up in front of their associate foundation or leadership team, being able to bid stories that connect and engage and inspire and motivate in terms of the culture your want to set and want to build.” Storytelling is a powerful course to partake knowledge, propel information at people or drag them into a company’s vision and mission by reinforcing the intent behind unquestionable leadership. According to Edgar Schein, Professor Emeritus at the MIT Sloan School of Management, “[Stories] too strengthen the framework and the importance of an organization’s culture by establishing norms and values.”7 sociable stories compel, persuade, and unify others around the leaders’ vision.Creativity Breads Adaptability
“Hospitality isn’t about a product on the shelf. Hospitality is about creating something that changes day to day, hour to hour, or minute by minute.” – Dan Donahue
IBM’s 2010 Global CEO Study, which surveyed more than 1,500 CEOs from 60 countries and 33 industries worldwide, concluded that creativity is the most needful leadership quality for success in business, outweighing competencies such as integrity and global thinking.8 Geoff Ballotti agrees that, “Creativity is critical, especially in the business that we’re in. We’re trying to redefine and reposition their brand from a creative standpoint in terms of experience.” What defines one brand from another and what makes one brand more successful than another is the creativity that it delivers as well as the suffer it delivers to its guests. Understanding how to generate considerable ideas is a crucial leadership trait in hospitality’s innovation-driven industry. Successful leaders create an environment where associates can contribute their imagination and insight, which is faultfinding because most innovations draw upon the contributions of many.
Today’s business environment is unpredictable, changeable and increasingly complex. Therefore, the skill to create something that is both innovative and applicable is on the top of leader’s minds. Mr. Donahue states, “Nothing in their business can exist or should exist cookie cutter. It’s about curating an suffer for each person who spends to exist with you.” Len Wolman adds, “If you’re not creative and open to change in todays world with the disruptors that exist in their industry, particularly with technology, you will not exist successful. You exigency to exist creative in terms of staying ahead, staying current and relevant, and score managing the costs associated with change in a course that your organization can silent exist successful and profitable.”
In an industry of constant change, considerable hospitality leaders exigency to capitalize on the opportunities that are ripe for the present context and purpose for the likely future state. Change requires creating a fresh system, which demands efficacious leadership. It is crucial that leaders first concede how arduous it can exist to drive others outside of their solace zones and propel for change. When asked how he responds to change, Len Wolman replied, “A crucial component is feedback. They score daily feedback that is current and relevant, whether it exist Trip Advisor, direct contact with their guests, or direct contact with their associates. They exigency to listen to it, they exigency to respond to it, and they exigency to adjust to the things that people are looking for whether it exist the consumer or the work environment.” Those who create fresh initiatives, programing, design, and brand essence are the ones who succeed. By supporting creativity and commanding change, leaders can extend workplace satisfaction and build driven teams that craft original, valuable ideas.Figure 1: Interview Questions
It has been made limpid through the interview process of these three prominent industry leaders that establishing shared values, balancing accountability with autonomy, modeling by example, showing vulnerability through visibility, and having a creative mindset that is open to change are every solitary essential factors to being a successful leader. The common theme amongst every solitary these traits and elements to successful leadership, however, is each leader’s dependence and trust for their associates. At one point during the interview, Mr. Ballotti pointed out that, “Great leaders are those who encircle themselves with considerable people…who are brighter, and smarter, and more diverse in thought than they are. And who are able to build a team that knows how to advocate and trust each other.” It is limpid that efficacious leadership boils down to a leaders skill to unlock the full potential in those around them. Len Wolman adds that it “We assume care of their associates so that they assume care of their guests, which keeps the guests coming back and is the intuition they are in business.“ Dan Donahue too notes, “You occupy to realize each individual employee’s needs. gain a connection with your employees every solitary day.” every solitary sociable leaders were once followers themselves and occupy scholarly to establish and foster trust over time. A legal leader passes laud and shares the blame, lifting up those around them.9 Without followers, considerable leaders cannot lead.
PDF Version Available HereSarah R. Andersen is a senior at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration. Her areas of interest include integrated marketing communications and true estate development. Beyond her studies in hospitality, she is a member of the BU Women’s Lacrosse team. She plans to continue her studies at Boston University after graduating with her bachelor’s degree by enrolling in the School of Hospitality’s Master of Management in Hospitality program. References
By Juan Lesmes and Leora Lanz
It wasn’t that long ago when digital marketing surfaced as needful exercise for the hospitality industry. As time moved forward, hotel marketing departments established roles to manage the digital positioning and visibility of the property. Thus, they witnessed hospitality brands which were ‘present’ on gregarious media outlets, adopting paid search as a permanent component of their marketing coalesce and abiding by well-known website best practices. They mention to this period as side I of the Hospitality Digital Marketing Revolution.
Phase II quickly blossomed, and hotels realized that the competition to penetrate the digital space was strong and arduous. Brands started focusing on and investing in the internet user-experience (UX), negotiating partnerships with online travel agencies (OTAs), understanding the landscape of search engine result pages (SERPs), separating high-value budgets exclusively for search engine marketing (SEM), and delving into the intricacies of search engine optimization (SEO) for their own websites. gregarious media served as a competitive advantage and quickly escalated as paramount for marketing, branding, reputation management, and organic visibility. Paid search, via Google AdWords platform, is not to exist confused with the organic approaches detailed here.
As they delve into 2018, side III emerges clearly. OTAs dominate and in some instances consume Google searches with first page results. Consequently, hotels are realizing that digital marketing efforts should exist shifted from a haphazard online presence to one that is strategic – one that capitalizes on each micro-moment of the guest travel planning journey (most of which, if not all, occurs on the web). As gregarious media forces Instagram and Facebook solidify their roles as prominent search engines, paid ‘posts’ within users’ ‘feeds’ continue to convey the power of personalized sponsored content.
With a myriad of stakeholders now involved in the simple act of searching for hotel rooms, is it a battle worth fighting? The reply is absolutely. But before addressing the how, it is crucial to identify and differentiate the digital marketing scope of branded and non-branded hotels. Branded hotels, especially those flagged with hospitality powerhouses, benefit from a more powerful domain authority coming from the parent chain, making it easier for them to rank higher on the SERPs. assume Marriott.com/hotel vs. hotelname.com for example. Domain authority is the overall power of the domain title considering traffic size, popularity, and number of links to the site (backlinks). It is too a top ranking factor for Google.
Branded hotels too watch to occupy significant budgets to disburse on Pay-Per-Click (PPC) and paid search, ensuring top first page visibility for valuable destination and branded queries. In addition, branded hotels occupy wider access to digital partnerships, including listings, local directories, event sponsorships, travel influencers, and online features – every solitary of which provide authoritative backlinks to the hotel’s site, further contributing to its domain authority.
Because independent and small-scale hotels rarely benefit from domain authority, maintaining and monitoring digital marketing best practices to boost Google rankings should exist a requirement, not merely a recommendation. Digital marketing practices command their own dedicated efforts. Yet online marketing should exist well-equipped with its own strategy and utilize expertise in the nuances and intricacies of hotels, restaurants, leisure activities, and attractions – overall, hospitality.
The question then becomes, how can hotels strive for visibility in this Wild West of a digital landscape, particularly if they are competing against each other, the OTAs, and a powerful sharing economy?1. Execute a Carefully Crafted Keyword Strategy
Optimizing for search queries, too known as keywords, is perhaps the core of any digital marketing tactic aiming to build visibility – both organic and paid. Identifying those keywords with the highest search volume, such as ‘Miami hotels,’ is the intuitive process. Presence on Google’s first page for elevated search-volume keywords requires a robust SEM budget, an ongoing and long-term SEO strategy, or both. This puts independent and small-scale properties, which often Do not occupy the necessary budget and fundamental team, at a notable disadvantage.
However, niche keywords present a different scenario. These queries are typically ’long-tail’ acceptation they accommodate more than four words. Though niche keywords Do not occupy the highest search popularities, it is much easier to actually capture their search volume, which then results in higher click-through rates (CTR). Hotels can leverage niche keywords by identifying their unique amenities and value propositions, and turning them into valuable keywords. For example, ‘Miami hotels with a rooftop bar,’ ‘Miami hotels with free breakfast’ and ‘Miami hotels with nightclubs’ are terms to utilize as they leverage a more specific travel purpose that easily turns into conversions (booked business). It is crucial to contemplate as the customer would.
Some independent hotels, because of the virtue of their uniqueness and often niche-market, can occupy the upper hand in this situation. A property which positions itself as a apply for health and well-being could therefore pursue niche terms such as ‘wellness resorts’ and ‘fitness getaways.’ The key is to identify the brand’s top performing unique selling propositions (USPs) and translate them into humanized search queries, every solitary while keeping the guests’ travel planning journeys in mind.
Finding a balanced coalesce of both high-search volume terms and niche queries secures strategic keywords. Nevertheless, actually optimizing for them by ensuring they are naturally or comfortably present throughout the website’s titles, content, metadata and bidding efforts too assist secure a carefully crafted keyword strategy.2. Optimize for Local Search
Our termed “Phase II” too allot the spotlight on search engine business directories such as Google My business and Bing Places for Business. In side III, hotel listings on these directories is no longer a recommendation, it is a necessity. Optimizing for local search entails driving the visibility of a property’s business listing via a two-part process:
3. Attain and Maintain a Star Rating on Google
One of the key components of local search results is the Star Rating associated with a business listing. In fact, star reviews on SERPs are an efficacious course for hotels to extend digital visibility by standing out from the competition. Star ratings assist extend the site’s CTR and provide an influential benchmark for online reputation management (ORM). Once an exclusive ascribe for paid results, star ratings now too issue on organic results through Google’s ‘Rich Snippets.’ These snippets are a contour of structured data which Google extracts from multiple websites and presents it as a ‘preview’ in search results, too known as Google’s erudition Graph.
Therefore, obtaining and retaining star ratings involves safeguarding reviews on trusted and authoritative review sites. Google then aggregates this rating data and displays an medium star rating. Hotels (restaurants, attractions, etc.) should inspirit satisfied guests to submit reviews to their booking channel (i.e. Expedia) because they are by default ‘trusted’ sites. However, they should too inspirit reviews for their own Google My business listing in an attempt to extend the hotel’s chances of being featured on local search results.
It is needful to clarify that there is a technical component to obtaining a Google star rating. Codes allot onto the website to assist search engines revert more informative results to users. Hotels exigency to ensure that their web developers too include star rating information within the markup code.4. Enhance Content on Local Listings
A hotel’s content for its local listings should exist strategically optimized. Whether it is in Foursquare, CitySearch, or any other listing, valuable keywords should exist incorporated throughout the copy – including local search ‘near’ queries such as ‘hotel in Miami near Brickell’. If the brand image is prankish and tongue-in-cheek, the content on local listings should too reflect that. Some listings even allow for a featured message. Rather than a generic ‘Welcome!’ hotels can exercise this space to promote current offers or highlight special amenities (complimentary champagne, sunset yoga, free breakfast).
Other content elements such as images should exist of the highest quality, showcasing provocative yet realistic visuals of the property’s exterior, interior, and overall ambiance. Links to every solitary the property’s gregarious media channels should exist present in the listings, which allows the user to access other hotel assets including brand personality and online reputation.5. Optimize for Voice Search
With increasing utilization of smart personal assistants such as Alexa and Google Home, voice search is a prime topic of conversion within the digital marketing realm. In order to exist visible in results derived from these devices, hotels exigency to ensure they are optimizing their site and keyword strategy for voice search too. Since users are more likely to exercise longer natural queries via voice, employing niche, long-tail keywords is an efficacious course to optimize for this trend.
Long-tail keywords are fruitless without the material content on a hotel or restaurant’s website. Hotels exigency to occupy specific landing pages that parallel the niche keywords. If a hotel seeks ‘Hotels in Miami with rooftop pools’—a keyword likely used by the voice search user—it must issue in the material landing page.
Incorporating questions and answers within the site, perhaps via the ever-popular Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) page, is another efficacious course to accommodate voice search. With this strategy, hotels can provide answers not only about the property itself, but too about their destination and local attractions as a result of quick detection by voice-activated devices.
It is needful to note that recently, numerous hotel properties and companies occupy been contacted by law firms representing travel consumers with disabilities. These law firms report that websites are not abiding by accessibility guidelines in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). If a guest is unable to exercise a hotel website to find information or gain a reservation, hotels can in fact exist fined. Today hotel websites must enable these assistive technologies to allow travel consumers with disabilities to score the information they exigency and complete any necessary transactions.6. Adopt a ‘Mobile First’ Mantra
Much has been said about Google’s ‘mobile first’ index. This means Google will start to rank its search results based on the mobile version of the content, even in desktop search listings. If one thing is certain, websites exigency to exist optimized to exist mobile-friendly (responsive). Hotels exigency to ensure they launch a fully-responsive website that serves users of any device the very consistent content. The more ‘mobile-friendly’ a site’s user suffer is, including factors such as typography, navigation map, and website design, the higher the site will rank on Google’s search.7. Leverage Google Hotel Ads
Google Hotel cost Ads (HPA) showcases a hotel’s real-time (dynamic) rates on Google search across every solitary devices. Users will notice the hotel’s ad when they are actively looking to engage a margin in the area. However, the hotel only pays when the ad generates a click or a booking.
Google has recently introduced a unique call-to-action (CTA) button for booking hotels in its search results. A keyword can trigger a ‘BOOK A ROOM’ button to appear. Clicking this will activate a sub-menu to browse every solitary enlisted HPAs for the hotel, which includes booking direct and via OTAs.
This feature, which too appears in Mobile and Maps, demonstrates Google’s determination to grow its cost Ads service. The increased exposure provides more incentive for hotels to capitalize on this contour of pay-per-click in order to promote direct bookings.8. extend Backlinks, Actively
A backlink is as simple as a hyperlink to a website from another website. Yet, it carries a lot of weight when it comes to a hotel’s organic digital visibility. Each backlink tells the search engine that a hotel website has a ‘vote’ from another entity, which in revert builds credibility and domain authority. Branded hotels occupy the upper hand here since the company usually has a corporate parent site that a plethora of other websites will link to (such as Marriott.com or IHG.com).
There are technicalities to backlinks, including the quality of the backlink determined by elements such as anchor text and link context. These technical factors play a role in the algorithm the search engine uses to determine the value of a backlink. In theory, the more quality backlinks a hotel website has, the more chances to rank higher on search engines.
Actively pursuing material backlinks should exist imperative for hotels to obtain first page ‘real-estate’. Obtaining links from local directories, current hotel vendors, editorial publications, and .EDU and .GOV sites should exist the gateway for enhancing the site’s link equity. However, to continuously grow the number of backlinks, hotels exigency to exist generating quality, shareable content that interlinks with gregarious media initiatives.9. recollect Optimal gregarious Media = (Quality + Authenticity) x Engagement
Much has been contemplated about what comprises a successful gregarious media strategy. Although there is no ultimate recipe for the consummate gregarious media post, three factors that boost performance are quality, authenticity, and engagement. Optimal gregarious Media = (Quality + Authenticity) x Engagement. Each piece of content maximizes visibility, both organic and paid. When posts are unquestionable and of elevated quality, users are more likely to relate and validate them. When posts are authentic, of elevated quality, and facilitate some sort of user engagement, the content becomes shareable.
When content generates more likes, followers, and overall visibility it establishes an influential ranking factor. Therefore, search engines watch to rank higher those brands that occupy a robust organic gregarious media foundation (not paid or ‘spammy’ followers). This is why it is needful for hotels to intertwine their gregarious media strategy with their SEO efforts by creating quality, authentic, and engaging content that increases overall digital exposure.10. deem the Technicalities of SEO
Technical SEO is a science of its own and deserves its own team of specialists, budget, and time. Technical SEO means optimizing a website so search engines can successfully crawl and index its content. It lays a powerful foundation to give a hotel’s website the best haphazard it can to rank higher for material keywords. Technical factors include site speed, removing unnecessary tags, cleansing duplicate metadata, adding tags to images, and implementing proper redirects to maximize the site’s link equity. Whether there is a one-man team or a staff of professionals continually optimizing the website, there are tools to assist provide the technical support.
Hotels, restaurants, museums, attractions, and leisure activities every solitary exigency to assertively compete online to grab the attention of potential guests. Those who watch to the organic visibility occupy a notable competitive. This and integrated paid search campaigns that mutually advocate organic search strategies will assist secure first page visibility. Overall, while the exigency to upkeep search engines’ potent algorithms and ranking methodologies will always remain, an understanding of the process will assist smaller or independent hospitality businesses prick through the clutter in today’s complicated digital landscape.
PDF Version Available HereJuan Lesmes is a digital marketing strategist specializing in SEO at HEBS Digital the leading hospitality technology, full-service digital marketing and website design firm. A 2017 graduate of Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (SHA), Juan’s previous suffer includes work at hospitality marketing advisory LHL Communications, The Ritz London, and Lets score Weddy in London. Since his time at SHA, Juan has been recognized as a thought leader in hospitality marketing, with vigorous contributions to the Boston Hospitality Review, HotelOnline and HospitalityNet. Leora Halpern Lanz, ISHC, is principal of LHL Communications, a hospitality-focused marketing communications, branding, and media relations advisory. She is too full time faculty at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (SHA), teaching advanced strategic marketing and digital marketing for hospitality at the undergraduate and graduate levels. She was named among the Top 25 Minds in Hotel Marketing for 2016 by the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International and was named 2017 Professor of the Year by the student government of SHA.
By Nick Cohen
The year is 2001, and the world is silent recovering from the tragedy of September 11th. The travel industry is in a downward spiral as fears of flying and terrorism ripple across the United States and beyond, and hotels occupy lost significant occupancy due to a diminish in demand.
Simultaneously, a fledgling technology is emerging which will eventually assume advantage of the internet explosion, as well as hotel management’s desperation to fill rooms. It will reshape their industry forever, and this platform now commonly referred to as Online Travel Agencies, or OTAs, will allow hotels to easily sell their rooms on the internet through fresh consumer facing websites such as Expedia, Travelocity and Orbitz.
Fast forward to 2017. The OTA’s occupy gained the majority of market partake for online reservations, and digital platforms like Booking.com and Ctrip.com occupy loyal member volumes that far surpass brand websites. In many cases, the OTA companies are valued well beyond traditional hotel brands (as of May 2017, Priceline Group has a market capitalization of nearly USD 92 Billion). They occupy too helped to create a fresh concept as they grew in popularity and scale over the last number of years, and it was the precedent of transparency. Pricing that was once hidden to the everyday user, could now exist exposed to the total world, publicly, with a few clicks online. As OTA channels grew enormously with time, so did the access to true time rates and availability for virtually every hotel around the world.
With this concept in mind, from the OTA’s they occupy seen the rapid expansion of ‘meta search’ channels. These are one-stop cost comparison platforms where a customer can view a cost for a solitary hotel margin across multiple websites (without having to browse those websites one-by-one). Sites within this category include Kayak, Trivago, TripAdvisor, Qunar and Google, and they are every solitary working to simplify the travel research process for consumers.
With the OTA channels continuing to grow through massive marketing efforts and superior technology, and with meta search sites following their lead, a relatively fresh challenge has emerged for hoteliers. It represents a very intricate dynamic between one of the most traditional ways to sell a hotel room, and one of the most modern ways to sell a hotel room. This once again every solitary comes back to the concept of cost transparency. Wholesale has been a core business driver in hotels for many years, helping properties build foundation business through private negotiated rates and partnerships. Historically, these wholesalers would sell their inventory offline to their own private networks of contacts. Even though the pricing would typically exist lower than publicly available RACK rates, it was a reliable foundation of occupancy for hotels to build off of.
As technology has become more sophisticated with Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) readily available, they occupy seen the rapid growth of wholesale rates being sold publicly, online, through some of the powerful meta search channels mentioned above. This means that wholesalers are selling discounted rates, which directly undercut brand websites and OTAs, to anyone who has access to the internet. Beyond just meta search, some OTA websites are now even positioning themselves as ‘online marketplaces,’ where they too will sell wholesale inventory directly instead of the inventory provided by the hotels. To remain competitive and extend market share, online channels want to sell the lowest cost possible, even if it means reducing their own margins by selling a cheaper margin to the customer.
You would contemplate that hoteliers would want to fix this problem immediately. Online wholesale business undercuts channels which are much more profitable such as their direct brand website. This issue however is multi-layered and is not easy to remedy for the following key reasons:Hotels silent want wholesale business!
Hotels silent maintain strong relationships with a number of wholesale partners, titanic and small, and they depend on these partnerships to generate foundation business. Turning off these channels would potentially signify the loss of significant revenues, at least in the short term. Although wholesale channels can undercut other websites when sold online, they too silent generate incremental business when sold offline through the traditional methodFinding the source of total business online can exist very difficult
When wholesale rates appears online, it’s generally very difficult to know which wholesaler specifically is providing that inventory. The wholesale partners themselves don’t generally sell rooms through their own websites, but sell their rates through wholesale aggregation channels such as Amoma.com. It’s channels like Amoma who then sell the rates online through their own interface, and promote their rates through larger meta search intermediaries such as Trivago and TripAdvisor. Generally the only course to find the legal source is to gain a test booking online, and then track how that reservation comes into the hotel’s central reservation system (each reservation is typically flagged with an inventory source). Many hotels are reluctant to Do this since a booking requires exercise of a credit card and sometimes even pre-payment, and then cancellation of that test booking is not always easy to do. The test booking process is both cumbersome to manage at scale, and is too financially risky for a hotel if those booking cannot exist cancelled.Employee incentives are at stake
Within hotel sales departments, team members are silent incentivized to drive wholesale volume, regardless of where that volume is being sold (offline or online). Wholesale partners generally don’t provide specifics on how they are selling their inventory, and as long as margin allotments are sold, the accountable sales team members are satisfied. This is creating an unavoidable rift between the direction of some sales leaders with the revenue management and digital strategy teams.So what’s next?
Hotel companies are dealing with this situation in a variety of ways. Some are cutting off wholesale altogether since they simply can’t control where their inventory is ending up. Others are maintaining the partnerships, but are working to Move away from static margin allotments and over to dynamic pricing and availability where the hotels occupy more control over the inventory they route to the wholesalers. This is a major problem facing the industry that very much remains unsolved.
If they assume ourselves back to the 2001, cost transparency was a challenge for hoteliers. Properties simply didn’t occupy direct access to a large enough segment of customers, therefore traditional partnerships like wholesale was an absolute necessity. With the growth of the OTAs though, and the emergence of fresh technologies such as meta search, that access is no longer an issue. The world is accessible for each hotel with a few quick key strokes on a computer. It is now only a matter of time until hoteliers gain one of the following decisions:
PDF Version Available HereNick Cohen is based in Hong Kong and leads digital strategy for Hyatt Hotels in Asia Pacific. He oversees online marketing efforts for every solitary Hyatt brands and properties across the region, and manages a variety of e-Commerce and digital platform projects to assist extend online revenues for the company. Prior to joining Hyatt, Nick held senior e-Commerce and digital marketing roles at Langham Hospitality Group, Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Sabre Hospitality Solutions. Earlier in his career, working on-property for various hotels he developed extensive erudition in operations, along with Sales & Marketing and Revenue Management expertise. Nick too holds a graduate diploma in Hotel and Tourism business Management from Boston University. Sources:
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