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LOT-402 Administering IBM Connections 4.0

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LOT-402 exam Dumps Source : Administering IBM Connections 4.0

Test Code : LOT-402
Test cognomen : Administering IBM Connections 4.0
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 137 real Questions

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IBM Administering IBM Connections 4.0

CEOs meet with President Trump on the White apartment | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The White condo hosted members of the newly fashioned “American body of workers coverage advisory board” for its first assembly on Wednesday afternoon.

The board incorporates 25 executives, situation and local officials and representatives from quite a few universities. The CEOs of Apple, Siemens usa, IBM, Visa, home Depot, Lockheed Martin and Walmart are probably the most high profile enterprise leaders on the panel. (notwithstanding a Walmart spokesperson instructed Yahoo Finance CEO Doug McMillon became unable to attend the meeting.)

Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross and Ivanka Trump, the president’s daughter and guide, lead the advisory board. The White apartment says the board’s mission is to “revamp the American team of workers to greater meet the challenges of the twenty first century.”

regardless of the low unemployment cost – 4.0% in January – there are 7.3 million unfilled jobs in the U.S., in keeping with the latest records from the Bureau of Labor records, as many organizations struggle to find qualified worker's.

The administration says it desires to enrich entry to jobs practising to deliver people off the sidelines and into the personnel.

“We exigency to own the organizations grow and the best approach they’re going to grow is if they provide them the workers and the handiest mode we’re going to own the workers is to upshot exactly what we’re doing,” spoke of President Trump, sitting next to Apple CEO Tim cook.

The Trump administration is set to unencumber its budget inspiration next week. closing yr, the president proposed a 21% finances reduce for the offshoot of Labor and referred to as on the secretaries of labor and schooling to "consolidate and reorganize" federal workforce structure classes.

in keeping with the White apartment, the board’s dreams are to:

  • improve a crusade to promote numerous pathways to profession success

  • statistics transparency to stronger in shape American laborers with American jobs

  • Modernize candidate recruitment and working towards practices

  • Measure and motivate organisation-led training funding

  • Ivanka Trump daughter of the united states President, addresses at a gathering sum through the Munich safety convention in Munich, Germany, Saturday, Feb. sixteen, 2019. (AP picture/Kerstin Joensson)

    greater

    The panel met to talk about the dreams and ideas on the passage to obtain them, before assembly with President Trump.

    “I suppose we’re at deep haphazard of having a very divisive ‘have and own not’ age out here that’s now not inclusive and if we’re going to create this era of each financial boom and technology prosperity inclusive -- they should upshot some thing so that the numerous, now not the few congregate to participate in this world,” spoke of IBM CEO Ginni Rometty in the meeting.

    The national affiliation of manufacturers says the exigency of ability to entice and retain a quality personnel continues to exist manufacturers’ top company concern.

    “manufacturers are in pressing exigency of more workers. by means of 2028, they will exigency to fill 4.6 million jobs. manufacturers strongly lead the administration’s efforts to address the personnel crisis, and the American staff coverage Advisory Board is a consummate complement to the drudgery already underway at the Manufacturing Institute, the NAM’s group of workers and schooling companion, to inspire and instruct a new era of producing workers,” notable national affiliation of producers CEO Jay Timmons.

    The CEOs wired the exigency for qualifed employees with obvious abilities, now not always laborers with typical degrees.

    “Our enterprise turned into centered by passage of a school drop out, so we’ve always had a view that it turned into capabilities that mattered. definitely, pretty much 50% of the people they employed remaining 12 months within the united states will not own a four yr degree,” pointed out cook dinner within the meeting.

    Barbara Humpton, the Siemens u . s . a . CEO, highlighted the business’s pledge to expand U.S. training and working towards opportunities to attain greater than seventy five,000 worker's and students over the next five years.

    “Siemens currently invests greater than $50 million yearly in the continuing schooling of its U.S. workforce while additionally contributing hundreds of thousands extra to show, instruct and re-ability college students, academics, U.S. defense force veterans, Siemens personnel and its valued clientele. hundreds of hundreds of people across sum 50 states odds from Siemens’ endured investment in its U.S. operations and its dedication to training, retraining and upskilling employees across the country,” mentioned Humpton in an announcement ahead of the assembly.

    Story continues


    IBM and Nvidia group Up on New Chips For AI and computing device studying | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    An palms race over simulated intelligence and computing device getting to know amongst chip makers persisted to heat up on Tuesday, with IBM announcing its newest microprocessor geared toward the fast-growing market niche.

    among the many highlights of IBM’s new Power9 line up of chips for servers are quicker connections intended to back the processors drudgery closely with photographs processing chips from Nvidia. IBM is together with the 2nd era of Nvidia’s proprietary NVLink expertise and a connection referred to as PCI-express four.0. the expend of the NVLink technology results in a gadget that's virtually 10 instances quicker at moving data than an Intel-based device, IBM claimed, although it supplied no third birthday party verify consequences to back the boast.

    “we can carry up the entire Library of Congress and elope it around the chip in under five seconds-giant bandwidth,” Bob Picciano, IBM senior vice president for cognitive methods, pointed out.

    IBM, Intel, superior Micro instruments, and different chipmakers are racing to present increasingly lickety-split chips that can crunch the gigantic sets of information used in AI and machine discovering comparable to photo and voice focus and credit card fraud prevention. Spending on AI-oriented microprocessors in servers will jump from $500 million closing year to $10 billion in 2020, analysts at Bernstein research own estimated. Competing with IBM and Nvidia, AMD (amd) is pitching combinations of its newest Epyc server and Vega pics chips for AI tasks, whereas Intel (intc) wants to mingle its Xeon server chips with items from two groups it these days acquired, Altera and Nervana techniques.

    however most analysts disagree that Nvidia’s graphics chips are essentially the most commonplace among AI researchers, with attractive performance and a robust option of software. IBM says it has an unique recall freight of Nvidia to elope Nvidia’s NVLink technology. IBM (ibm) is additionally working with Google (googl) and on constructing a brand new supercomputer known as zenith together with Power9 chips and Nvidia (nvda) chips for the offshoot of power that could linger up as the world’s quickest.

    “That, in accordance with the national Laboratories, is going to exist the strongest supercomputer on the planet when it’s utterly assembled and accomplished next year,” IBM’s Picciano referred to.

    (replace: This chronicle changed into updated on Dec. 6 to rectify the capabilities of NVLink and PCI-categorical four.0)


    Probing IBM's Nazi connection | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    via Paul Festa team of workers author, CNET news.com June 28, 2001, four:00 a.m. PT

    due to the fact its ebook in February, Edwin Black's ebook "IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and america's strongest company" has stirred unprecedented controversy amongst college students of the Holocaust, American commercial enterprise and counsel technology.

    On the ebook's release, Holocaust survivors filed fade well with in opposition t IBM for its alleged role within the Holocaust; Gypsies earlier this month threatened their own lawsuit.

    although the primary swimsuit changed into withdrawn and the 2nd has yet to exist filed, a whole bunch of critics and historians own weighed in towards the enterprise, with others coming to its protection. The gain of the controversy can too exist gleaned from the pages of BusinessWeek by myself, which in a March overview excoriated the "illogical, overstated, padded, and sloppy" e-book for fostering "a new delusion--the computerized Holocaust," and in an April commentary spoke of the "enlightening" booklet "may quiet exist required reading for each first-yr MBA scholar."

    at the coronary heart of Black's argument is that information expertise--within the ilk of IBM's Hollerith punch-card machines--offered the Nazis with a different and demanding instrument in their assignment of cataloguing and dispatching their thousands and thousands of victims.

    as the book's title suggests, Black makes an attempt to set up that IBM didn't in simple terms vend its products to Hitler--as did many American corporations--however maintained a strategic alliance with the Third Reich by which it licensed, maintained and customized-designed its items to exist used in the machinery of the Holocaust.

    IBM has answered to questions on its relationship with the Nazis largely via characterizing the tips as historical news.

    "The fact that Hollerith device manufactured by passage of (IBM's German unit) Dehomag was used by passage of the Nazi administration has long been primary and is not new tips," IBM representative Carol Makovich wrote in an e-mail interview. "This tips was posted in 1997 in the IEEE Annals of the history of Computing and in 1998 in Washington Jewish Week."

    Watson and members of the ICC board meet with Hitler in 1937. IBM too keeps, in a February statement to which it refers most questions about the remember, that the Nazis took wield of its German unit before and during the battle, and that the company "doesn't own tons advice about this length or the operations of Dehomag." Black vehemently disputes each claims.

    IBM too defended Chairman Thomas Watson for his dealings with Hitler and his regime.

    "As chairman of a huge singular company and a robust supporter of singular exchange, he met and corresponded with senior government officials from many, many nations, Hitler and Germany among them, within the 1930s," Makovich wrote. "so far as they recognize, the character of the contacts between IBM executives and German executive officials sum over the Thirties own been akin to those with different government officers in other countries and in line with IBM practices within the quite a lot of countries during which the company did trade during that period."

    CNET news.com's Paul Festa discussed the issues with Black in a fresh interview.

    Q: What first bought you interested in this subject? A: after I first went to the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., I went with my fogeys, each of whom are Holocaust survivors. the first thing you observe within the Holocaust museum is IBM's Hollerith tabulator. And on the entrance of the Hollerith is a gigantic nameplate: IBM. For me these two phrases, IBM and Holocaust, didn't compute.

    i used to exist actually frozen for some time staring at the computing device, considering of IBM and searching back at the map of Europe. and then it got here to me. they now own investigated the militia intelligence, the diplomatic dispatches, the financial dealings, and the specific mechanisms of genocide, but no person has yet explored information know-how. indeed, unless the present age by which they locate ourselves, the computer Age, where they now own an knowing that guidance expertise can create the pivotal change in any crusade of peace or persecution--unless the computer Age, they could not even formulate the questions.

    How did you fade about gaining learning of IBM's role? We assembled a group of 100, including researchers, historians, translators, archivists, babies of Holocaust survivors, and World war II intelligence people. They labored in seven countries in some 50 archives and yielded 20,000 documents, which I organized and pass-listed. Then some 35 historians reviewed each line of my manuscript before ebook.

    IBM engineered a strategic  trade alliance...extending  perquisite through the war that endowed the Hitler regime with the technology and the tools it needed to expedite...all six phases of Hitler's war against the Jews. but I finally assembled this darkish bewilder that had eluded the 15 million individuals who own seen this laptop in the Holocaust museum. I eventually connected the dots. and people dots are that IBM engineered a strategic trade alliance and joint planning program with Nazi Germany from the very first jiffy in 1933 and extending throughout the warfare that endowed the Hitler regime with the expertise and the tools it essential to expedite and, in lots of ways, automate, sum six phases of Hitler's warfare in opposition t the Jews. these six phases are identification, expulsion, confiscation, ghettoization, deportation and finally even extermination.

    5 years in the past I began working on this seriously and two years in the past went 24/7 with the crew of 100. I spent those first years in the challenge checking out that almost nothing's been written on IBM's position within the Holocaust. indeed, lots of the documents and statistics I establish out look to exist boring, innocuous corporate details. it's handiest when juxtaposed with different facts from different nations and archives that these shards of glass arrive together to figure this heartbreaking photo window, exposing the tremendous vista of IBM's world relationship with Nazi Germany.

    IBM claims that its German subsidiary came beneath Nazi control both earlier than and perquisite through World struggle II. We're not simply speaking in regards to the German subsidiary. We're talking concerning the Swiss, the Swedish, the Italian, the Spanish, the Polish, the Romanian and Brazilian subsidiaries--more than 20 subsidiaries discovered across Europe and in other places. This became, in reality, a worldwide commitment by passage of IBM to lead the Hitler computing device because it conquered Europe and as it destroyed ethnic peoples: Gypsies, Jews and others.

    IBM would are looking to issue they lost control of their German subsidiaries. it's certainly false. Thomas Watson and the long island workplace micromanaged each aspect of their subsidiaries in Europe and particularly in Germany, their most profitable overseas operation. The gigantic apple office changed into privy to sum makes expend of for their machines in Germany and Nazi-occupied Europe from the jiffy Hitler got here to energy in 1933 until concerning the tumble of 1941, two years after World war II began.

    remember, IBM custom-designed the machines, customized-designed the purposes and custom-printed the punch playing cards. there were no routine punch playing cards or computing device wiring. classes to identify Jews, Jewish financial institution debts, barrels of oil, Luftwaffe flights, welfare funds, train schedules into camps, and even the concentration camp counsel--all these needed to exist tailored for each software.

    Even after america entered the battle, when the Nazis appointed the custodian, sum the fashioned IBM managers had been in region. The Reich simply locked the earnings for just a few years simply as any receiver could exist for any company in receivership. IBM accumulated the entire funds after the warfare.

    Do you own got examples following the start of World battle II in 1939? analyze some data. In September 1939, Germany invades Poland. it exist a bloody, heinous invasion. The rape of Poland was frequent in sum places. The starvation and brutalization of the Polish americans become page 1 word far and wide, together with The gigantic apple times. warfare had been predicted for years. It turned into no shock.

    On September 13, 1939, The gigantic apple times stories on web page 1 that 3 million Jews are going to exist "immediately eliminated" from Poland, and they loom to exist candidates for "physical extermination." On September 9, the German managers of IBM Berlin ship a note to Thomas Watson with replica to staff in Geneva via cellphone that, due to the "condition," they exigency high-velocity alphabetizing gadget. IBM wanted no paper path, so an oral settlement was made, passed from new york to Geneva to Berlin, and those alphabetizers had been accepted by using Watson, for my part, earlier than the linger of the month.

    That month he too authorized the opening of a brand new Europe-broad school for Hollerith technicians in Berlin. And at the equal time he approved a new German-primarily based subsidiary in occupied Poland, with a printing plant across the street from the Warsaw Ghetto at 6 Rymarska road. It produced some 15 million punch playing cards at that region, the essential customer of which changed into the railroad.

    we now own an analogous instance involving Romania in 1941, and The Sunday times has in reality positioned the IBM documents up on their net website. that you would exist able to congregate to the URL via EdwinBlack.com at both reports or Media. When Nazi Germany went into France, IBM constructed two new factories to provide the Nazi conflict computing device. this is the 1941-'forty two period, in Vichy, France, which changed into technically impartial. When Germany invaded Holland in may additionally 1940, IBM rushed a brand-new subsidiary into occupied Holland. And it even sent 132 million punch cards in 1941, primarily from manhattan, to lead the Nazi exercise there. Holland had the optimum cost of Jewish extermination in sum of Europe; seventy two percent of Jews were killed in Holland, in comparison to 24 % in France, the situation the machines didn't operate efficiently.

    What exactly did the Nazis exigency IBM's tackle for? When Hitler got here to energy in 1933, his desire to spoil European Jewry changed into so bold an business, it required the substances of a pc. but in 1933 no laptop existed. What did exist was the Hollerith punch-card system. It changed into invented by using a German-American in Buffalo, manhattan, for the Census Bureau. This punch-card tackle may store the entire tips about individuals, places, products, inventories, schedules, in the holes that own been punched or not punched in columns and rows.

    this is the identical technology they saw in Florida in the presidential election. The Hollerith device decreased every exiguous thing to quantity code. Over time, the IBM alphabetizers might transmute this code to alphabetical assistance. IBM made constant improvements for their Nazi purchasers.

    American entry into the struggle

    What became IBM's involvement with the Nazis as soon as america had entered the struggle? In October of 'forty one, the complete world knew america was about to enter the war. They had been getting ready to enter when you regard that 1933, debating it. struggle fever grew to exist most fierce from 1937. The query changed into sum the time, "can they live out of the struggle?" no one knew precisely when. Their entry was of direction precipitated by using the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7. shortly before that, with sudden new buying and selling-with-the-enemy laws in drive--here is October 1941--Watson issued a cable to sum IBM's European subsidiaries, asserting in impact: "don't relate us what you are doing and don't put a question to us any questions." He failed to say, "don't ship machines into concentration camps." He didn't say, "stop organizing the defense force forces of Nazi Germany." He failed to say, "do not undertake anything to harm blameless civilians."

    IBM would want to  issue they lost control of their German subsidiaries. That's malarkey. They never lost control. He then bifurcated the administration of IBM Europe--one manager in Geneva, named Werner Lier, and the different one in long island, in his workplace, named J.L. Schotte. So sum communications went from Switzerland to manhattan. finally there changed into a Hollerith department referred to as Hollerith Abteilung--German for branch--in practically every awareness camp. stand in mind, the original Auschwitz tattoo changed into an IBM number.

    Watson stopped sum communications with Nazi Germany at once. And in factor of truth, he danced on the top of a pin to obey U.S. legislations. It become the prison participation in genocide--prison since it changed into pursued through singular subsidiaries from 1942 to 1945.

    Do you contend that IBM played a job past the concentration camps--that it was a portion of the German struggle distress in opposition t the U.S. and other allies? IBM's position in organizing the German warfare laptop is well documented within the ebook. IBM upshot the blitz in blitzkrieg. The total warfare distress became equipped on Hollerith machines from 1933 to 1945. here is when information expertise comes to war. at the equal time, IBM changed into assisting the complete German struggle laptop without detain from gigantic apple unless the autumn of 1941, and through its distant places subsidiaries thereafter, massive Blue become aiding the Allied warfare laptop to the hilt.

    IBM changed into in can freight of the draft. IBM turned into some of the few outside the Pentagon who knew the actual date of the Normandy invasion; they were calculating the weather. IBM machines broke the Enigma Code. lots of what could upshot with a computer during the late 20th century can exist executed with Hollerith machines, however slower.

    Describe your relationship with IBM as you were discovering this e-book. once I first contacted IBM, I mentioned i would participate sum my documentation with them and, in exchange, i would want to observe their archive. in the beginning, i was approved. The PR individuals overruled the archivist, Paul Lasewicz. Then a group of historians wrote to IBM CEO Lou Gerstner, annoying I exist allowed entry and calling IBM's refusal an obstruction of Holocaust history.

    instead of wreck the documents, IBM stated it changed into giving them to "an educational establishment" for analyze. but the situation did these documents arrive to be? no longer the Holocaust Museum in Washington, not the middle for Jewish history in new york, now not the American Jewish Archives in Cincinnati. An IBM PR man gave them to ny institution, to a Biblical archaeologist. They gave them to professor Lawrence Schiffman, a useless Sea Scrolls expert. He had six packing containers in his closet, unlettered of what became in them. but he became widely wide-spread with my prior Holocaust drudgery and instantly organized to let me observe the materials.

    I additionally organized to view files in Stuttgart, and IBM blocked that and closed the power the day I received there. When notice acquired out about my booklet they transferred those Stuttgart documents to an archive in Germany, but they can't exist seen except some intricate stock is achieved.

    IBM nonetheless refuses to open archives concerning France, Holland, Brazil, Poland, Italy and Spain, and other gadgets. In different phrases, sum their archives are nevertheless closed. As I informed IBM corporate PR, "Make me drudgery complicated, create me drudgery tougher, i'll congregate sum this assistance."

    Is your research ongoing, or is that this case closed so far as you might exist concerned? i am consistently getting new advice. simply a number of days in the past, I got astonishing documents from Poland about some thing known as the Hollerith Gruppe. These had been unveiled on June 25 to scholars at the Leo Baeck Institute in gigantic apple. The Hollerith Gruppe geared up each factor of Polish being and Jewish existence. These Krakow machines depended upon a guaranteed deliver of millions of punch cards. The Hollerith machines did far more than identify people.

    My e-book is not about census. The machines additionally ran the railroads. They prepared the "extermination via labor" campaign, the situation individuals were labored to dying in keeping with their job competencies and placement. Slaves own been shuttled from situation to region in line with Hollerith pass-tabulations. millions and thousands and thousands of americans went via Nazi awareness camps during the 12-yr Reich. however on the peak of the Hitler regime, the total camp means was three to five hundred thousand. it's brilliant site visitors management. After book, they additionally obtained the names of prisoners IBM expert to drudgery within the extermination by means of labor program, and they establish out that a two-story constructing at Dachau quiet standing is the Hollerith constructing the situation at the least two dozen machines were stationed. truly, there's reasonably slightly, and it sum simplest deepens the documentation.

    IBM: Muted response

    How has IBM responded to your ebook? With virtual silence and an preliminary press release designed to fling americans. First the enterprise notable they hadn't read the book, but at the identical time it talked about there became nothing new within the book. can't own it each approaches. My e-book changed into five weeks on the ideal-vendor checklist, and that they mentioned they hadn't read it just about two months after booklet. And yet IBM PR declined to create a press release when asked by means of Public Radio in Washington. That preliminary observation, incidentally, claimed historians own typical about this for decades. it's no longer authentic. There isn't a unique booklet or scholarly paper any situation in being that even mentions the Hollerith offshoot in concentration camps. This murder system became unknown.

    IBM   upshot the blitz in blitzkrieg. The whole war   distress was organized on Hollerith machines. IBM PR too referred to the company misplaced wield of their German subsidiary when the Nazis got here to energy. it truly is absolutely false. The publication charges the incidents chapter and verse.

    The architect of IBM's denial of Holocaust involvement is PR manager Carol Makovich. She has developed a carefully crafted, private, 12-web page memo that she faxes or e-mails to reviewers and writers. CNET obtained a copy. There are a few aged historians who're skeptical concerning the ebook. They upshot not recall note the vigour of relational databases, and tips technology confuses them. IBM costs this handful, hoping that message will own an impact on reporters on deadline. they own certainly obtained about six obnoxious stories in newspapers, however additionally about 380 high quality ones throughout the world. as a minimum 100 of these laudatory stories are up on my internet website. IBM might not even contradict a unique veracity in my publication. They just hope the discipline will fade away. It might not.

    On Holocaust Day, in April of this year, an editorial ran in about 20 papers throughout the U.S. announcing that IBM must create an apology, that IBM may quiet exist taught from its past and open archives. but IBM refuses to open the archives and confront its personal past. I suppose IBM's corporate PR has given ruinous counsel to IBM about managing this. no one wishes guilty the latest IBM for what came about 60 years in the past. Why no longer simply arrive transparent and stream on?

    What upshot you suppose accounts for IBM's affiliation with the Nazis? What turned into their motivation? It become in no passage concerning the Nazism. It was not ever concerning the anti-Semitism. It changed into best concerning the cash. They failed to scout Poles once they unfolded a subsidiary in conflict-torn Poland. They didn't scout the Dutch once they unfolded the subsidiary in Holland simply before the Nazis moved in, or the French after they ramped up the subsidiary in occupied France. They didn't scout the Brits or the american citizens when Hollerith machines had been used to goal the V2 rockets. It wasn't very own--it was simply enterprise.

    Why unique out IBM out of sum of the different groups, American and in any other case, that did trade with the Nazis? I own not singled anyone out. IBM turned into well-nigh the simplest service provider of punch-card technology. there own been many people imparting oil, imparting weapons. It wasn't me who singled IBM out. IBM exceptional itself because the preeminent issuer of this special expertise and sued any trade which tried to horn in on their earnings flow. sum through the battle, IBM litigated in opposition t Bull in France, Powers in Europe, and even sued the German printer Euler in 1942, attempting to cease them from printing playing cards.

    IBM is circulating a evaluation via The manhattan instances that argues you failed to "display that IBM bears some exciting or determinative accountability for the evil that changed into completed." What's your response to that statement? The gentleman who wrote that evaluate is a social commentator--he is not a historian. He simply wasn't certain. No issue. but some 380 reviews to this point own pointed out that they now own certainly made their case, and many historians and other specialists expend the time age "ironclad" and "incontrovertible." definitely, 35 main historians and Holocaust consultants unanimously recommended the e-book and its findings on the date of ebook. And their comments are up on my internet website. i meditate why IBM does not flood into the studies of Newsweek, The Washington upshot up, Midstream, The Sunday times, and dozens greater. or not it's sad.

    IBM simplest had a different and determinative position for what they own been worried in. There was a sever disagreement between trading with the enemy, which many groups engaged in, and the strategic alliance and joint planning crusade that IBM engaged in. for instance, measure Oil planned and constructed an entire petroleum deliver line for Nazi Germany and presented it smartly into the conflict--all through the struggle. but Hitler knew in regards to the combustion engine and about fuel before universal Oil ever bought him fuel. A British company became selling uniforms to the Third Reich. Hitler knew how to sew a uniform.

    IBM did greater than simply promote machine. Watson and IBM managed the exciting technical magic of Hollerith machines. They controlled the monopoly on the cards and the technology. and they were the ones that needed to custom-design even the paper types and punch playing cards--they were customized-designed for each selected goal. That blanketed everything kindhearted counting Jews to confiscating bank debts, to coordinating trains going into dying camps, to the extermination through labor crusade.

    it really is why even the paper kinds within the prisoner camps had Hollerith notations and numbered fields checked. They were sum punched in. as an example, IBM had to regard their Nazi counterparts that Code 6 in the awareness camps changed into extermination. Code 1 turned into released, Code 2 became transferred, Code three turned into herbal loss of life, Code 4 became formal execution, Code 5 become suicide. Code 7 was smash out. Code 6 become extermination.

    the entire money and sum of the machines from sum these operations turned into claimed through IBM as respectable company after the struggle. The enterprise used its connections with the situation offshoot and the Pentagon to improve sum of the machines and the entire financial institution accounts. They in no passage pointed out, "We don't exigency this blood funds." They wanted sum of it.

    What's your feeling of the various lawsuits which own been brought against IBM on behalf of Holocaust survivors? I read about seven such proceedings--within the U.S., Poland, France, Switzerland. in the event that they sum disappeared it could exist quality with me as a result of I believe that IBM's accountability isn't a exist counted of funds reparations, or not it's a exist counted of showing its innermost secrets. however IBM prefers hiding in the back of the photo of defending court cases to coming transparent about their documentation.

    everyone processes the Holocaust of their approach. Some determine on memorials, others ignore what came about and exigency it will fade away, and some pick lawsuits. i'm an investigative reporter and believe the most beneficial restitution is illumination. curiously, the intent the Gypsies mentioned they sued turned into that IBM has consistently disregarded their requests for counsel. IBM has not ever apologized and not ever spread out their archives. The enterprise is conceited with sum who demand answers, after which these americans revolve to the courts. as soon as again, a person is giving IBM terrible information.  


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    KMWorld Trend-Setting Products of 2014 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Sep 1, 2014

    Hugh McKellar

    We’ve published their annual list of Trend-Setting Products for nearly a decade and a half (more than a century in “technology years”), and the selection process hasn’t changed. The list is assembled through an informal, yearlong collaboration with a judging panel consisting of colleagues, analysts, system integrators, theorists, practitioners and a select group of learning workers.

    This year, they looked at more than 600 products. Some own been around for a while, a testimony to the limber execution of their initial mission of adaptability. Others are relatively new. The judges disagree the market should exist ready to embrace the solutions because sum own helped to create a market, extend it further or redefine it.

    All the products they list below own been designed with a transparent understanding of customers’ needs. In many cases, it is precisely the vision of customers who implemented the products that qualifies them as trend-setting, by creating opportunities not originally considered by the vendor. The market, of course, will ultimately determine value.

    By no means the only trend-setting products, those on this list deserve the special attention of KMWorld readers.

    We encourage you to dig deeper into the Trend-Setting solutions, as well as to check out further descriptions of selected products that start following this article as well as on page 19, KMWorld September 2014, Vol. 23, Issue 8.

    Accellion: Kiteworks—new integrated digital rights management (DRM) features, including the ability to control viewing, copying and altering shared documents.

    Access Innovations: Data Harmony Suite—systematic application of taxonomies and/or thesauri in total integration. Click here for more product details.

    Accusoft: Prizm Content Connect—a new version of its HTML5 document viewer that integrates into the SharePoint 2013 environment. Click here for more product details.

    Acrolinx: Version 4.0—software guiding technical writers to create more findable, engaging and understandable content.

    Amazon Web Services: T2—an Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instance ilk designed to reduce costs for applications that upshot not require sustained high CPU performance but benefit from the ability to burst to complete performance.

    Appian: BPM Suite—cloud, on-premise and mobile intellectual trade process management and collaboration.

    ASG Software Solutions: CloudFactory 8.0—enabling IT organizations to leverage their existing data center resources alongside their public cloud resources and software investments under one management platform.

    Astera: Centerprise—full data integration platform designed for trade information experts.

    Atlassian: Connect—new framework for developers to build add-ons that deeply integrate with the company’s JIRA OnDemand and Confluence OnDemand.

    Attensity: Attensity Q—real-time data stream analytics through natural language processing and semantic analysis.

    Attivio: dynamic Intelligence Engine—new features involve the Predictive Analytics Module, AIE Scope Source and AIE trade Center.

    AvePoint: DocAve 6 Service Pack (SP) 4—an enterprise-grade platform for SharePoint infrastructure management and data governance.

    BA Insight: learning Integration Platform—enables organizations to rapidly deploy powerful, search-driven applications. Click here for more product details.

    Bamboo Solutions: Innovative Technologies for SharePoint—Office 365/SharePoint Online apps. Click here for more product details.

    Bloomfire: Bloomfire KM Platform—new integration with Box, Dropbox, Google Drive and Microsoft OneDrive.

    Bonitasoft: Bonitasoft 6.3—further extension of the platform, giving IT professionals a more advanced set of tools to quickly develop and integrate process-driven trade applications.

    BP Logix: Process Director—full BPM solution available in on-premise, cloud and OEM editions.

    Brainspace: Brainspace for Business—knowledge sharing and discovery solution using augmented intelligence and machine learning to create organizational connectedness. Click here for more product details.

    Bridgeline Digital: iAPPS Social—allows customers to easily set up customized watch lists tailored by social network, topic or author.

    Calabrio: Calabrio Analytics—allows users to derive benefits of speech, desktop and text analytics without abrupt learning curves or extensive investments.

    Clarabridge: Version 6.2 of its namesake customer relish management (CEM) solution—combines two product offerings, Clarabridge Collaborate and Clarabridge Engage into one, Clarabridge Act.

    Code42: SharePlan—enables real-time collaboration backed by endpoint management and deployment flexibility, featuring in-place file sync, private/public cloud deployment and an open API.

    Colligo Networks: Colligo Briefcase for Mac—integrates SharePoint into Macintosh Finder.

    Comindware: Comindware Project for iPad—enables smooth transition from desktop to paw devices to ensure drudgery continuity regardless of the device ilk or platform.

    Comintelli: Intelligence2day—SaaS instrument to allow businesses to exist more organized and systematic in terms of monitoring companies and issues in which they are interested.

    Concept Searching: conceptClassifier for SharePoint—semantic metadata generation, automatic document classification and enterprise-grade taxonomy management.

    Connotate: Connotate 4—simplifies and streamlines the “Webdata” extraction process and ensures complete coverage of a website, using the Webkit engine.

    Content Analyst Company: CAAT 3.15—concept-aware analytics suite for software product companies, systems integrators and information services providers.

    Coveo: Coveo for Sitecore—enables organizations to build contextual search and discovery experiences on websites powered by the Sitecore relish Platform.

    Crafter Software: Crafter Engine and Crafter social plug-ins for Liferay—enable the creation of affluent digital experiences designed to improve customer and employee engagement.

    Datawatch: Datawatch Desktop—integrates the data access and modeling capabilities of Datawatch’s legacy Monarch Professional software with the newly acquired capabilities of Panopticon's Designer visual data discovery solution. Click here for more product details.

    E-Spirit: FirstSpirit CMS 5.1—further enhances the user relish along the entire Web relish supply chain.

    Earley & Associates: Consulting Services—taxonomy and metadata, enterprise search, SharePoint, content management, digital asset management and usability testing.

    Eccentex: AppBase—platform-as-a-service (PaaS) providing developers with a affluent cloud environment to develop, scale and manage enterprise-grade dynamic case management SaaS applications.

    eGain: KnowledgeAgent—role-based solution permitting agents to view usurp levels of information and expend different access methods to the knowledgebase. Click here for more product details.

    EMC: InfoArchive—unified enterprise archive platform for IT optimization, cost reduction and information governance. Click here for more product details.

    Empolis: Empolis Smart Service—combines service resolution management (service data created by service center agents and customers) and smart diagnostics (sensor data created by machines).

    FirstRain: Personal trade Analytics for Salesforce1—dynamically responds to developments detected in the global Web and social media, combined with the user’s changing trade interests.

    FTI Technology: Ringtail V. 8.4—visual predictive coding software for legal review with new features for users to train the model to enhance efficiency. Click here for more product details.

    Google: Google Glass—wearable computer.

    HiSoftware: Site Sheriff—controls access to SharePoint content by allowing a wide variety of secure sharing scenarios to empower focused audiences to collaborate without changing particular permissions and adding complexity.

    HP/Autonomy: MediaBin 8.1—simplifies the core tasks of media management, search and publishing while providing advanced scalability and in-depth, real-time media monitoring and analytics for sum affluent media assets, including images, audio and video files. Click here for more product details.

    Hyland Software: OnBase Cloud—integrates document management, trade process automation and records management. Click here for more product details.

    IBM: Connections 5—fully integrated suite of social and real-time collaboration, analytics and content management tools delivered on any screen or device.

    Integrify: Integrify 6—100 percent Web-based platform to centrally manage user requests from multiple locations, streamline workflow and operations, automate trade processes and improve the overall customer experience. Click here for more product details.

    IntelliResponse: OFFERS—an intent-based tender solution that presents real-time, customized promotions to customers in the context of a customer service interaction.

    Interneer: Intellect MobileApps—enables trade users and IT to build and manage endemic smart mobile apps on any iOS device for enterprise use. Click here for more product details.

    Jive Software: Spring Cloud Release—combination of the latest upgrades for Jive and JiveX in the cloud.

    K2: Mobile Apps—access to sum K2 workflow and trade process tasks across sum processes from a unique interface for iOS, Android and Blackberry devices.

    kCura: Relativity Collection—allows users to discharge targeted collections of select documents or forensic images via e-mail, in-person or with a portable drive. Click here for more product details.

    Kofax/Kapow: Kofax Kapow—data integration solution designed to simplify the user experience, encompassing the entire information supply chain.

    Linguamatics: I2E Semantic Enrichment—used within an existing enterprise search deployment to enrich the current data, create it more discoverable and provide more pertinent search results.

    M-Files: M-Files DMS—secure document management solution fully integrated with Windows.

    MadCap Software: Flare—complete solution for technical communicators and content developers to maximize authoring efficiency and content reuse.

    Metalogix: Email Migrator 3.0—migration instrument that can slouch legacy e-mail from multiple e-mail sources including into Microsoft Office 365 or other hosted Exchange platforms and on-premises implementations of Exchange.

    MetaVis Technologies: OneDrive Management Suite—provides tools to create OneDrive deployment, through administration and backup, smart, simple and secure, while helping clients gain valuable insights along the way. Click here for more product details.

    MicroPact: Entellitrak Platform—new full-text document search instrument and a new direct-to-case document scanning module known as escan.

    Mindbreeze: InSpire—a pre-installed enterprise search appliance box. Click here for more product details.

    Moxie Software: Moxie Web Self-Service—permits companies to create branded, configurable and easily navigable self-service experiences to provide access to useful learning throughout the customer journey.

    Noetix by Magnitude Software: NoetixViews 6.3 for Oracle E-Business Suite—a new solution for Release 12 subledger accounting (SLA).

    OpenText: Discovery Suite—integrates, enriches and manages gigantic content within the enterprise to reduce risk and cost as well as improve productivity, collaboration and engagement.

    Oracle/RightNow: RightNow Cloud Service—new capabilities to back organizations automate the management and deployment of involved trade policies for customer support.

    PeopleFluent: Mirror Suite—talent management solution built around people not HR processes; integrates video and social technologies into talent applications.

    Picturepark: Picturepark 8.6—digital asset management with a new NoSQL search and indexing layer.

    PPC: Taxonomy and Metadata solutions—full gain of taxonomy and metadata consulting services to provide a quick start in designing a taxonomy.

    QUMU: Qumu Lync Client—enables Lync users to automatically organize, publish and participate the information from a recorded Lync session.

    RAMP: RAMP for Microsoft—video content platform (VCP) for organizations that own standardized on the Microsoft trade Productivity infrastructure.

    Raytion: Search Analytics—dedicated instrument developed specifically to visualize search behavior.

    Recommind: Axcelerate 5—cloud-based e-discovery review and analysis platform.

    RSD: RSD GLASS 3.2—information governance solution that includes key enhancements and additional features within its Policy Manager, Governance Manager and Governance Dashboard modules.

    SDL: SDL Web—comprising a succession of solutions that involve SDL Tridion, SDL Mobile, SDL SmartTarget, SDL Media Manager, SDL Safeguard and SDL Customer Analytics. Click here for more product details.

    Search Technologies: Aspire 2.0—content processing system that includes improved workflow for creating content processing applications, a dynamic new user interface and the option to implement on Hadoop.

    Sinequa: Sinequa ES V. 9—integration and expend of Hadoop into a host of new connectors (now totaling 140) to data sources.

    Sitecore: Sitecore relish Database—highly scalable gigantic data repository that collects and connects actionable customer data to deliver unique customer experiences in real time.

    Sitrion: HR Self-Services—employee and manager HR self-services, available within a social intranet, human resource portal, Outlook client, on mobile devices and synchronized with SAP.

    Smarsh: Archiving Platform—tools for faster, smarter search across sum content types designed for supervision and e-discovery.

    Smartlogic: Semaphore 3.7—improved ability to back very great SharePoint farms and greater interoperability with the semantic Web.

    Socialtext: Socialtext 6.0—improved functionality for micro-blogging, social networking, content creation, expertise location and video capabilities.

    SpringCM: File It—embeds SpringCM on a Salesforce page, such as an account, opening or case, to drudgery with content specific to that page.

    Synaptica: Synaptica Express—taxonomy management software for individuals or small trade users hosted on secure servers and available as a subscription service.

    TallyFox: Network Platform—enables organizations to build and manage their own learning networks, connecting people with specific expertise and the content associated with their specific interests and know-how.

    TheBrain: TheBrain for iOS—combines note taking, file synchronization and reason mapping apps.

    TIBCO: Spotfire 6.5—the latest version of TIBCO’s leading analytics platform connecting diverse data sources, including new spatial data sources.

    Traction Software: TeamPage 6.0—host of new collaboration features, improvements and internal updates as well as consolidated capabilities from updates shipped over the TeamPage 5.2 baseline.

    Transversal: Web Self-Service—natural language approach to search for faster, better results. It automatically anticipates what customers are likely to exist looking for and how their questions relate to the learning at hand. Click here for more product details.

    Verint Systems: Verint Customer Analytics—set of analytics for examining customer interactions and comments across a broad gain of channels, including phone, social media, surveys, e-mail, chat, etc. Click here for more product details.

    VirtualWorks: ViaWorks Connector for the Alfresco One Enterprise Content Management (ECM) System—allows companies to easily search and instantly retrieve sum enterprise information sitting inside, outside and across multiple Alfresco installations from inside Alfresco.

    Wall Street Network: Insight—knowledge management for SharePoint.

    X1: X1 Search 8—solution for search of e-mails, files and cloud data from a measure desktop client or light footprint thin client architected for virtualized desktops.

    Xyleme: Bravais 3.0—cloud-based solution for storing, managing and delivering personalized learning content to students, employees and customers when they exigency it, using the applications they prefer on the devices they choose.

    ZL Technologies: Unified Archive—new version with endemic social media analytics built directly into existing information management architecture.


    Enabling IIoT requires communication protocol translation | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    As implementations of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industrie 4.0 frameworks commence, network communication protocol translations are needed; Hilscher is providing network gateways and other communications from the plant floor to the enterprise and cloud for manufacturing data analysis, as company executives explained to Control Engineering, Plant Engineering, and Oil & Gas Engineering publications recently.

    By tag T. Hoske March 6, 2016

    Armin Pühringer, Hilscher  trade  progress manager, said these Hilscher products will  back with translations necessary for greater efficiencies in the Industrial Internet of Things. Courtesy:  tag T. Hoske, Control Engineering, CFE MediaImplementations of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industrie 4.0 frameworks are progressing, and translations of major industrial network communication protocols enable the flood of data that becomes actionable information with analysis. Hilscher is among many companies providing network gateways and other communications from the plant floor to the enterprise and cloud for manufacturing data analysis. Company executives explained the necessity of efficient data translations to Control Engineering, Plant Engineering, and Oil & Gas Engineering publications on Feb. 2.

    Hilscher representatives at the Hilscher North America facility in Lisle, Ill., said the company devices direct to create it easier for linger users, device manufacturers, and machine builders to access the benefits of Industrial Internet-connected manufacturing. Enabling technologies involve Hilscher’s recently introduced netIOT solutions for Industrial Cloud Communication, which extract data parallel with current control networks and deliver it to cloud-based analytical services without compromising existing systems or services. 

    Cloud reality today

    Armin Pühringer, Hilscher trade progress manager, said these products are designed to back create industrial cloud benefits a reality today. Hilscher North America CEO, Phil Marshall, too addressed the benefits of such connectivity, explaining how Hilscher, which began as a system integration hard in 1988, quickly moved into producing network communication devices. Now with 250 employees, Hilscher provides communications for sum fieldbuses and industrial Ethernet protocols, he said.

    "Hilscher netX network controller translates 22 protocols, transfers, and converts data. It can connect with everything," Marshall said.

    Hilscher created its own chip nine years ago and will produce the eighth this year, Marshall said, in total offering 22 protocols and 33 communication stacks, including masters and slaves and common hardware and software interfaces. 

    No network wars; connect as needed

    Hilscher North America CEO, Phil Marshall,  too addressed the benefits of such connectivity, explaining how Hilscher network communication devices provide communications for  sum fieldbuses and industrial Ethernet protocols. Courtesy:  tag T. Hoske, ControThe goal is to congregate machine builders, system integrators, and linger users "Out of the network wars, and allow them to connect easily to as much as they need."

    Products involve netRapid, a control system on a chip with a 32-pin DLL socket and coprocessor. The netJack can exist installed by the linger user in a knockout slot.

    With various combinations and mounting possibilities, 150 models are offered in IP20 and IP67 packaging, including nine PC cards with the very driver interface. The netHost has software-based programmable logic controller (PLC) masters for slotless systems, and netSCADA offers view and control capabilities with a web browser.

    "These devices back IIoT congregate data off the wire. Products are vendor independent and legacy proof," Marshall noted. "You don’t own to retrofit the control system to congregate data to the cloud," he said, noting Hilscher can upshot that for existing and future PLCs, without touching or adding communications responsibilities to PLCs.

    The new Hilscher netIOT line includes netIOT Interface Modules, netIOT Edge-Gateways, and netIOT Service. observe additional product information linked at the bottom of the article. 

    Continuous improvements

    Pühringer said customers can:

  • Use existing infrastructure in plants
  • Deploy reference architectures from Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) and Industrie 4.0, vetted for sum implementations
  • Use cyber-physical systems as a virtual twin
  • Leverage standards and start again, in a cycle of continuous improvement.
  • The IIC Reference Architecture includes an edge tier with devices such as actuators, scanner, sensors, motors, controls; a platform tier; and connections to the enterprise and cloud. province includes existing real-time infrastructure, Pühringer said, and the edge bridges information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT), then connects to higher smooth systems. This is a valid model, laid out in mighty detail for sum test beds, Pühringer said.

    Industrie 4.0 uses a three-dimensional RAMI 4.0 model, where functional layers are in line with plant floor people, and physical objects enable IIoT functions.

    Installations: Flatter, faster

    A Hilscher demonstration showed vibration monitoring for drives, with strain gauges, and transfer of data from the edge into the cloud and analytic services. Hilscher plans to  exist the enabler of  province data in Industrial Internet based architectures. CourtePilot installations underway are moving to dissolve hierarchical control architectures, Pühringer said, flattening structures and connecting the plant directly to enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. Cyber-physical systems are created as a virtual twin to each real system, and each physical protest has an administration shell. A virtual representation of objects holds the model to simulate the process behavior.

    The models can exist upshot on existing wire in the plant without disturbing the PLC, using presently available protocols such as OPC UA (Unified Architecture), DDS, and MQTT, as well as TSN (Time Sensitive Network), an emerging Ethernet measure designed to bring one real-time Ethernet structure to the many-flavored protocol soup of today.

    "We observe OPC UA gaining momentum. MQTT is expanding quickly beyond its IBM origins," Pühringer said, as IIoT is bringing new standards for engineering and to cloud-based architectures, with perpendicular integration from sensor into the cloud.

    Pühringer said he’s observed a change in recent months where companies are moving beyond prior concerns about safety, security, and privacy risks. IBM is working on a major pilot installation, expected to exist announced at Hannover Messe, and Hilscher is supplying network protocol translators. A bottle-filling application was shown at SPS Drives in Nurnberg, Germany, tumble 2015. 

    Faster, smarter

    The IoT seems likely to slouch along more quickly, with transparent and well-thought-through roadmaps, improving overall tackle efficiency (OEE), as sum companies seem alive to to understand what they can upshot with data in the cloud, Pühringer suggested. "IoT is a game changer in their industrial business."

    Protocols used for province to cloud communication at present are OPC UA and MQTT, and more will exist offered, he said. In addition to cloud analytics, IIoT structures will provide access to devices in province via tablets and smartphones for better maintenance and diagnostics.

    Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media, mhoske@cfemedia.com.

    Key concepts

  • Hilscher is helping enable connectivity the IIoT requires.
  • Plant floor can connect to the enterprise and cloud for analytics.
  • IIoT and Industrie 4.0 test cases and demonstrations are underway. 
  • Consider this

    IIoT can connect and derive value from islands of automation. 

    ONLINE extra

    Hilscher provides additional explanations about IIoT and Industrie 4.0.

    Control Engineering offers webcasts and articles on IIoT and to related products below.

    Want this article on your website? Click here to mark up for a free account in ContentStream® and create that happen.


    Java 9, OSGi and the Future of Modularity (Part 1) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Key takeaways
  • Java 9 is being released in 2017 and a flagship feature will exist the new module system called Java Platform Module System (JPMS). The article explores how this relates to, and what impact it has, on the existing Java module standard, OSGi.
  • Java has grown by 20 times since version 1.0, and there is a exigency to modularise the platform. There own been many unsuccessful attempts to resolve this problem. Meanwhile OSGi has been offering application modularity for 16 years.
  • OSGi and JPMS differ substantially in their implementation details. There loom to exist significant flaws and missing features if JPMS is to exist considered a universal solution for modularity.
  • JPMS aims to exist simpler and easier to expend than OSGi. However, making an existing non-modular product modular is the principal source of complexity, and JPMS does not loom to own succeeded in this goal.
  • JPMS has done a very favorable job of modularising the Java platform itself, signification they can construct small runtimes containing only pertinent parts of the Java platform for a specific workload. For application modularity OSGi has many advantages. They own shown the two can exist combined and by doing so it looks set to exist a winning formula.
  • This is the first article of the "Java 9, OSGi and the Future of Modularity” series. delight too see Part 2: Java 9, OSGi and the Future of Modularity (Part 2).

    When Java 9 is released next year, the flagship feature will exist the new module system: the Java Platform Module System (JPMS). Although the details of JPMS are not entirely fixed, they already know quite a lot about the shape it will take.

    Java does own a pre-existing module system, which has been around in various forms since 2000. This is the module system known as OSGi, which is a vendor-independent industry standard. It is published by the OSGi Alliance, a consortium of leading software vendors, telecoms companies and other organisations, including Adobe, Bosch, Huawei, IBM, Liferay, NTT, Oracle, Paremus and Software AG. It powers almost sum Java EE application servers, the most accepted IDE, web applications like eBay, Salesforce.com and Liferay, and is used by governments and militaries such as the U.S. Air force and Federal Aviation Administration.

    OSGi was made for IoT – from the start OSGi was designed for embedded devices, years ago when reminiscence and CPU resources were significantly constrained. Devices today own more power. This has provided the opening to build sophisticated applications and solutions, and has spawned thriving ecosystems of organisations and individuals contributing software and hardware elements to an overall solution. Such ecosystems can exist establish in markets as diverse as connected homes, connected cars, smart cities and Industry 4.0 (IIoT). A gateway is typically used to connect sensors and devices to each other and to back-end systems. Applications and services can elope both locally on the gateway and/or in the cloud.

    OSGi too provides many specifications to enable essential features for structure open IoT ecosystems. These features involve device management, software provisioning, and device abstraction which generalises devices from their underlying communication protocols. Companies like AT&T, Bosch, NTT, Deutsche Telekom, universal Electric, Hitachi, Miele, Schneider Electric sum benefit from using OSGi to build IoT solutions today, and own done for many years. With OSGi and IoT there are already millions of devices connected today.

    Naturally, OSGi users are nosy how the new module system in Java 9 will affect OSGi, both in the short and long terms.

    There are technical, political and commercial reasons why two module systems in the Java ecosystem will soon exist. In this article they steer transparent of the politics and compare the two from a technical perspective. They conclude with a vision of how JPMS and OSGi can drudgery together, what they deem their respective domains are, and what opportunities will exist in the new world.

    Note that in this article they own used information publicly available in August 2016. Some details may change before the specification becomes final.

    Background

    The Java platform has grown significantly since its birth in the late 1990's. Looking at download sizes, the JDK 1.1 was under 10Mb in size, whereas the Mac OS X download for JDK 8u77 is a massive 227Mb. There has been a corresponding increase in installed footprint and reminiscence requirements. This increase has been driven by the addition of new features, most of which own been welcome and useful. However, every new feature in the platform created bloat for users who didn't exigency it... and nobody uses sum of the platform. too sum existing features are retained even after they own become obsolete, because the stewards of Java own shown an admirable dedication to backwards compatibility.

    For many years, Java's increasing weight was not a gigantic problem. It was most accepted as an enterprise platform, and its main competitor was Microsoft's .NET that followed a broadly similar trajectory. In the modern world, Java is facing different challenges. IoT is driving a renewed focus on footprint, and newer agile platforms and languages like Node.js and fade are sober competitors.

    Security is too a gigantic problem: attacks on Java prompted security-conscious organisations to remove it entirely from user desktops. If there were better isolation between the internals of the JVM and user-space application code, many of these attacks would not own been possible.

    It has been transparent for a long time that something needed to exist done to modularise the platform. There were a succession of aborted efforts in the mid 2000's – JSR 294 and its "superpackages", JSR 277's "Java Module System" – then eventually a prototype project called Jigsaw emerged. This was originally meant to exist delivered in 2011 with Java 7, but was deferred to Java 8 and then again to Java 9. As a prototype project, Jigsaw informs and provides the reference implementation for the JPMS specification.

    Meanwhile, OSGi has been evolving and improving for 16 years. OSGi is a measure for application modularity: since it is not directly portion of the Java platform, it cannot affect modularity of the platform itself. But many applications own benefited from the modularity model that it provides above the smooth of the JVM.

    High-Level Comparison

    There are many small differences between JPMS and OSGi, but there is one very gigantic difference, and that is in the implementation of isolation.

    Isolation is the most fundamental feature of any module system. There must exist some means of protecting each module from interference by other modules running in the very application. Isolation is a continuum rather than a binary concept: neither OSGi nor JPMS upshot anything to protect against a badly-behaved module that grabs sum available reminiscence in the JVM, spins up thousands of threads, or hogs the CPU with a busy loop. Running modules as sever processes on the OS can provide some protection of this kind, but even then it is not perfect; somebody could quiet crash the OS or wipe the disk.

    Both OSGi and JPMS tender code-level isolation, which means that a module cannot access the internal types of another module except with the specific consent of that module.

    OSGi implements its isolation using class loaders. Each module – or “bundle” in OSGi terms – has a class loader that knows how to load the types within the bundle. It can too delegate class loading requests to the loaders of other bundles that it depends on. This system is highly optimised, for case OSGi does not create a class loader for a bundle until the eventual practicable moment, and the fact that each loader sees a much smaller set of types means that each ilk can exist loaded marginally faster.

    The gigantic odds of this system is that bundles can hold overlapping packages and types, and these upshot not interfere. As a practical consequence, it's practicable to own multiple versions of confident packages and libraries running at the very time in the very JVM. This is a boon when dealing with involved transitive dependency graphs that often result from using build tools like Maven. In many enterprise Java applications it is nearly impossible to arrive up with a set of dependencies that contains only one version of every library.

    For example, let's recall a watch at the JitWatch library1. JitWatch depends on slf4j-api 1.7.7 and logback-classic 1.1.2... but logback-classic 1.1.2 depends on slf4j-api 1.7.6, clashing with the direct requirement from JitWatch. JitWatch too depends transitively on both version 1.6 and version 1.9 of jansi, and if they involve test-scoped dependencies they congregate yet another version of slf4j-api, 1.6. This kindhearted of mess is very common, and traditional Java has no real solution for it except to gradually add “excludes” to their dependency tree until they magically congregate a set of libraries that work. Unfortunately JPMS too has no retort for this problem, as they will soon see.

    Using class loaders for isolation does own one drawback: it breaks the assumption that every ilk can exist establish in at most one location. This is a natural consequence of modularity. If a module can expend its own types free from interference by other modules, then it's inevitable that a unique ilk cognomen may exist establish in more than one module. Sadly this creates a problem for a lot of legacy Java code that is not written with modularity in mind. In particular, calls to Class.forName(String) to find a ilk from its cognomen will not always drudgery correctly in a truly modular environment, because there are multiple types that it could return.

    It is this drawback that prevented OSGi from being used to modularise the JDK itself. Many parts of the JDK own an implicit assumption that any JDK ilk can exist loaded from any other portion of the JDK, and so many things would smash under an OSGi-like model. In order to resolve this problem -- and too to ease migration for code that uses Class.forName – the JPMS elected not to expend class loaders at sum for isolation. When you launch an application using a set of modules on the “modulepath”, sum of these modules will exist loaded by the very class loader. Instead, JPMS introduces new accessibility rules to achieve isolation.

    The isolation barrier in OSGi is visibility. In OSGi they cannot load internal classes of a module because they are not visible from the outside. That is, my module's class loader can only observe the types inside my module, plus the types explicitly imported from other modules. If I try to load an internal class from your module, my class loader cannot observe that type. It is as if the ilk did not exist at all. If they try to fade ahead and load the class anyway then they congregate a NoClassDefFoundError or ClassNotFoundException.

    In JPMS, every ilk has visibility of every other ilk because they exist in the very class loader. But JPMS adds a secondary check to create confident the loading class has the perquisite to access the ilk it is trying to load. Internal types from other modules are effectively private, even if they are declared as public. If they try to fade ahead and load them anyway then they congregate an IllegalAccessError or IllegalAccessException. This is the very oversight they would congregate if they tried to load a private or default-access ilk from another package, and it does not back to convene setAccessible on the type. This changes the semantics of the public modifier in Java, which formerly meant universally accessible and now means only accessible within a module and its requirers.

    The drawback of the JPMS approach is that it is not practicable to own modules with overlapping contents. That is, if two modules each hold a private (non-exported) package named org.example.util then those modules cannot both exist loaded at the very time on the module path – this would result in a LayerInstantiationException. It is practicable to drudgery around this limitation by instantiating class loaders from their application… but this is exactly what OSGi already does for us!

    Again this is entirely by design, to allow JPMS to modularise the internals of the JDK. But the consequence is that you can own modules that upshot not drudgery together purely because their internal implementation details conflict.

    Complexity

    One of the most common complaints about OSGi is that it can increase complexity for a developer. There is a grain of veracity here, but people who create this complaint are mistaking the medicine for the disease.

    Modularity is not a magic dust that can exist sprinkled onto an application just before release. It is a discipline that must exist followed throughout sum phases of design and development. Developers who adopt OSGi early and apply modular thinking before writing a line of code realise gargantuan gains, and they ascertain that OSGi is in fact exceedingly simple, especially when using a modern OSGi toolchain that automates generation of metadata and does a lot of consistency checking to snare errors before they gain the runtime.

    On the other hand, developers who tried to bring OSGi to an existing great code groundwork suffered because that code was rarely modular enough to create migration easy. Without the discipline of enforced modularity, it’s too light to recall shortcuts that smash encapsulation. As a developer on BEA WebLogic told me, before BEA was acquired by Oracle: “we thought they were being modular, until they started using OSGi.”

    In addition to non-modular applications, OSGi adoption has been hampered by non-modular libraries. Some of the most accepted Java libraries are filled with assumptions about class loading and global visibility that are broken in a modular architecture. OSGi has done a lot of drudgery to create it practicable to expend such libraries, and this is the source of the apparent complexity of the OSGi specifications. They exigency a confident amount of complexity to deal with the messy, involved real world.

    The very problems will arise just as much under JPMS – probably more so, as they will soon see. If your organisation previously tried to adopt OSGi and gave up because of the amount of migration drudgery involved, then you should hope at least as much drudgery if you pick to migrate to JPMS. Just watch at the relish of Oracle in modularising the JDK: it was so much drudgery that it caused Jigsaw to slip from Java 7 to Java 8, and then to Java 9, and even Java 9 has been delayed by a year (so far).

    Project Jigsaw started with a goal of being simple, but the JPMS specification has increased enormously in complexity: the interplay of modules with class loaders; hierarchical layers and configurations; re-exporting requirements; infirm modules; static requirements; qualified exports; dynamic exports; inherited readability across layers; multi-module JARs; automatic modules; unnamed modules… sum these features own been added as the exigency for them became clear. A similar process happened in OSGi, just with a 16-year head start.

    Dependencies: Packages vs. whole Modules

    Isolation is only one half of the modularity puzzle: modules quiet exigency to drudgery together and communicate. After structure walls between modules they exigency to reintroduce connections, but in a controlled way. A module system must define the ways in which modules access functionality from other modules. This can exist done statically, at the smooth of types, or dynamically with objects.

    Static dependencies are those that can exist known and controlled at build time. If a ilk refers to another ilk across a module frontier then the module system needs a passage to create that ilk visible and accessible. There are two aspects to this: modules exigency to selectively expose some of their enclosed types, and they exigency to specify which types they may expend from other modules.

    Exports

    In both OSGi and JPMS, exposing types is done at the smooth of Java packages. In OSGi they expend the Export-Package statement, which declares that confident named packages can exist made visible to other bundles. It looks like this:

    Export-Package: org.example.foo; version=1.0.1, org.example.bar; version=2.1.0

    This statement appears in the META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file. In the early days of OSGi most developers would specify statements like this manually; but increasingly they prefer to expend build tooling to generate them. The most accepted pattern now is to expend annotations on the Java source code, and in Java 5 the package-info.java file was introduced to allow package-level annotations and documentation, so in OSGi they can upshot the following:

    @org.osgi.annotation.versioning.Version("1.0.1") package org.example.foo;

    This is a useful pattern because the intent to export a package can exist indicated directly in that package. The version can too exist indicated here, and is nigh at hand to exist updated when the package content changes2.

    In JPMS a package is exported in the module-info.java as follows:

    module A { exports org.example.foo; exports org.example.bar; }

    Note the exigency of a version, as neither modules nor packages can exist versioned in JPMS; they will revisit this point later.

    Imports/Requires

    Whereas OSGi and JPMS are similar with respect to exports, they differ significantly with respect to importing or depending on other modules.

    In OSGi, the complement of exporting a package is importing a package. They import packages with an Import-Package statement, for example:

    Import-Package: org.example.foo; version='[1,2)', org.example.bar; version='[2.0,2.1)'

    The rule is that an OSGi bundle must import every package that it depends on, with the exception of packages birth with java.*, e.g. java.util. For case if the code in your bundle depends on the ilk org.slf4j.Logger (and your bundle does not actually hold the package org.slf4j) then that package must exist listed as an import. Likewise if you depend on org.w3c.dom.Element then you must import org.w3c.dom. However if you depend on java.math.BigInteger you upshot not import java.math because the java.* packages are loaded by the bootstrap class loader of the JVM.

    OSGi too has a parallel mechanism for requiring whole bundles, called Require-Bundle, but this is deprecated in the OSGi specification and only exists to back very slim edge cases. The gigantic odds of Import-Package is that it allows modules to exist refactored and renamed without affecting downstream modules. This is illustrated in Figures 1 and 2.

    In figure 1, module A is refactored into two new modules, A and A’, but the module B is unaffected by the operation because it depends on the provided packages. In figure 2 they discharge exactly the very refactoring on A, but now B is probably broken… because it probably used packages that are no longer present in A (we own to issue "probably" here because they can't relate what B is using from A... which is exactly the issue!).

    Figure 1: Refactoring Modules with Imported Packages

    Figure 2: Refactoring Modules with Requires

    The Import-Package statement would exist cumbersome to write manually... so they don't upshot that. OSGi tooling generates it by inspecting the dependencies that are baked into the compiled types inside the bundle. This is very amenable – much more amenable than developers declaring runtime dependencies for themselves. Of course developers quiet exigency to manage their build dependencies, which is done in the routine passage with Maven (or your build instrument of choice). At build time it hardly matters if you upshot too many dependencies on your classpath: the worst that can befall is a compilation failure, which affects only the original developer and can easily exist fixed. On the other hand, having too many runtime dependencies can exterminate the portability of a module, since sum those dependencies must exist dragged along and may conflict with the dependencies of another module.

    This leads to another key philosophical disagreement between OSGi and JPMS. In OSGi they own always recognised that build dependencies and runtime dependencies can and often upshot differ. For case it's measure practice to build against APIs and elope against implementations of those APIs. Furthermore, developers typically build against the oldest version of an API that they can possibly exist compatible with, but at runtime they pick the newest version of the implementation they can find. Even non-OSGi developers are familiar with this approach: you normally build against the lowest version of the JDK you are prepared to support, while encouraging users to elope with the highest version including sum of its security patches and performance enhancements.

    JPMS on the other hand takes a different tack. JPMS aims to achieve “fidelity across sum phases” so that “the module system should… drudgery in exactly the very passage at compile time, at elope time, and in every other facet of progress or deployment” (from the JPMS Requirements). Therefore dependencies are defined in terms of whole modules at runtime because this is how they are defined at compile time. For example:

    module B { require A; }

    This require statement has the very upshot as OSGi's deprecated Require-Bundle: sum of the exported packages of module A are accessible to module B. It therefore has the very issues as Require-Bundle: there is no passage to determine from the module declarations whether it is safe to refactor the contents of module A, so in universal it is never safe to upshot this.

    We own establish that dependency trees using requirements rather than imports own a much higher degree of fanout: each module carries around many more dependencies than it really needs. These problems are real and significant. Eclipse plug-in authors own suffered from them in particular, because for historical reasons Eclipse bundles minister to expend requires rather than imports. They feel it is very luckless that JPMS has followed this route.

    Interestingly, though compile/runtime loyalty is a fundamental goal of JPMS, recent changes own significantly weakened fidelity. The current Early Access release allows for a requirement to exist declared with static modifier, which means that the dependency is mandatory at compile time but optional at runtime. Conversely an export can exist declared with the dynamic modifier which makes the exported package inaccessible at compile time but accessible (using reflection) at runtime3. With these new features it's practicable to create modules which successfully compile and link but fling IllegalAccessError/Exception at runtime.

    Reflection and Services

    The Java ecosystem is huge, and contains a wide variety of frameworks for various purposes: from dependency injection to mocking, remote invocation, O/R mapping and so on. Many of these framework expend reflection to instantiate and manage objects from within user-supplied code. For case recall the Java Persistence Architecture (JPA), which is portion of the Java EE suite of specifications: as an O/R mapper it must load and instantiate domain classes from user code in order to map them to records loaded from a database. In another example, the Spring Framework loads and instantiates "bean" classes as implementations of interfaces.

    This can present problems for module systems, including both OSGi and JPMS. A domain or a bean class is something that ideally should exist hidden inside a module: if it is exported then it becomes public API that can antecedent consumers to smash if they depend on it, but they want the flexibility to change their internal classes at will. On the other hand it can exist useful to access non-exported types via reflection to back frameworks, as described.

    Due to OSGi's ClassLoader-based design, modules can obtain visibility of the non-exported packages and types of other modules... so long as they know the fully-qualified cognomen of the ilk and which module to put a question to (remembering that several modules could hold any given ilk name). This is a pragmatic reduction of isolation in the spirit of Java's long-standing expend of reflection, where even so-called private fields can exist opened up by calling the setAccessible method.

    Using this capability it is common practice in OSGi to provide implementation modules that own no exports at all! Instead they may hold declarations that refer to internal types that may exist loaded by a framework. For example, a module that uses JPA for persistence can refer to domain types in a persistence.xml file, and the JPA implementation module will load the referred types when they are needed.

    The biggest use-case is in implementing service components. The OSGi specification includes a chapter called Declarative Services (DS) that defines how a module can declare components: classes whose lifecycle is managed by the framework. Components can exist bound to services in the OSGi Service Registry and optionally provide services of their own. For example:

    @Component public class CartMgrComponent implements CartManager { @Reference UserAdmin users; @Override public Cart getOrCreateCart(String user) { // ... } }

    In this example, CartMgrComponent is a component that provides a service CartManager. It references a service, UserAdmin, and the lifecycle of the class is managed by the DS framework. When a UserAdmin service is available, CartMgrComponent is created and it publishes a CartManager service that can exist similarly referenced by other components in other modules.

    This framework works because it can load the CartMgrComponent class, which has been flagged as a component with the @Component annotation. Defining components and services is the principal passage in which OSGi applications are designed and programmed.

    In JPMS, only types in exported packages can exist accessed, even with reflection. Although the types in non-exported packages are visible – you can convene Class.forName and obtain a Class protest – they are not accessible from outside the module. As soon as a framework tries to convene newInstance to instantiate an object, an IllegalAccessException is thrown. This appears to slit off many possibilities for frameworks, but there are some ways forward.

    One passage is to provide individual types as services that can exist loaded via java.util.ServiceLoader. ServiceLoader has been a portion of the measure platform since Java 6, and it has been updated in Java 9 to drudgery across modules. ServiceLoader can access types from non-exported packages, so long as the providing module includes a provides statement. Unfortunately ServiceLoader is primitive and doesn't tender the flexibility needed for modern frameworks such as DS or Spring.

    A second possibility is to expend a "qualified" export of the package. This is an export that is only made accessible to a unique named module, rather than generally to sum modules. For case you could export your beans package to the Spring Framework module. However this would fail for something like JPA, because JPA is a specification rather than a unique module, and it can exist implemented by different modules such as Hibernate, EclipseLink, etc.

    A third possibility is a "dynamic" export, where the package is accessible to anybody but by reflection only, not at compile time. This is a very new feature of JPMS and it is quiet controversial on the mailing lists. It is closest to OSGi's permissive approach, but it quiet requires the module author to explicitly add exports dynamic for every package that might hold types that exigency to exist reflectively loaded. As an OSGi user this feels like an unnecessary complication.

    Until the next instalment

    That’s it for portion 1 of their article. watch out for portion 2 coming in two weeks, in which they examine the topics of versioning, dynamic loading and the potential for future interoperability of OSGi and JPMS.

    About the Authors

    Neil Bartlett is a principal engineer, consultant, trainer and developer with Paremus. Neil has been working with Java since 1998 and OSGi since 2003 and specialises in Java, OSGi, Eclipse and Haskell. He is the founder of the Bndtools eclipse plugin, the leading IDE for OSGi. He can often exist establish on twitter (@nbartlett) tweeting on sum things #OSGi and answering questions on Stack Overflow where he is the only holder of a gold OSGi badge. Neil regularly contributes to the Paremus Blogs and is too writing his second book "Effective OSGi” which will note developers how to quickly accelerate their productivity with OSGi using the latest techniques and tools.

    Kai Hackbarth is an Evangelist at Bosch Software Innovations. He has been deeply involved in the technical standardization activities of the OSGi Alliance for more than 15 years. Kai is a member of the OSGi Alliance Board of Directors and has been co-chair of the OSGi Residential Expert Group since 2008. Kai is coordinating several research project activities in various IoT domains. His key focus areas are smart homes, automotive, and the Internet of Things in general, where he actively supports the current developments and strategic positioning of the product portfolio.

    References

    1 Thanks to Alex Blewitt for this analysis.2 The @Version annotation is used to imply export, since only exported packages exigency a version. In the next OSGi release a more specific @Export annotation is planned.3 This district changed again on Sept 12, 2016, just before this article went to press. Dynamic exports are now replaced with a concept of “weak modules”. They are quiet evaluating the impact of this fundamental change, and note that it has caused a further slip of 4 months in the release schedule of Java 9.



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