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gaining knowledge of Composer – counsel and hints | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Composer has revolutionized materiel management in personal home page. It upped the reusability video game and helped php builders full over the region the realm generate framework agnostic, thoroughly shareable code. but few people ever fade past the fundamentals, so this post will cover some constructive suggestions and hints.


although it’s naturally defined in the documentation, Composer can (and in most situations should) exist Put in globally. global installation talent that as a substitute of typing out

php composer.phar somecommand

you could just nature out

composer somecommand

in any project in anyway. This makes starting recent initiatives with, as an instance, the create-task command useless convenient in any region on your filesystem.

To set up Composer globally, comply with these guidelines.


To create a brand recent composer.json file in a stint (and consequently initialize a recent Composer-powered challenge), that you may use:

composer init

that you can besides circulate in some alternatives as defaults.

installing applications the birthright means

When studying tutorials or README info of initiatives, many will dispute anything like:

just add birthright here to your composer.json file: "require": "myproject": "someversion"

but this has a few downsides. One, the copy-pasting might besides interpose some blunders. Two, for a newbie, finding out where to vicinity the code if you possess already got an intensive composer.json file in your stint will besides exist tedious and additionally interpose errors. ultimately, many people will exist encountering Composer for the first time and in a command line, so covering the entire spend instances by which they may locate themselves isn’t practicable (do they possess a GUI text editor or are they on the command line? If it’s the latter, carry out they possess a text editor installed, and if so which? carry out you interpret the editing process or just fade away it? What if the file doesn’t exist of their projects? in case you cover the introduction of the file, too?).

The premiere approach to add a recent requirement to a composer.json file is with the require command:

composer require somepackage/somepackage:someversion

This provides every miniature thing that’s crucial into the file, bypassing full pilot intervention.

if you exigency to add packages to require-dev, add the --dev option, fancy so:

composer require phpunit/phpunit --dev

The require command supports adding a number of packages at once, simply part them with an area. commemorate that there is no deserve to specify the edition in this method, as viewed in the code snippet above – installing a kit this pass automatically grabs essentially the most synchronous edition of a kit, and tells you which of them one it picked.

Lock info

The composer.lock file saves the list of at the jiffy Put in applications, so that when a different adult clones your undertaking at a date when the dependencies may additionally had been up to date, they still regain the historical models installed. This helps execute sure full and sundry who grabs your project has the actual identical kit atmosphere as you probably did when the challenge became developed, keeping off any bugs that may were created because of version updates.

composer.lock should nearly always exist committed to edition control. perhaps.

composer.lock additionally contains the hash of the composer.json file, so if you update simply the assignment author, or some contact info, or an outline, you’ll regain a warning in regards to the lock file now not matching the json file – when that’s the case, working composer update --lock will support issues, updating handiest the lock file and never touching the rest.

version flags

When defining package models, you will spend exact matches (1.2.3), ranges with operators (<1.2.3), combos of operators (>1.2.three <1.three), most advantageous available (1.2.*), tilde (~1.2.three) and caret (^1.2.3).

The latter two may warrant further explanation:

  • tilde (~1.2.3) will fade up to version 1.three (now not included), as a result of in semantic versioning that’s when recent points regain introduced. Tilde fetches the maximum gauge honorable minor edition. as the doctors say, they are able to believe it as best the remaining digit special being allowed to trade.

  • caret (^1.2.three) potential “simplest exist careful of breaking alterations”, and may as a consequence fade as much as version 2.0. in accordance with semver, that’s when breaking changes are added, so 1.3,1.four and 1.9 are nice, while 2.0 isn't.

  • unless you recognize you want a specific edition, i recommend full the time the spend of the ~1.2.3 format – it’s your most secure guess.

    Configuration and world Configuration

    The default values are not fixed in stone. view the total config reference for particulars.

    for example, by pass of specifying:

    "config": "optimize-autoloader": true

    you compel Composer to optimize the classmap after each installing/update, or in other phrases, each time the autoload file is being generated. here is a bit bit slower than generating the default autoloader, and slows down as the challenge grows.

    one other positive alternative could exist the cache-data-maxsize – in gargantuan tasks fancy eZ publish or Symfony, the cache could regain full fairly quickly. expanding the size would reserve Composer posthaste longer.

    note that configuration will besides exist set globally, too, so it’s consistent throughout projects. view birthright here for how. for instance, to add the cache size atmosphere to their world configuration, they either edit ~/.composer/config.json or execute:

    composer config --international cache-data-maxsize "2048MiB" Profile and Verbose

    that you would exist able to add a --profile flag to any command you execute on the command line with Composer, and it’ll produce now not best a ultimate output fancy this:

    [174.6MB/54.70s] remembrance utilization: 174.58MB (peak: 513.47MB), time: 54.7s

    but besides prefix each line it outputs with the accurate total term of the command’s execution to this point, plus the reminiscence utilization:

    [175.9MB/54.64s] installation property for Sensio\Bundle\DistributionBundle into net/bundles/sensiodistribution

    i remove odds of this command regularly to establish the bottleneck programs and to study how the stats expand or humiliate on diverse models of php.

    Likewise, the --verbose flag will execute sure Composer outputs greater assistance with each and every operation it performs, helping you understand exactly what’s happening. Some americans possess even aliased their composer command to consist of composer --verbose --profile through default.

    customized Sources

    sometimes, you simply want to set up from a Github repo if your project isn’t yet on Packagist. might exist it’s beneath building, perhaps it’s in the neighborhood hosted, who is vigilant of. To carry out this, view their book.

    Likewise, when you possess your own version of a well-liked assignment that an extra Part of your stint is theme upon, that you could spend custom sources in aggregate with inline aliasing to wrong the version constraint fancy Matthieu Napoli did here.

    dashing up Composer

    As per this marvelous trick by designate Van Eijk, that you may pace up Composer’s execution by pass of making it accelerate on HHVM.

    a different approach is forcing it to spend --pick-dist which downloads a strong, packaged edition of a challenge as opposed to cloning it from the version handle gadget it’s on (tons slower). here's on through default, though, so you shouldn’t exigency to specify it on sturdy projects. in case you wish to down load the sources, spend the --pick-source flag. greater information about this within the alternatives of the deploy command birthright here.

    Making your Composer undertaking lighter

    if you’re someone who develops Composer-friendly projects, you may want to carry out your half, too. in response to this Reddit thread, which you could spend a .gitattributes file to disregard some of the files and folders full over packaging for the --decide upon-dist mode above.

    /doctors export-ignore /tests export-ignore /.gitattributes export-ignore /.gitignore export-ignore /.travis.yml export-ignore /phpunit.xml export-ignore

    How does this work? if you upload a assignment to Github, it immediately makes accessible the “download zip” button which which you could spend to down load an archive of your undertaking. What’s extra, Packagist uses these auto-generated archives to tug in the --prefer-dist dependencies, after which unarchives them once downloaded (a honorable deal faster than cloning). if you for that judgement ignore your assessments, docs and different logically irrelevant information by pass of listing them in .gitattributes, the archives gained’t comprise them, fitting an impoverished lot, a lot lighter.

    Naturally, individuals who exigency to debug your library or accelerate its tests may still then specify the --choose-source flag.

    The PhpLeague has adopted this strategy and included it in their kit skeleton, so any stint in accordance with it is immediately “dist friendly”.


    in case you ever overlook what version of Hypertext Preprocessor or its extensions you’re running, or exigency an inventory of the entire initiatives (and their descriptions) that you just’ve Put in internal the existing project and their models, you could spend the exhibit command with the --platform (brief -p) and --put in (brief -i) flags respectively:

    $ composer demonstrate --installed behat/behat v3.0.15 situation-oriented BDD framework for php 5.three behat/gherkin v4.three.0 Gherkin DSL parser for personal home page 5.3 behat/mink v1.5.0 net acceptance checking out framework for Hypertext Preprocessor 5.3 behat/mink-browserkit-driver v1.1.0 Symfony2 BrowserKit driver for Mink framework behat/mink-extension v2.0.1 Mink extension for Behat behat/mink-goutte-driver v1.0.9 Goutte driver for Mink framework behat/mink-sahi-driver v1.1.0 Sahi.JS driver for Mink framework behat/mink-selenium2-driver v1.1.1 Selenium2 (WebDriver) driver for Mink framework behat/sahi-customer dev-grasp ce7bfa7 Sahi.js client for Hypertext Preprocessor 5.3 behat/symfony2-extension v2.0.0 Symfony2 framework extension for Behat behat/transliterator v1.0.1 String transliterator add-ons/bootstrap three.3.2 essentially the most generic front-conclusion framework for constructing responsive, cellular first projects on the net. add-ons/jquery 2.1.3 jQuery JavaScript Library doctrine/annotations v1.2.4 Docblock Annotations Parser doctrine/cache v1.four.1 Caching library providing an object-oriented API for a lot of cache backends doctrine/collections v1.3.0 Collections Abstraction library doctrine/typical v2.5.0 habitual Library for dogma tasks doctrine/dbal v2.5.1 Database Abstraction Layer doctrine/doctrine-bundle v1.4.0 Symfony DoctrineBundle doctrine/doctrine-cache-bundle v1.0.1 Symfony2 Bundle for dogma Cache doctrine/inflector v1.0.1 ordinary String Manipulations with reference to casing and singular/plural suggestions. doctrine/instantiator 1.0.4 A small, light-weight utility to instantiate objects in php devoid of invoking their constructors doctrine/lexer v1.0.1 base library for a lexer that can besides exist used in suitable-Down, Recursive Descent Parsers. egulias/listeners-debug-command-bundle 1.9.1 Symfony 2 console command to debug listeners ezsystems/behatbundle dev-grasp bd95e1b Behat bundle for support trying out eZ Bundles and initiatives ezsystems/feedback-bundle dev-grasp 8f95bc7 Commenting system for eZ Put up ezsystems/demobundle dev-grasp c13fb0b Demo bundle for eZ post Platform ezsystems/demobundle-facts v0.1.0 statistics for ezsystems/demobundle ezsystems/ezpublish-kernel dev-master 3d6e48d eZ post API and kernel. this is the coronary heart of eZ Put up 5. ezsystems/platform-ui-belongings-bundle v0.5.0 exterior belongings dependencies for PlatformUIBundle ezsystems/platform-ui-bundle dev-grasp 4d0442d eZ Platform UI package dealezsystems/privateness-cookie-bundle v0.1 privacy cookie banner integration bundle into eZ submit/eZ Platform fabpot/goutte v1.0.7 an smooth personal home page web Scraper friendsofsymfony/http-cache 1.3.1 tools to control cache invalidation friendsofsymfony/http-cache-bundle 1.2.1 Set direction primarily based HTTP cache headers and ship invalidation requests to your HTTP cache guzzle/guzzle v3.9.3 php HTTP client. This library is deprecated in favor of hautelook/templated-uri-bundle 2.0.0 Symfony2 Bundle that provides a RFC-6570 suitable router and URL Generator. hautelook/templated-uri-router 2.0.1 Symfony2 RFC-6570 compatible router and URL Generator think about/think about 0.6.2 picture processing for personal home page 5.three incenteev/composer-parameter-handler v2.1.0 Composer script coping with your omitted parameter fileinstaclick/php-webdriver 1.0.17 php WebDriver for Selenium 2 jdorn/sql-formatter v1.2.17 a Hypertext Preprocessor SQL highlighting library knplabs/knp-menu v1.1.2 An demur oriented menu library knplabs/knp-menu-bundle v1.1.2 This bundle gives an integration of the KnpMenu library kriswallsmith/assetic v1.2.1 Asset administration for php kriswallsmith/buzz v0.13 lightweight HTTP customer league/flysystem 0.5.12 Many filesystems, one API. liip/imagine-bundle 1.2.6 This Bundle assists in imagine manipulation the spend of the account about library monolog/monolog 1.13.1 Sends your logs to files, sockets, inboxes, databases and quite a few internet facilitiesnelmio/cors-bundle 1.three.3 adds CORS (cross-beginning aid Sharing) headers support to your Symfony2 utility ocramius/proxy-manager 0.5.2 A library offering utilities to generate, instantiate and customarily function with demur Proxies oneup/flysystem-bundle v0.4.2 Integrates Flysystem filesystem abstraction library to your Symfony2 undertaking. pagerfanta/pagerfanta v1.0.3 Pagination for personal home page 5.three phpdocumentor/reflection-docblock 2.0.four phpspec/prophecy v1.four.1 enormously opinionated mocking framework for php 5.3+ phpunit/php-code-insurance 2.0.sixteen Library that provides collection, processing, and rendering performance for personal home page code coverage tips. phpunit/Hypertext Preprocessor-file-iterator 1.four.0 FilterIterator implementation that filters files based on an inventory of suffixes. phpunit/personal home page-textual content-template 1.2.0 elementary template engine. phpunit/php-timer 1.0.5 Utility class for timing phpunit/personal home page-token-circulation 1.4.1 Wrapper around php's tokenizer extension. phpunit/phpunit 4.6.four The personal home page Unit trying out framework. phpunit/phpunit-mock-objects 2.3.1 Mock demur library for PHPUnit psr/log 1.0.0 generic interface for logging libraries qafoo/rmf 1.0.0 Very elementary VC framework which makes it effortless to build HTTP purposes / relaxation webservices sebastian/comparator 1.1.1 provides the performance to examine Hypertext Preprocessor values for equality sebastian/diff 1.3.0 Diff implementation sebastian/environment 1.2.2 provides functionality to tackle HHVM/Hypertext Preprocessor environments sebastian/exporter 1.2.0 offers the performance to export personal home page variables for visualizationsebastian/global-state 1.0.0 Snapshotting of world state sebastian/recursion-context 1.0.0 gives performance to recursively system php variables sebastian/edition 1.0.5 Library that helps with managing the version number of Git-hosted Hypertext Preprocessor projects sensio/distribution-bundle v3.0.21 base bundle for Symfony Distributions sensio/framework-additional-bundle v3.0.7 This bundle offers a pass to configure your controllers with annotations sensio/generator-bundle v2.5.3 This bundle generates code for you sensiolabs/protection-checker v2.0.2 A protection checker for your composer.lock swiftmailer/swiftmailer v5.four.0 Swiftmailer, free characteristic-rich personal home page mailer symfony-cmf/routing 1.three.0 Extends the Symfony2 routing component for dynamic routes and chaining a brace of routers symfony/assetic-bundle v2.6.1 Integrates Assetic into Symfony2 symfony/monolog-bundle v2.7.1 Symfony MonologBundle symfony/swiftmailer-bundle v2.three.8 Symfony SwiftmailerBundle symfony/symfony v2.6.6 The Symfony php framework tedivm/stash v0.12.3 The region to preserve your cache. tedivm/stash-bundle v0.four.2 comprises the Stash caching library into Symfony. twig/extensions v1.2.0 typical additional aspects for Twig that don't at once belong in coretwig/twig v1.18.1 Twig, the flexible, fast, and at ease template language for personal home page white-october/pagerfanta-bundle v1.0.2 Bundle to spend Pagerfanta with Symfony2 whiteoctober/breadcrumbs-bundle 1.0.2 A miniature breadcrumbs bundle for Symfony2 zendframework/zend-code 2.2.10 offers amenities to generate capricious code the spend of an demur oriented interface zendframework/zend-eventmanager 2.2.10 zendframework/zend-stdlib 2.2.10 zetacomponents/base 1.9 the base materiel gives the basic infrastructure that every one packages weigh on. hence every component depends on this equipment. zetacomponents/feed 1.4 This component handles parsing and growing RSS1, RSS2 and ATOM feeds, with aid for distinctive feed modules (dc, content material, creativeCommons, geo, iTunes). zetacomponents/mail 1.8.1 The component allows for you construct and/or parse Mail messages conforming to the mail usual. It has support for attachments, multipart messages and HTML mail. It besides interfaces with SMTP to forward mail or IMAP, P... zetacomponents/equipment-advice 1.1 gives access to habitual system variables, akin to CPU category and pace, and the obtainable quantity of reminiscence. Dry Runs

    To simply view if an installing of latest necessities would fade well, that you would exist able to spend the --dry-run flag with Composer’s install and replace command. this may cast the entire potential problems at you, with out in reality inflicting them – no changes will in reality exist made. superb for testing huge requirement and setup alterations earlier than definitely committing to them.

    composer replace --dry-run --profile --verbose Create assignment

    ultimate but not least, they must mention the create-challenge command, apposite to anything and every thing.

    Create challenge takes a package identify as the argument, then clones the package and executes composer install inner it. here's marvelous for bootstrapping projects – no more checking out the exact Github URL of the materiel you want, then cloning, then manually going into the folder and executing install.

    primary projects similar to Symfony and Laravel spend this strategy to bootstrap a skeleton utility, and a lot of others are jumping on board.

    With Laravel, for instance, it’s used fancy this:

    composer create-venture laravel/laravel --pick-dist --profile --verbose

    The create-project command besides accepts two parameters. the primary is the path into which to deploy. If not noted, the undertaking’s identify is used. The 2d is the version. If omitted, the newest edition is used.


    Hope this list of guidance and tricks has been effective! If they ignored some, carry out inform us and we’ll update the Put up! And suffer in mind – if you ignore one of the most commands or switches, simply check out the cheatsheet. satisfied Composing!

    Bruno is a blockchain developer and code auditor from Croatia with grasp’s levels in computer Science and English Language and Literature. he's been a web developer for 10 years unless JavaScript drove him away. He now runs a cryptocurrency company at by means of which he makes blockchain tech approachable to the loads, and runs Coinvendor, an on-boarding platform for people to effectively purchase cryptocurrency. He’s besides a developer evangelist for, a San Francisco-based mostly AI-powered computing device vision internet scraper.

    What's in the box? Interrogate Your Linux machine's Hardware | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    I lately had a problem attempting to installation the NVIDIA driver for my computer. It gave the stamp the newest driver had stopped helping my pics card, and after updating my kernel, i was out of a driver. The query, without doubt, became "which card did I have?" however, I did not exist aware. in case you must cognomen the chipset of your motherboard, specify the CPU for your box or regain some other variety of hardware-linked tips, Linux offers a brace of utilities to aid you. In my case, I at once might regain the entire identification of my pictures card, verify that it definitely turned into getting a miniature bit long in the enamel and elect that a more recent one wasn't such a nasty theory.

    in this article, I dispute several methods of getting hardware data on your laptop. in the most habitual Linux shell way, I exhibit how to labor with a few command-line utilities, but if you prefer the usage of a GUI, I besides consist of some graphical programs. And, if you wish to regain into the nitty-gritty particulars, I supply some tips on the pass to regain that counsel through the spend of the /proc or /sys filesystem.

    word list

    Working with hardware capacity dealing with several acronyms, and i must admit, I had been the usage of at the least a few them with out remembering precisely what they intended. here's a listing of definitions you're going to certainly need:

  • ACPI (superior Configuration and vigour Interface): regarding power aspects.

  • AGP (Accelerated snap shots Port): a channel to enable attaching a video pictures card (not typically considered considering round 2008).

  • APM (advanced power management): older than ACPI, besides concerning energy concerns.

  • ATA (AT Attachment): "AT", as in the historical IBM AT, a typical to link storage instruments, superseded via SATA in 2003.

  • BIOS (simple input/Output gadget): firmware used when booting an Intel-suitable workstation.

  • DMA (Direct reminiscence entry): a characteristic that makes it practicable for giving hardware entry to RAM, independently of the CPU.

  • DMI (laptop management Interface): a framework for keeping song of contraptions in a laptop.

  • IDE (built-in pressure Electronics): an interface habitual that later developed into ATA.

  • IRQ (Interrupt ReQuest): a hardware signal that permits an interrupt handler to procedure a given experience.

  • PCI (Peripheral Part Interconnect): a bus commonplace for attaching assorted hardware gadgets to a laptop, created in 1992.

  • UEFI (Unified EFI—Extensible Firmware Interface): a 2005 substitute for BIOS, which deprecated the previous 1998 EFI usual.

  • USB (common Serial Bus): a common bus described in 1995 to permit connecting full kinds of peripherals to a computer.

  • PATA (Parallel ATA): the recent cognomen for ATA, after SATA came out.

  • PCIe (PCI express): a high-pace serial bus that changed PCI and AGP in 2004.

  • RAID (Redundant Array of impartial—originally, "good value"—Disks): a knowledge storage virtualization know-how that combines several drives to labor as a lone one for performance improvement and/or statistics redundancy. There are several RAID schemes, together with RAID 0 ("striping"), RAID 1 ("mirroring"), RAID 5 ("striping + parity") and RAID 10 ("striping + mirroring").

  • SATA (Serial ATA): a bus interface to connect storage contraptions, at the jiffy used in practically full PCs.

  • SCSI (Small desktop device Interface—suggested "scuzzy"): a set of requirements for connection of instruments and transfer of information between computer systems and peripherals.

  • The ls Command family

    Let's start the command-line labor with a collection of a number of utilities, whose names full delivery with ls (table 1). Some of these commands deliver overlapping information (lsdev or lshw, for example), however through the spend of full of them, that you could regain a gorgeous limpid thought of anything may well exist inner your Linux container.

    desk 1. The ls* family of commands lets you entry full features of your hardware. Command Description lsblk Produces advice about full obscure instruments, akin to challenging disks, DVD readers and more. lscpu indicates suggestions fancy number of CPUs, cores, threads and extra. lsdev shows records about full instruments of which the gadget is conscious. lshw Lists accepted hardware statistics—offers counsel on every aspect of your hardware. lspci shows advice about PCI buses in your box and gadgets linked to them, equivalent to pics playing cards, community adapters and extra. lsscsi provides tips on full SCSI gadgets or hosts connected to your field, reminiscent of arduous disk drives or optical drives. lsusb Generates tips about USB buses in your box and devices linked to them.

    Let's start with CPU information. The lscpu command gives information on the CPUs in your box. which you could elect to consist of full CPUs, even if off-line or on line, with the -.all parameter, or you can opt for --on-line and --offline. The --parse altenative permits you to select what CPU traits to listing, together with quantity, socket, cache statistics, optimum and minimum accelerate (in MHz) and greater. In my case, you're going to view that my computer has a a bit of historic single-socket, 4-core, Intel Core 2 Quad CPU, at 2.66GHz:

    > lscpu architecture: x86_64 CPU op-mode(s): 32-bit, 64-bit Byte Order: miniature Endian CPU(s): 4 on line CPU(s) listing: 0-three Thread(s) per core: 1 Core(s) per socket: 4 Socket(s): 1 NUMA node(s): 1 supplier identity: GenuineIntel CPU family unit: 6 model: 23 mannequin identify: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q8400 @ 2.66GHz Stepping: 10 CPU MHz: 2003.000 CPU max MHz: 2670.0000 CPU min MHz: 2003.0000 BogoMIPS: 5340.sixty seven Virtualization: VT-x L1d cache: 32K L1i cache: 32K L2 cache: 2048K NUMA node0 CPU(s): 0-three

    (notice: you can regain most of this assistance by means of inspecting the /proc/cpuinfo file or by pass of browsing the /sys/bus/cpu/ directories; view the DIY with /proc and /sys sidebar for greater on this.)

    Let's stream on to obscure contraptions, reminiscent of complicated disks, or CD and DVD devices. The lsblk command produces tips on full accessible obscure gadgets (see list 1 for an instance). As that you can see, I even possess three tough disks and a ROM (DVD) device. The three disks are referred to as /dev/sda, /dev/sdb and /dev/sdc; the ROM machine is /dev/sr0. The disks are 466GB, 149GB and a pair of.7TB in measurement. which you could regain a miniature suggestions about partitioning too; for instance, that you would exist able to view that the primary two disks possess a swap area enabled, but the third one doesn't. You can besides regain the mountpoints (/, /disk-computing device and /disk-records) for the three disks.

    record 1. The lsblk command suggests full obscure (storage) contraptions. The --topology altenative adds added particulars; try --output-fascinated with much more. > lsblk --paths identify MAJ:MIN RM dimension RO class MOUNTPOINT /dev/sda eight:0 0 465.8G 0 disk |__/dev/sda1 eight:1 0 4G 0 Part [SWAP] |__/dev/sda2 8:2 0 461.8G 0 Part / /dev/sdb 8:16 0 149.1G 0 disk |__/dev/sdb1 8:17 0 4G 0 Part [SWAP] |__/dev/sdb2 8:18 0 145G 0 half /disk-desktop /dev/sdc 8:32 0 2.7T 0 disk |__/dev/sdc1 eight:33 0 2.7T 0 Part /disk-statistics /dev/sr0 eleven:0 1 1024M 0 rom > lsblk --paths --topology identify ALIGNMENT MIN-IO choose-IO PHY-SEC LOG-SEC ROTA SCHED RQ-size RA WSAME sda 0 512 0 512 512 1 cfq 128 128 0B |__sda1 0 512 0 512 512 1 cfq 128 128 0B |__sda2 0 512 0 512 512 1 cfq 128 128 0B sdb 0 512 0 512 512 1 cfq 128 128 0B |__sdb1 0 512 0 512 512 1 cfq 128 128 0B |__sdb2 0 512 0 512 512 1 cfq 128 128 0B sdc 0 4096 0 4096 512 1 cfq 128 128 0B |__sdc1 0 4096 0 4096 512 1 cfq 128 128 0B sr0 0 512 0 512 512 1 cfq 128 128 0B

    there are lots of practicable not obligatory arguments, however the most customarily used are --paths, which produces full device paths, and --topology, in case you possess an interest in interior particulars, corresponding to physical sector dimension, I/O scheduler cognomen and so on. that you may regain proprietor, community and permissions guidance with --perm, as shown beneath (and, in case you really want unique suggestions, are attempting --output-all, so as to list about 50 columns' worth of facts):

    > lsblk --perm identify measurement proprietor community MODE sda 465.8G root disk brw-rw---- |__sda1 4G root disk brw-rw---- |__sda2 461.8G root disk brw-rw---- sdb 149.1G root disk brw-rw---- |__sdb1 4G root disk brw-rw---- |__sdb2 145G root disk brw-rw---- sdc 2.7T root disk brw-rw---- |__sdc1 2.7T root disk brw-rw---- sr0 1024M root cdrom brw-rw----

    For SCSI instruments, which you can add --scsi to lsblk, but there's additionally the more specific lsscsi command. The primary counsel it produces is shown below, and it includes full attainable SCSI devices. In my case, it indicates the three arduous disks and the optical reader I already discovered with lsblk, plus three card readers. exist vigilant that you simply additionally regain more advice on selected manufacturers and models. as an instance, I possess two Western Digital tough drives (WD5000AAKS and WD30EZRX), plus a Maxtor laptop power (STM316021) and a Sony advert-7200S DVD unit:

    > lsscsi [2:0:0:0] disk ATA WDC WD5000AAKS-0 1D05 /dev/sda [2:0:1:0] disk ATA MAXTOR STM316021 D /dev/sdb [3:0:0:0] disk ATA WDC WD30EZRX-00M 0A80 /dev/sdc [3:0:1:0] cd/dvd SONY DVD RW advert-7200S 1.sixty one /dev/sr0 [4:0:0:0] disk Sony Card_R/W -CF 1.11 /dev/sdd [4:0:0:1] disk Sony Card_R/W -SD 1.eleven /dev/sde [4:0:0:2] disk Sony Card_R/W -MS 1.11 /dev/sdf

    try full the probabilities of this command with lsscsi --assist. you're going to view that you really can dig down into SCSI contraptions with it. And, if you're interested, this command works by using scanning the /sys filesystem (see elements, and the DIY with /proc and /sys sidebar for more information).

    Now, let's movement on to every other commands. lsusb gives guidance on full USB-connected gadgets; view checklist 2 for an instance. (An option is usb-devices, however's quite more imprecise in its output and has no configuration alternatives.) As in most up to date computer systems, you will probably possess loads of such instruments. In my case, I even possess a Bluetooth dongle, Webcam, keyboard, mouse and more. which you can regain suggestions on a particular bus or gadget with the -s altenative or elect a given seller with the -d choice; for the latter, check the USB id repository (see substances) for dealer/machine numbers. eventually, if you wish very targeted information, are trying the -v (verbose) option, however exist organized to study a total lot. For my desktop, lsusb -v produces more than 1,300 traces of output.

    listing 2. The lsusb command reviews full USB-linked instruments, as a list or in tree kind. > lsusb Bus 001 device 001: id 1d6b:0002 Linux foundation ↪2.0 root hub Bus 005 device 002: id 054c:01bd Sony Corp. MRW62E ↪Multi-Card Reader/writer Bus 005 gadget 001: identification 1d6b:0001 Linux foundation 1.1 ↪root hub Bus 004 gadget 001: identification 1d6b:0001 Linux basis 1.1 ↪root hub Bus 003 device 002: id 0a12:0001 Cambridge Silicon ↪Radio, Ltd Bluetooth Dongle (HCI mode) Bus 003 materiel 006: identification 1e4e:0100 Cubeternet WebCam Bus 003 device 005: id 046d:c317 Logitech, Inc. ↪Wave Corded Keyboard Bus 003 materiel 004: identification 04f3:0232 Elan ↪Microelectronics Corp. Mouse Bus 003 gadget 003: identification 05e3:0608 Genesys common sense, ↪Inc. Hub Bus 003 device 001: id 1d6b:0001 Linux groundwork ↪1.1 root hub Bus 002 materiel 001: id 1d6b:0001 Linux groundwork ↪1.1 root hub > lsusb --tree /: Bus 05.Port 1: Dev 1, category=root_hub, Driver=uhci_hcd/2p, 12M |__ Port 2: Dev 2, If 0, category=Mass Storage, ↪Driver=usb-storage, 12M /: Bus 04.Port 1: Dev 1, classification=root_hub, Driver=uhci_hcd/2p, 12M /: Bus 03.Port 1: Dev 1, classification=root_hub, Driver=uhci_hcd/2p, 12M |__ Port 1: Dev 3, If 0, classification=Hub, Driver=hub/4p, 12M |__ Port 1: Dev 4, If 0, classification=Human Interface machine, ↪Driver=usbhid, 1.5M |__ Port 2: Dev 5, If 0, class=Human Interface equipment, ↪Driver=usbhid, 1.5M |__ Port 2: Dev 5, If 1, class=Human Interface gadget, ↪Driver=usbhid, 1.5M |__ Port 3: Dev 6, If 0, type=Video, Driver=uvcvideo, 12M |__ Port three: Dev 6, If 1, category=Video, Driver=uvcvideo, 12M |__ Port 2: Dev 2, If 0, category=wireless, Driver=btusb, 12M |__ Port 2: Dev 2, If 1, class=instant, Driver=btusb, 12M /: Bus 02.Port 1: Dev 1, category=root_hub, Driver=uhci_hcd/2p, 12M /: Bus 01.Port 1: Dev 1, classification=root_hub, Driver=ehci-pci/8p, 480M

    another command that may produce a ton of advice is lspci, which indicates full statistics on PCI instruments. And, as a exist counted of reality, here is the genuine command I used to recollect what shape of graphics card I had:

    # lspci 00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel organisation four series ↪Chipset DRAM Controller (rev 03) 00:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel agency 4 collection ↪Chipset PCI specific Root Port (rev 03) 00:1b.0 Audio equipment: Intel service provider NM10/ICH7 ↪household elevated Definition Audio Controller (rev 01) 00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel trade enterprise NM10/ICH7 ↪household PCI specific Port 1 (rev 01) 00:1c.1 PCI bridge: Intel enterprise NM10/ICH7 ↪household PCI categorical Port 2 (rev 01) 00:1d.0 USB controller: Intel service provider NM10/ICH7 ↪family unit USB UHCI Controller #1 (rev 01) 00:1d.1 USB controller: Intel trade enterprise NM10/ICH7 ↪family USB UHCI Controller #2 (rev 01) 00:1d.2 USB controller: Intel supplier NM10/ICH7 ↪household USB UHCI Controller #three (rev 01) 00:1d.three USB controller: Intel service provider NM10/ICH7 ↪family unit USB UHCI Controller #four (rev 01) 00:1d.7 USB controller: Intel corporation NM10/ICH7 ↪family unit USB2 EHCI Controller (rev 01) 00:1e.0 PCI bridge: Intel enterprise 82801 PCI ↪Bridge (rev e1) 00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel corporation 82801GB/GR ↪(ICH7 family unit) LPC Interface Bridge (rev 01) 00:1f.1 IDE interface: Intel service provider 82801G (ICH7 ↪household) IDE Controller (rev 01) 00:1f.2 IDE interface: Intel trade enterprise NM10/ICH7 ↪family unit SATA Controller [IDE mode] (rev 01) 00:1f.three SMBus: Intel employer NM10/ICH7 household ↪SMBus Controller (rev 01) 01:00.0 Ethernet controller: Qualcomm Atheros AR8152 ↪v2.0 quick Ethernet (rev c1) 04:00.0 VGA confiscate controller: NVIDIA enterprise ↪GK107 [GeForce GT 740] (rev a1) 04:00.1 Audio gadget: NVIDIA service provider GK107 HDMI ↪Audio Controller (rev a1)

    try the -v or -vv alternatives, for verbose and very verbose listings. To regain full information on my (current) photos card, I proceeded as proven in record 3. I now possess an NVIDIA GeForce 740, and that i'm the spend of the nouveau kernel driver, among different interior particulars. Of direction, to account the produced counsel fully, you should possess quite of journey with PCI contraptions. are attempting the equal command with -vv, and you'll view what i am talking about.

    checklist 3. The -v alternative gives greater distinctive tips; -vv goes even deeper. # lspci -v -s four:00.0 04:00.0 VGA suitable controller: NVIDIA organization ↪GK107 [GeForce GT 740] (rev a1) ↪(prog-if 00 [VGA controller]) Subsystem: Corp. gadget 2742 Flags: bus grasp, posthaste devsel, latency 0, IRQ 27 remembrance at fd000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16M] reminiscence at e0000000 (sixty four-bit, prefetchable) [size=256M] reminiscence at de000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=32M] I/O ports at ec00 [size=128] [virtual] growth ROM at fe000000 [disabled] [size=512K] Capabilities: [60] vigour management version three Capabilities: [68] MSI: enable+ weigh number=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+ Capabilities: [78] specific Endpoint, MSI 00 Capabilities: [b4] supplier specific suggestions: Len=14 Capabilities: [100] digital Channel Capabilities: [128] power Budgeting Capabilities: [600] supplier sure counsel: identification=0001 ↪Rev=1 Len=024 Capabilities: [900] #19 Kernel driver in use: nouveau Kernel modules: nouveau

    if you're even more electronically/digitally minded, lsdev produces suggestions about your Put in hardware, including interrupts, ports, addresses and full such inside details. This command offers no alternatives, and or not it's no longer seemingly you are going to spend it except you are dealing very carefully with hardware. list four indicates an abbreviated illustration of the output. This command scans /proc/interrupts, /proc/ioports and /proc/dma, as described in the DIY with /proc and /sys sidebar.

    listing four. The lsdev command gives suggestions on interrupts, ports and direct remembrance entry. > lsdev device DMA IRQ I/O Ports ------------------------------------------------ 7 0000:00:1d.0 c480-c49f 0000:00:1d.1 c800-c81f 0000:00:1d.2 c880-c89f ... ... (a brace of strains snipped out) ... eth0 29 fpu 00f0-00ff gpio_ich 0480-04bf 04b0-04bf i801_smbus 19 0400-041f i8042 1 12 iTCO_wdt 0830-0833 0830-0833 0860-087f 0860-087f keyboard 0060-0060 0064-0064 ... ... (a number of traces snipped out) ... timer 0 timer0 0040-0043 timer1 0050-0053 uhci_hcd c480-c49f c800-c81f c880-c89f cc00-cc1f uhci_hcd:usb2 23 uhci_hcd:usb3 19 uhci_hcd:usb4 18 uhci_hcd:usb5 16 vesafb 03c0-03df

    finally, in case you've made it this a ways, the lshw command is a sort of capture-all that can produce lots of advice on full of your Put in hardware. The -brief alternative gives a (a little) abbreviated record of everything in your container (see listing 5, and commemorate some enjoyable lines, "To exist crammed by using O.E.M.", which demonstrate that someone turned into heedless when setting up my motherboard). With this command, you regain counsel on the system, buses, memory, processor, reveal, network and everything else.

    checklist 5. The lshw command contains information on your entire hardware." # lshw -shortH/W course gadget category Description ============================================================= gadget To exist crammed ↪through O.E.M. /0 bus G41M-VS3. /0/0 remembrance 64KiB BIOS /0/4 processor Core 2 Quad (To exist ↪stuffed by using O.E.M.) /0/4/5 remembrance 128KiB L1 cache /0/four/6 reminiscence 4MiB L2 cache /0/d reminiscence 4GiB gadget memory /0/d/0 reminiscence 4GiB DIMM SDRAM ↪Synchronous /0/d/1 reminiscence DIMM [empty] /0/a hundred bridge four series Chipset ↪DRAM Controller /0/a hundred/1 bridge 4 sequence Chipset ↪PCI specific Root Port /0/a hundred/1/0 monitor GK107 [GeForce ↪GT 740] /0/one hundred/1/0.1 multimedia GK107 HDMI Audio ↪Controller /0/100/1b multimedia NM10/ICH7 family ↪excessive Definition Audio Controller /0/one hundred/1c bridge NM10/ICH7 household ↪PCI express Port 1 /0/one hundred/1c.1 bridge NM10/ICH7 family ↪PCI specific Port 2 /0/a hundred/1c.1/0 eth0 network AR8152 v2.0 speedy ↪Ethernet /0/one hundred/1d bus NM10/ICH7 household ↪USB UHCI Controller #1 /0/one hundred/1d/1 usb2 bus UHCI Host Controller /0/a hundred/1d.1 bus NM10/ICH7 family ↪USB UHCI Controller #2 /0/a hundred/1d.1/1 usb3 bus UHCI Host Controller /0/a hundred/1d.1/1/1 bus USB2.0 Hub /0/a hundred/1d.1/1/1/1 enter OM /0/one hundred/1d.1/1/1/2 enter USB Multimedia ↪Keyboard /0/a hundred/1d.1/1/1/3 multimedia USB2.0 camera /0/100/1d.1/1/2 verbal exchange Bluetooth Dongle ↪(HCI mode) ...a brace of strains snipped out... /0/1 scsi2 storage /0/1/0.0.0 /dev/sda disk 500GB WDC ↪WD5000AAKS-0 /0/1/0.0.0/1 /dev/sda1 extent 4102MiB Linux ↪swap extent /0/1/0.0.0/2 /dev/sda2 extent 461GiB EXT4 extent /0/1/0.1.0 /dev/sdb disk 160GB MAXTOR ↪STM316021 /0/1/0.1.0/1 /dev/sdb1 volume 4094MiB Linux ↪swap volume /0/1/0.1.0/2 /dev/sdb2 extent 145GiB EXT3 volume /0/2 scsi3 storage /0/2/0.0.0 /dev/sdc disk 3TB WDC ↪WD30EZRX-00M /0/2/0.0.0/1 /dev/sdc1 quantity 2794GiB EXT4 quantity /0/2/0.1.0 /dev/cdrom disk DVD RW advert-7200S

    notice the "class" column in listing 5. you can regain a hint of the total counsel that lshw can deliver through the spend of the -category parameter to restrict output. for instance, view beneath the special specs on my community card; it suggests the vendor, model and plenty of different details (warning: here is the variety of output you regain if you carry out not obviate the command with -brief; for my desktop, lshw with out a extra alternate options produces a list more than 500 lines lengthy):

    # lshw -category community *-community description: Ethernet interface product: AR8152 v2.0 posthaste Ethernet seller: Qualcomm Atheros actual identity: 0 bus data: pci@0000:01:00.0 rational identify: eth0 edition: c1 serial: bc:5f:f4:12:e0:f1 size: 100Mbit/s skill: 100Mbit/s width: sixty four bits clock: 33MHz capabilities: pm msi pciexpress vpd bus_master ↪cap_list ethernet physical tp 10bt 10bt-fd ↪100bt 100bt-fd autonegotiation configuration: autonegotiation=on broadcast=sure ↪driver=atl1c driverversion= ↪duplex=full latency=0 hyperlink=sure multicast=sure ↪port=twisted pair pace=100Mbit/s elements: irq:29 reminiscence:fcfc0000-fcffffff ↪ioport:dc00(measurement=128)

    The lshw command has several other entertaining alternate options. for example, it could possibly produce either HTML or XML output (add the -html or -xml alternatives); the previous is confiscate for showing in a browser, while the latter is useful if you are looking to store or fashion your hardware tips. view device 1 for only a miniature a Part of the total hardware description of my field. For safety purposes, the -sanitize option gets rid of choice guidance, akin to serial numbers. there's even an -X option to execute spend of a graphical interface (i could regain to that later).

    figure 1. The lshw command besides can produce HTML or XML output; the former is shown birthright here.

    up to now, I've discussed a brace of ls* commands, and in spite of the fact that they don't look to exist in reality a "family", they're my favorite tools. or not it's effortless to exist vigilant them by means of typing ls and letting classification-forward imply the rest. youngsters, there are extra command-line chances, so let's remove a look.

    What's SMBIOS?

    How does Linux appreciate what devices are Put in? in view that 1995, the SMBIOS (device administration BIOS) specification has offered this nature of suggestions, doing away with the want for probably worrisome operations fancy hardware probing. This commonplace (used via DMI) is geared to the Intel 32- and 64-bit processor architecture programs. truly, it defines a structure with acceptable facts for every variety of machine, akin to CPU, RAM, device slots and more. On principle, you might parse and decode this table with the aid of your self, however a number of of the commands proven in this article already carry out this job. if you are curious about the specifics of the commonplace, view the materials section.

    more Command-Line alternate options

    Let's start with some typical instructions. the primary, dmidecode, permits you to dump the desktop's DMI (or SMBIOS; view the What's SMBIOS? sidebar) in a extra readable format. If the desk is discovered, its contents are dumped list by pass of checklist, comparable to this:

    # dmidecode -t 6 # dmidecode 2.12 SMBIOS 2.5 existing. deal with 0x0009, DMI category 6, 12 bytes reminiscence Module advice Socket Designation: DIMM0 monetary institution Connections: 0 1 present velocity: Unknown category: DIMM SDRAM Put in dimension: 4096 MB (Double-financial institution Connection) Enabled measurement: 4096 MB (Double-bank Connection) oversight popularity: honorable enough tackle 0x000A, DMI nature 6, 12 bytes reminiscence Module tips Socket Designation: DIMM1 monetary institution Connections: 4 5 existing velocity: Unknown type: DIMM SDRAM Put in size: no longer Put in Enabled size: no longer installed oversight status: honorable enough

    in case you don't are looking to listing the total desk (several hundred traces in my laptop), that you could obviate the output to a selected class of entry, in response to SMBIOS definitions (desk 2).

    desk 2. SMBIOS has a few list forms so you might elect with dmidecode. classification Description 0 BIOS 1 gadget 2 Baseboard three Chassis four Processor fiveMemory Controller 6 memory Module 7 Cache 8 Port Connector 9device Slots 10 On-board devices eleven OEM Strings 12 gadget Configuration alternate options 13 BIOS Language 14 group institutions15 system suffer Log sixteen actual reminiscence Array 17 reminiscence device 18 32-bit reminiscence error19 reminiscence Array Mapped tackle 20 reminiscence machine Mapped tackle 21 built-in Pointing equipment 22 transportable Battery 23 system Reset 24 Hardware security25 equipment power Controls 26 Voltage Probe 27 Cooling device 28 Temperature Probe 29 Electrical latest Probe 30 Out-of-band faraway access 31 Boot Integrity facilities32 system Boot 33 64-bit reminiscence errors34 administration device 35 administration materiel element 36 management device Threshold records 37 memory Channel 38 IPMI equipment 39 vigour provide 40 more information 41 Onboard instruments extended tips 42 management Controller Host Interface 126 Disabled entry127 "end-of-desk" particular Marker 128–255 OEM-selected records

    You besides can spend particular key terms to impede the output to just a few kinds (desk 3).

    table 3. You can besides spend special key terms to regain related assistance from SMBIOS. SMBIOS keyword SMBIOS varieties bios 0,13 device 1,12,15,23,32 baseboard 2,10,forty one chassis three processor 4 reminiscence 5,6,16,17 cache 7 connector 8 slot 9

    If I had been to supply an award for "Most loquacious Command", surely it would fade to hwinfo, a further command that may dump full of the hardware assistance on your laptop. On my computing device, working hwinfo with None parameters produces greater than 12,000 strains, including a few remembrance dumps of the SMBIOS table. which you could produce a a honorable deal extra compact version with the --brief alternative (listing 6).

    listing 6. The hwinfo command can besides exist reasonably talkative; the spend of the --brief alternative makes it more manageable. # hwinfo --shortcpu: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q8400 @ 2.66GHz, 2670 MHz Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q8400 @ 2.66GHz, 2336 MHz Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q8400 @ 2.66GHz, 2670 MHz Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q8400 @ 2.66GHz, 2670 MHz keyboard: Logitech USB Multimedia Keyboard mouse: Elan Microelectronics OM monitor: SAMSUNG SA300/SA350 SAMSUNG S20B300 snap shots card: nVidia VGA suitable controller sound: Intel NM10/ICH7 family unit elevated Definition Audio Controller nVidia GK107 HDMI Audio Controller storage: Intel 82801G (ICH7 family unit) IDE Controller Intel NM10/ICH7 family unit SATA Controller [IDE mode] community: eth0 Atheros AR8152 v2.0 speedy Ethernet community interface: lo Loopback network interface eth0 Ethernet community interface disk: /dev/sda WDC WD5000AAKS-0 /dev/sdb MAXTOR STM316021 /dev/sdc WDC WD30EZRX-00M ...and so on (leisure of the listing, snipped out)

    which you can preclude hwinfo to a particular nature of hardware via including an choice, reminiscent of --display screen or --printer. regain the total record of options with hwinfo --support. as an example, i will exist able to dump the optical unit statistics with hwinfo --cdrom (list 7). The --listmd alternative means that you can consist of RAID instruments, which constantly don't look to exist included in the ordinary output.

    record 7. The hwinfo command can avert its output to specific hardware, because the cdrom device, for example. # hwinfo --cdrom 25: SCSI 301.0: 10602 CD-ROM (DVD) [Created at block.249] exciting identification: KD9E.SGHalmfn+h9 parent id: w7Y8.xyd+qedQTr5 SysFS identity: /type/block/sr0 SysFS BusID: three:0:1:0 SysFS device hyperlink: /contraptions/pci0000:00/0000:00:1f.2/ ↪ata4/host3/target3:0:1/three:0:1:0 Hardware type: cdrom model: "SONY DVD RW ad-7200S" dealer: "SONY" device: "DVD RW advert-7200S" Revision: "1.sixty one" Driver: "ata_piix", "sr" Driver Modules: "ata_piix", "sr_mod" gadget File: /dev/sr0 (/dev/sg3) materiel information: /dev/sr0, /dev/cdrom, /dev/cdrw, ↪/dev/disk/with the aid of-identity/ata-Optiarc_DVD_RW_AD-7200S, ↪/dev/disk/with the aid of-direction/pci-0000:00:1f.2-ata-2.1, ↪/dev/dvd, /dev/dvdrw gadget number: obscure eleven:0 (char 21:3) elements: CD-R, CD-RW, DVD, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-R DL, ↪DVD+R, DVD+RW, DVD+R DL, DVD-RAM, MRW, MRW-W compel status: no medium Config repute: cfg=no, avail=yes, want=no, lively=unknown attached to: #14 (IDE interface) pressure velocity: 48

    Of the command-line programs i am protecting in this article, inxi is more colorful, although simplest moderately (figure 2).

    determine 2. inxi, in spite of the fact that simplest a command-line tool, as a minimum tries to spend some colours.

    If invoked and not using a parameters, it is going to simply produce a line fancy here, showing CPU, kernel, uptime and just a few extra details:

    CPU~Quad core Intel Core2 Quad CPU Q8400 (-MCP-) ↪clocked at 2003.000 Mhz Kernel~4.1.5-1-computer ↪x86_64 Up~2 days 23:24 Mem~2377.four/3949.4MB ↪HDD~3660.7GB(67.9% used) Procs~202 customer~Shell ↪inxi~1.7.24

    despite the fact, that you would exist able to spend a lot of options to regain specific records. as an example, that you may set the verbosity level with alternatives -v0 (minimal) via -v7 (highest verbosity). The -x alternative makes it practicable for together with extra assistance for some hardware. remove a examine at inxi -h to regain full practicable options. for instance, which you can regain audio assistance with inxi -A or pix card facts with inxi -G and the like:

    # inxi -A Audio: Card-1: NVIDIA GK107 HDMI Audio Controller ↪driver: snd_hda_intel Sound: ALSA ver: k4.1.5-1-computing device Card-2: Intel NM10/ICH7 family unit elevated ↪Definition Audio Controller driver: snd_hda_intel

    Now, let's conclude with some GUI options.

    The GUI approach

    To tower with, usbview is a rough picture equivalent of lsusb or usb-contraptions, which I discussed earlier. or not it's reasonably elementary to execute spend of, with out a alternate options or parameters. It shows two columns: the left one is a tree of full attainable USB instruments, and the confiscate one gives the full particulars. determine three suggests details on my USB keyboard.

    determine 3. The usbview command shows the particulars of full USB devices in tree form.

    Let's movement on to a command I already discussed, which shares the expose style: lshw -X. in its region of manufacturing a catalogue (as shown prior to now), the -X alternative produces a picture interface with a number of columns on the left to weigh in you can elect what hardware to check up on. a neighborhood to the rectify shows the complete hardware details for the chosen gadget. determine four indicates the result of analyzing my optical DVD reader/creator unit; the supplied tips contains other particulars, such as the rational unit identify, its capabilities and extra.

    figure four. The lswh -X command produces a lifelike interface that means that you can browse full hardware gadgets.

    another tantalizing application is hardinfo, which "is not useless, however wants a maintainer", in line with its GitHub web page (see components.) This software suggests a tree constitution to the left with 4 main branches:

  • computing device suggests lots of details about your machine: some are involving application and never to hardware.

  • instruments contains full contraptions in your container, grouped through category.

  • network no longer best shows community card details, however besides another facets, equivalent to DNS servers or routing.

  • Benchmarks lets you view how your laptop fares in opposition t different computers, but as a result of the inability of updates, the comparisons are towards historic CPUs.

  • figure 5 shows sample output.

    determine 5. The hardinfo command comprises a few further pieces of statistics, not restrained only to hardware.

    There are two greater options. The "suggestions" menu entry means that you can produce a document, in both HTML or plain-text layout, making a altenative on whichever elements pastime you. The "network Updater" should allow you to update the inner application information, together with extra synchronous benchmark results, however when i tried to accelerate it, I acquired a "Contacting HardInfo primary Database (failed)" message. view determine 6 for a illustration of the produced HTML report.

    determine 6. The hardinfo command can produce an HTML or text file describing your comprehensive system.

    Let's conclude with KDE's own kinfocenter. This utility (see device 7, which shows RAM details for my computer) is comparable to the worn tools i've been describing, and it offers a left pane with a tree with full purchasable alternatives and a rectify pane with greater details on the chosen altenative on the left.

    determine 7. KDE's personal kinfocenter suggests not best hardware details, however plenty of other device facts as neatly.

    The software doesn't avert itself to hardware particulars, but shows full types of different tips, reminiscent of "Samba popularity", "power assistance" or "X-Server", just to point out just a few.

    DIY with /proc and /sys

    Linux is filled with directories and data, however the /proc and /sys directories are definitely odd. They carry out not truly exist, but they will let you browse them. they are filled with zero-length vacuous data, but which you can open and view them. The /proc directory preceded /sys, and it has really full details about running methods (hence, the /proc name). Over time, more info had been added to it, primarily "digital" ones, which carry out not in fact exist, but are created on the Fly if you try to access them. (Most virtual files sport a existing timestamp, which suggests that they continuously are stored up so far and their contents are the latest viable.) The /sys listing is more modern. It appeared across the time of the 2.6 kernel to interpose greater order and a better constitution than supplied with the aid of the older /proc, which had just grown in a sort of haphazard approach. most of the files (but no longer all) in /proc are duplicated in /sys, and every time viable, you'll want to settle on the information within the latter listing. The /sys listing has several subdirectories:

  • block/ has an entry pointing to each and every obscure gadget.

  • bus/ has directories for every bus class, and within each, two subdirectories: devices/ and drivers/. the previous has a listing for each machine, pointing to the gadget's listing in /root, and the latter has a listing for each and every driver that turned into loaded for instruments on the given bus.

  • class/ has directories for each and every category of object; some examples are block/, snap shots/, internet/, sound/ and so forth.

  • dev/ offers directories for each classification of device (for instance, dev/block/ or dev/char/), every with directories for every applicable machine.

  • contraptions/ includes the international materiel hierarchy, with every actual materiel on your device.

  • firmware/ contains directories for firmware-particular objects; for instance, acpi/ or memmap/, however the sure directories to your own computing device depend on the firmware drivers to your kernel.

  • fs/ has a directory for every filesystem class to your desktop, each and every with extra directories for every particular gadget; as an example, I even possess /sys/fs/ext4/sda2, because the disk installed as /dev/sda2 uses ext4.

  • kernel/ has a number of data involving the at present loaded kernel.

  • module/ has a subdirectory for each and every module loaded into the kernel.

  • vigour/ represents the vigor subsystem.

  • if you happen to regain to the deepest ranges of any department, you may find any number of particular person info, which which you could examine to regain attributes of the given object. What info? this is a arduous query to answer, since it is theme upon which specific department you are touring, so that you'll ought to carry out just a miniature of labor earlier than you regain to extract tips from the /sys listing. (See supplies for some pointers about this.) additionally, exist conscious that you should write to one of the vital files, and so that you can attest editing the corresponding parameter—be warned: try this with care! although, in case you preserve at it, you'll exist able to reproduction the functionality of many of the tools proven in this article, which frequently labor the very way.


    I've covered a lot of instructions that assist you to question your Linux laptop and exist trained, in more or less detail, what's exactly in it. And if you exigency to, you even can regain on the base records through yourself and whip up your own hardware-inspection device.


    study concerning the SMBIOS generic at on the time of this writing, the latest version is three.0.0, dated 2/15/2015.

    which you can find counsel on sysfs at and extra sure documentation at

    related to the older procfs, assess

    The USB identification repository at has the complete record of full known IDs used in USB devices.

    The PCI id repository at offers a centralized list of PCI device IDs.

    The lscpu and lsblk commands are Part of the util-linux package, attainable at For documentation, remove a examine at http://linux.die.internet/man/1/lscpu and http://linux.die.internet/man/8/lsblk, respectively.

    examine lsscsi options at and find a manual page at http://linux.die.internet/man/eight/lsscsi.

    For the lsdev man page, view http://linux.die.internet/man/8/lsdev.

    The lshw domestic web page is at, and its manual web page is at http://linux.die.internet/man/1/lshw.

    See lsusb within the "usbutils" web page at, and regain more counsel at

    that you could find lspci at (domestic of the "PCI Utilities") and the man page at .

    take a examine at usbview at and its man web page at http://linux.die.internet/man/eight/usbview.

    The hardinfo source repository is at, but first examine your distribution's repositories; or not it's likely to already exist there. notice that the program's ultimate update become greater than two years in the past, and no extra protection has been achieved.

    that you can locate KInfoCenter at

    Deploying CLR Assemblies with T-SQL | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Microsoft introduced the talent to spend .net CLR saved approaches and features in SQL Server some time ago, tower with SQL Server 2005. Now greater than 8 years later I feel many builders are fancy me: I well known the power of CLR routines, however are attempting to stay away from the spend of CLR.

    a Part of the explanation for this avoidance has to carry out with technical issues. however honestly for me, Part of the judgement additionally has to carry out with the multiplied complexity that CLR introduces into construction, deployment, and renovation of the database.

    this text will demonstrate an approach to deploying and managing CLR routines that may well exist more relaxed for T-SQL developers and DBA's, and one that doesn't accommodate spend of visible Studio. This strategy additionally encapsulates every thing necessary to set up the CLR meeting inside the database, that means that a database backup will store full mandatory dependencies.

    The simple aim of this exercise is to create a saved fashion that once done will bring together C# code, signal the .DLL, register the meeting in SQL, and create the wrapper SQL objects, full within this stored method. in this method, deployment of the CLR assembly is as effortless as operating a kept manner. every thing is sorted, and is multi function location: no impartial .DLL 's, visual Studio initiatives, or C# supply to reserve track of.

    moreover, this pastime makes an attempt to comply with exemplar practices for deployment, comparable to signing the assembly and appropriately securing it in SQL. These are things that regularly regain unnoticed when in a Hurry to installation a CLR assembly in SQL.


    for those who simply wish to skip to the closing outcomes: I even possess created a kept fashion to install a sample assembly as follows:

    CREATE technique dbo.spExample_RegisterAssembly_PDFCLR AS begin DECLARE @FilePath varchar(1024) SET @FilePath = 'c:\ServerEnvironment\' CREATE table #References (AssemblyName sysname, FQFileName varchar(1024)) INSERT INTO #References (AssemblyName, FQFileName) VALUES ('equipment.Drawing', 'C:\home windows\Microsoft.internet\Framework\v2.0.50727\equipment.Drawing.dll') INSERT INTO #References (AssemblyName, FQFileName) VALUES ('itextsharp', @FilePath + 'itextsharp.dll') DECLARE @DropWrapperSQL varchar(MAX) SET @DropWrapperSQL = ' IF OBJECT_ID(''dbo.udfRenderPDF'') isn't NULL start DROP feature dbo.udfRenderPDF; end ' DECLARE @CreateWrapperSQL varchar(MAX) SET @CreateWrapperSQL = ' CREATE function [dbo].[udfRenderPDF]( @TemplatePDF varbinary(MAX), @FieldsXML xml ) RETURNS [varbinary](max) WITH EXECUTE AS CALLER AS exterior cognomen [PDFCLR].[Functions].[RenderPDF] ' --C# supply Code. --Paste CLR supply in below. exchange full occurrences a lone quote with two lone charges. DECLARE @SourceCode nvarchar(MAX) SET @SourceCode = ' //------beginning of CLR supply------ the usage of device; the spend of system.information; using gadget.statistics.SqlClient; the usage of gadget.statistics.SqlTypes; the spend of Microsoft.SqlServer.Server; ....relaxation of C# source code goes here //------conclusion of CLR supply------ ' EXEC dbo.spsysBuildCLRAssembly @AssemblyName = 'PDFCLR', @FileName = 'PDFCLR_SQLCLR.cs', @FilePath = @FilePath, @DropWrapperSQL = @DropWrapperSQL, @CreateWrapperSQL = @CreateWrapperSQL, @SourceCode = @SourceCode conclusion

    Calling this spExample_RegisterAssembly_PDFCLR process will construct the C# supply code provided in @SourceCode, and may token the .DLL, register full referenced assemblies, create an asymmetric key and linked login for each assembly, and create the assembly in SQL, along with wrapper techniques. (See the connected files to down load the required routines.)

    in this method, executing your stored system will carry out everything mandatory to construct and set up this CLR meeting–even if you restoration your database to a several server.

    There isn't any should spend visible Studio, or to entry any external info: every miniature thing is encapsulated on your database, and can exist accelerate from a simple T-SQL kept method.


    here is a step-by using-step list of the labor this stored technique should do:

  • Retrieve C# supply from SQL
  • Write C# source to a temporary .cs file
  • enable CLR aid within the database (if critical)
  • temporarily allow xp_cmdshell (just at some stage in execution of this system)
  • Write and execute a batch file that does birthright here:
  • Generate signature with the command line "sn" (powerful identify) tool
  • construct C# source into a signed DLL the usage of the command line "csc" (C acute Compiler) compiler
  • Disable xp_cmdshell (for safety motives)
  • Drop the SQL wrapper feature that wraps the CLR formula (if it exists)
  • Drop the CLR meeting (if it exists)
  • Create key to cozy the assembly:
  • Create an asymmetric key (losing if it exists)
  • Create a SQL login from the key (shedding if it exists)
  • grant rights to the login
  • Create the meeting in SQL
  • Create the SQL wrapper feature that wraps the CLR formula
  • As effortless as 1, 2, three…eleven. and that is Part of what I imply concerning the complexity of deploying and keeping CLR assemblies in SQL: there are loads of steps to learn the pass to carry out (and then exist vigilant to carry out them). These steps deserve to exist done anytime you deploy this database to a recent server. Being capable of carry out full of those issues via executing a lone kept technique simplifies issues vastly.

    (observe that the sequence of some of these steps has been altered a bit in the ultimate version of the code it is attached.)

    Step 1: Retrieve C# supply from SQL

    We try to stay away from storing the C# source in a file because they want everything that is needed to create the meeting to exist encapsulated within the database. The supply may well exist kept in a desk, or, as I even possess performed here, the supply code will besides exist stored as a string literal inner the stored manner.

    What I possess carried out is replica-and-pasted the C# supply from visible Studio, then used search-and-replace to substitute lone quote characters with two lone quote characters, and then assigned this string to a variable that will later regain written out to a short lived .cs file.


    DECLARE @CLRSource nvarchar(MAX) SET @CLRSource = ' //------birth of CLR supply------ the usage of gadget; the spend of system.records; using gadget.records.SqlClient; using device.information.SqlTypes; the spend of Microsoft.SqlServer.Server; .... //------conclusion of CLR source------ '

    Step 2: Write C# source to a brief .cs file

    Phil component writes some usefull SQL code. considered one of his articles gives us a utility technique they will spend to readily write a string to a file. i spend this process to Put in writing the C# supply to a .cs file.


    EXEC dbo.sputilWriteStringToFile @FileData = @CLRSource, @FilePath = @FilePath, @FileName = @FileName Step 3: permit CLR guide

    This technique will set up a CLR meeting. definitely they exigency CLR support enabled within the database.


    IF no longer EXISTS(choose * FROM sys.configurations the region identify = 'clr enabled') start SET @SQL =' EXEC grasp.dbo.sp_configure ''demonstrate superior alternatives'', 1 RECONFIGURE EXEC master.dbo.sp_configure ''clr'', 1 RECONFIGURE' EXEC(@SQL) end Step four: quickly permit xp_cmdshell

    I utterly remove into account and correspond that xp_cmdshell can interpose a number of protection issues, and is most excellent averted in production databases. My fashion here is that this saved procedure will allow xp_cmdshell quickly. It can exist enabled just long satisfactory to muster a batch file that the manner will dynamically create.

    personally, this spend of xp_cmdshell is secure and applicable: it'll only exist referred to as at installation-time by pass of an administrator, might exist used to execute cautiously scripted statements, and may exist instantly disabled.


    SET @SQL = ' EXEC grasp.dbo.sp_configure ''show advanced alternate options'', 1 RECONFIGURE EXEC master.dbo.sp_configure ''xp_cmdshell'', 1 RECONFIGURE' EXEC(@SQL)

    Step 5: Create a batch file that may exist carried out

    We should execute the fabulous cognomen command line utility (sn.exe), and besides the command line C# compiler (csc.exe)


    This CLR assembly requires iTextSharp, an open supply library for growing PDF 's (from ). download, and copy the itextsharp.dll file to c:\ServerEnvironment (or a folder of your opting for, updating the script as necessary).


    The sn.exe and csc.exe utilities are a Part of the "home windows SDK for windows Server 2008 and .internet Framework three.5 ", available as a free down load at


    SQL Server 2005 and 2008 CLR assist is restricted to .net Framework three.5. SQL Server 2012 introduces pilot for .web Framework 4.0, however can accelerate .net Framework 3.5. This technique uses .internet Framework 3.5–which is their simplest altenative on SQL 2005, 2008, and 2008 R2.

    deciding full of the command line parameters vital took slightly of analysis, but now that is accomplished the fashion can immediately output the obligatory parameters to the batch file.


    DECLARE @Command varchar(2048) SET @Command = "C:\application data\Microsoft SDKs\windows\v6.1\Bin\sn" -k ' + @FilePath + '\' + 'PDFCLR_keyPair.snk' + @CRLF + '"C:\windows\\Framework\v3.5\csc" /t:library' + ' /reference:c:\ServerEnvironment\itextsharp.dll' + ' /out:' + @FilePath + '\' + replace(@FileName, '.cs', '.dll') + ' /keyfile:' + @FilePath + '\' + 'PDFCLR_keyPair.snk' + ' ' + @FilePath + '\' + @FileName EXEC dbo.sputilWriteStringToFile @FileData = @Command, @FilePath = @FilePath, @FileName = 'tmp.bat'

    Step 6: Disable xp_cmdshell

    We don 't exigency to fade away xp_cmdshell enabled, and the manner is done with it.


    SET @SQL = ' EXEC grasp.dbo.sp_configure ''show superior alternate options'', 1 RECONFIGURE EXEC master.dbo.sp_configure ''xp_cmdshell'', 0 RECONFIGURE' EXEC(@SQL)

    Step 7: Drop the wrapper SQL feature

    CLR assemblies expose strategies, but SQL requires a SQL feature it is tied to the components in the assembly. in view that they wish to drop the assembly if it exists, they possess to first drop the wrapper feature.


    IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.udfRenderPDF') isn't NULL begin IF @Debug = 1 PRINT '***shedding current feature' SET @SQL = 'DROP function dbo.udfRenderPDF' EXEC(@SQL) conclusion Step eight: Drop the existing CLR assembly, if it exists

    We exigency to change the latest meeting (if any), so they ought to drop it if it exists.


    IF ASSEMBLYPROPERTY ('PDFCLR' , 'MvID') isn't NULL begin IF @Debug = 1 PRINT '***dropping present CLR assembly' SET @SQL = 'DROP meeting PDFCLR' EXEC(@SQL) end Step 9: Create key to comfortable the assembly

    here is one of the crucial harder elements to consider, however an in depth explanation is beyond the scope of this article. I 'll try to give a quick overview:

    CLR code can carry out anything else, together with harmful or malicious issues. CLR code that does probably unhealthy issues (reminiscent of deleting files from the file system) gets flagged as "dangerous ". SQL prevents "dangerous " CLR assemblies from being loaded with a view to protect the server ambiance from damaging or malicious things. SQL will permit "dangerous " CLR assemblies if one among two issues is true: a) the trustworthy database property is enabled, or b) the meeting is signed and tied to a key and login in SQL.

    trustworthy is a atrocious concept, because really it says that ANY "dangerous " assembly can exist loaded. They don 't exigency to open the door to load any and each "dangerous " assembly. If they did, a person might register unhealthy or malicious .DLLs devoid of the DBA's advantage. additionally, a person could doubtlessly alternate the .DLL in the file gadget devoid of the DBA's capabilities–and SQL would then proceed to permit clients to muster methods in the now-rogue assembly. (consider of devoted as being SQL deeming the complete physical server and every miniature thing on it as being secure or "trustworthy".)

    Signing the meeting is a much better thought. it is a miniature bit complicated to do, but the conception isn 't too difficult. This comprises signing the assembly with a cryptographic signature, creating an asynchronous key in SQL based on this signature, making a SQL login linked to the significant thing, and granting applicable rights to this login. This in impact offers us the talent to claim that the particular consumer is allowed to load this sure "hazardous " assembly.

    placing this an extra means, signing the meeting ensures the DBA that simplest assemblies authorized by means of the DBA might exist used via SQL. i cannot dig into what full is happening in the mechanics of signing the code, but will instead simply pomp you a pass to carry out it.


    SET @SQL = ' spend grasp; IF EXISTS(select * FROM sys.syslogins the region identify = ''PDFCLR_SQLCLRLogin'') DROP LOGIN PDFCLR_SQLCLRLogin IF EXISTS(opt for * FROM sys.asymmetric_keys where cognomen =''PDFCLR_SQLCLRKey '') DROP uneven KEY PDFCLR_SQLCLRKey CREATE uneven KEY PDFCLR_SQLCLRKey FROM EXECUTABLE FILE = ''' + @FilePath + '\' + replace(@FileName, '.cs', '.dll') + ''' CREATE LOGIN PDFCLR_SQLCLRLogin FROM asymmetric KEY PDFCLR_SQLCLRKey provide exterior access meeting TO PDFCLR_SQLCLRLogin' EXEC(@SQL)

    Step 10: Create the meeting in SQL

    Now they can create the assembly in SQL. This terminology can besides exist a bit puzzling, because the .net assembly is already created (i.e. the C# code has already been compiled and the .DLL already exists.) really what they are doing birthright here is "registering " the assembly for spend by means of SQL, although the SQL command is "CREATE assembly ".


    SET @SQL = ' CREATE assembly PDFCLR FROM ''' + @FilePath + '\' + replace(@FileName, '.cs', '.dll') + ''' WITH PERMISSION_SET = unsafe' EXEC(@SQL)

    note: This selected assembly (that renders PDF documents) requires "unsafe " operations. Some assemblies may besides now not require "hazardous " operations, and can accordingly possess a special surroundings for PERMISSION_SET.

    Step 11: Create the SQL wrapper characteristic

    finally they can create the SQL wrapper characteristic linked to the components in the CLR assembly. Parameters and types in the SQL wrapper should exactly in shape these in the C# code.


    SET @SQL = ' CREATE function [dbo].[udfRenderPDF]( @TemplatePDF varbinary(MAX), @FieldsXML xml ) RETURNS [varbinary](max) WITH EXECUTE AS CALLER AS external identify [PDFCLR].[Functions].[RenderPDF]' EXEC(@SQL)

    attempting it out

    ultimately, they will are attempting out the results of full their tough labor by using executing the recent characteristic they simply created, and seeing the pass it renders a PDF file.

    (Little is declared here of what this meeting truly does or how to spend it. dispute tuned for the next day's article ""Rendering PDFs Natively in SQL" for particulars on this selected assembly.)


    DECLARE @FieldsXML xml SET @FieldsXML = forged( '<Fields> <box> <TextValue>hiya World</TextValue> <XPos>100</XPos> <YPos>seven hundred</YPos> <FontSize>18</FontSize> </box> <container> <TextValue>another line, just for enjoyable.</TextValue> <XPos>one hundred fifty</XPos> <YPos>650</YPos> <FontSize>12</FontSize> </container> </Fields>' AS xml) DECLARE @PDFTemplate varbinary(MAX) SET @PDFTemplate = NULL DECLARE @ResultPDF varbinary(MAX) SET @ResultPDF = dbo.udfRenderPDF(@PDFTemplate, @FieldsXML) /*The PDF file now exists in the @ResultPDF variable. that you may carry out something you wish with the records. to write down the binary records to a file on the server so that you can open it in Adobe Acrobat Reader that you could spend this utility technique (see attached). */ EXEC [dbo].[sputilWriteBinaryToFile] @FileData = @ResultPDF, @FilePath = 'C:\Temp', @Filename = 'verify.pdf' abstract

    There are lots of steps concerned in thoroughly deploying a CLR meeting in SQL. however the decent information is that once these steps are encapsulated inside a stored method, the technique can exist performed any time the CLR source code is updated and every time you exigency to installation the CLR meeting to a several machine.

    both the C# source and the script to construct, token and register it are resident in the SQL database–and as such regain backed up and restored along with full other SQL objects. The DBA can view precisely what's going on in the assembly–both in terms of the C# supply and the numerous compiler options–all in one region, through without problems looking on the source of this saved technique. also, the DBA doesn't even deserve to open visual Studio: everything can besides exist achieved from indigenous T-SQL

    visual Studio is a exceptional structure tool, and is beneficial when establishing the C# code. however in my view, a deployment script applied in a SQL stored process is a tons nicer approach for a T-SQL developer or DBA to installation and replace CLR assemblies in SQL.

    Will i remove odds of CLR for everything? No, truly no longer. but now once I exigency to spend a CLR meeting i will now achieve this with more desirable defense and greater ease than I may devoid of the suggestions described listed here.

    (See attached file for full source code.  that you may down load and execute BuildAndRegisterCLRAssembly.sql to create full approaches and functions referenced birthright here, in addition to to execute the illustration shown above.)

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    How to spend PHPbrew and VirtPHP | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    We’ve full been in the situation where they possess one version installed. Maybe that version is whatever came installed on their operating system. Maybe it is a version bundled into MAMP/WAMP/XAMPP.

    How carry out you fade about switching that PHP version?

    How carry out you switch to one version, then switch back again?

    How carry out you fade about switching that version of PHP, but only for one lone application on your computer?

    The Ruby and Python communities possess had tools for dealing with this for years. PHP has them now too, but there was nowhere near enough fanfare.


    PHPbrew is an fabulous miniature tool which has been out since 2012.

    It builds and installs PHP versions, and places them into a folder in your home directory. This means you can manage your own versions of PHP. PHPbrew will build various versions, region them in the home folder, and let you switch between them whenever you want.

    Installing PHPbrew

    It should exist worth noting that PHPbrew has a unbiased few requirements, but they are not tough to install. I did not possess to install anything, as after using this Macbook for over two years I had full the requirements anyway.

    If you are a Mac OS X user – and I will continue to assume that you are – then you can spend Homebrew (no relation) to install dependencies.

    brew install automake autoconf curl pcre re2c mhash libtool icu4c gettext jpeg libxml2 mcrypt gmp libevent brew link icu4c

    Then you will exigency to install PHPbrew itself:

    curl -L -O chmod +x phpbrew sudo mv phpbrew /usr/bin/phpbrew

    This downloads PHPbrew, adds the “executable” consent and moves it to /usr/bin directory.

    Hop over to their basic usage instructions to view how to regain things initialized in more detail, but the basics should just be:

    phpbrew init

    With phpbrew initialised you will exigency to add these lines to your .bashrc:

    echo "source $HOME/.phpbrew/bashrc" >> ~/.bashrc

    If you are using a non-default shell fancy ZSH then you will exigency to edit your .zshrc file instead.

    Installing PHP using PHPbrew

    Before they can install a version of PHP, they exigency to view which versions are available to PHPbrew. They can carry out this with a simple command:

    phpbrew known Available stable versions: 5.6+ 5.6.0 5.5+ 5.5.17, 5.5.16, 5.5.15, 5.5.14, 5.5.13, 5.5.12, 5.5.11, 5.5.10 5.4+ 5.4.33, 5.4.32, 5.4.31, 5.4.30, 5.4.29, 5.4.28, 5.4.27, 5.4.26 5.3+ 5.3.29, 5.3.28, 5.3.27, 5.3.26, 5.3.25, 5.3.24, 5.3.23, 5.3.22

    At the time of writing, PHP 5.6.0 is the latest version, and versions of PHP before 5.3 are not supported.

    We want to install PHP 5.6.0, so they can spend full the Great recent features, so lets quiz phpbrew to carry out that:

    phpbrew install 5.6.0

    Note that if you are using PHPbrew 1.14 or earlier then this would fail on some systems with an oversight about not having XML enabled. When XML is missing, PHPbrew will fail to install something called PEAR and the build will break. They can regain around that using the +xml_all option:

    phpbrew install 5.6.0 +xml_all

    This +xml_all option is what PHPbrew calls “Variants”, and there are a lot more available.


    When installing PHP yourself, there are lots of options to enable or disable features. PHPbrew simplifies this and abstracts it, using a feature called Variants.

    Things fancy database drivers, curl, the GD image library and JSON are full available as optional variants.

    PHPbrew has one variant called “default”, which – contrary to expectation – is not used by default. Instead it acts as a shortcut for enabling the following variants:

  • bcmath
  • bz2
  • calendar
  • cli
  • ctype
  • dom
  • fileinfo
  • filter
  • ipc
  • json
  • mbregex
  • mbstring
  • mhash
  • pcntl
  • pdo
  • posix
  • readline,
  • sockets
  • xml_all
  • zip
  • The default may accommodate more than you need, so a more granular approach may exist more to your liking.

    Lets dispute they just want to install PHP 5.6.0 to build a CLI application, that uses PDO to talk to a SQLite database. For that, they can carry out the following:

    phpbrew install 5.6.0 +cli +pdo +sqlite +xml_all

    This command will enable the PDO extension itself, and sqlite enables the SQLite drivers. The cli variant will install the command-line interface, and xml_all will halt PHPbrew complaining about PEAR.

    If you possess any throe installing a version of PHP, try running the very command but add the -d option. This will forward debug information to the console, instead of sending it to a log file.

    phpbrew install -d 5.6.0 +default +sqlite Switching PHP versions

    So, at this point they should possess a version of PHP installed.

    If their installation was a success then PHPbrew will output a message fancy this:

    Congratulations! Now you possess PHP with php-5.6.0. To spend the newly built PHP, try the line(s) below: $ phpbrew spend php-5.6.0 Or you can spend switch command to switch your default php version to php-5.6.0: $ phpbrew switch php-5.6.0

    The first command listed spend will let you spend PHP 5.6.0 while you’re in that console session. If you proximate the tab/window or restart your computer then you’ll exist back to whichever version of PHP is the default.

    The second command switch will switch the default version of PHP that PHPbrew will fade to on a recent session.

    Lets try setting the default version to exist PHP 5.6.0, and view if it works.

    $ phpbrew switch php-5.6.0 $ php -v PHP 5.6.0 (cli) (built: Sep 30 2014 15:30:22) Copyright (c) 1997-2014 The PHP Group Zend Engine v2.6.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2014 Zend Technologies

    The output above shows us exactly what they want to see: PHP 5.6.0.

    If they now try installing the older PHP 5.5, they can once again spend $ phpbrew known to view which versions are available. Pick a version, and try to install it:

    phpbrew install 5.5.17 +default +sqlite

    This will install PHP 5.5.17 with the default and sqlite variants. To then spend PHP 5.5.17, they possess to accelerate another command:

    $ phpbrew spend php-5.5.17 $ php -v PHP 5.5.17 (cli) (built: Sep 30 2014 17:41:05) Copyright (c) 1997-2014 The PHP Group Zend Engine v2.5.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2014 Zend Technologies

    Now they can spend PHP 5.5.17 in this session, and spend PHP 5.6.0 again. As they used the spend command not switch, when they open another tab or window, PHP 5.6.0 will once again exist there.

    PHPbrew vrs. System

    When they are using a PHPbrew version of PHP, their bash session will exist using a special path for the PHP version. They can find out which version is in spend with the which command:

    $ which php /Users/phil/.phpbrew/php/php-5.6.0/bin/php

    If they would fancy to halt using this phpbrew version of PHP and fade back to the system version, they can spend the off command.

    $ phpbrew off phpbrew is turned off. $ which php /usr/bin/php $ php -v PHP 5.4.24 (cli) (built: Jan 19 2014 21:32:15) Copyright (c) 1997-2013 The PHP Group Zend Engine v2.4.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2013 Zend Technologies

    Once again we’re using the default version. You may not exigency this, but it is handy to know how to regain rid of phpbrew. The which command will besides abet you out with debugging.

    PHPbrew by itself is a useful tool, and you might find this is full you need. That said, these versions of PHP can regain complicated when you find that various projects exigency more extensions. PHPBrew can add PECL extensions, but not a project-by-project basis.

    It besides assumes you can recollect which version of PHP an application should exist using. It might not exist the default, and running it under another version could judgement problems.

    To carry out this, they exigency to examine at using another tool on top of PHPbrew.


    VirtPHP lets you execute isolated PHP environments on a lone machine, fancy Python’s virtualenv. That might sound a miniature complicated but the view is simple.

    To start, you designate one directory which contains an application or component, and give it a name. Imagine they were working on “airpair-api” and its a PHP app, we’d want to execute that its own environment.

    Then, they could install PECL extensions that “airpair-api” needs, without affecting other applications.

    That’s the theory, so let’s remove a examine at how they carry out that.

    Installing virtPHP

    Go to the virtPHP releases page and find the latest release. It will possess a link proverb “virtphp.phar”, and you’ll want to birthright click and copy that URL.

    $ wget chmod +x virtphp.phar sudo mv virtphp.phar /usr/bin/virtphp

    Now they can check to view if it is working:

    $ virtphp -V virtPHP version v0.5.1-alpha 2014-08-13 16:05:47 Creating Environments

    VirtPHP maintains a relaxed approach to which version of PHP is in use. When you fade to create an environment, it will remove whichever version of PHP you possess in your console session and reference that.

    So, before they try to execute a recent environment, they exigency to exist sure they are using the birthright version.

    $ which php /Users/phil/.phpbrew/php/php-5.6.0/bin/php

    Oops, it’s still using the default version and I want to execute sure my codebase is working on PHP 5.5.

    $ phpbrew spend 5.5.17 $ which php /Users/phil/.phpbrew/php/php-5.5.17/bin/php

    Perfect, the currently enabled version of PHP is 5.5.17, which in this case is the one they want.

    Now they can execute an environment.

    virtphp create airpair-api

    You will view a lot of output, and if goes well then you should view the following:

    Your virtual php environment (airpair-api) has been created! You can activate your recent environment using: ~$ source /Users/phil/.virtphp/envs/airpair-api/bin/activate

    At this point the recent environment is ready to use, but not enabled. Copy the command it gives you and accelerate it, or accelerate this shorter version:

    $ source ~/.virtphp/envs/airpair-api/bin/activate

    Now you should view the cognomen of the environment (airpair-api) in the console prompt, before the $ character. This lets you know that you are in an environment, so you can deactivate it or act accordingly.

    Playing in the Sandbox

    Now they possess this environment, they can install and configure things without affecting other PHP installations.

    One Great use-case for using environments is being able to install PECL extensions. Not only can you test how an app works with or without the extension, but you can try different versions too.

    (airpair-api) $ pecl install xdebug (airpair-api) $ pecl install memcached-1.0.2

    This helps us install the Great debugging tool Xdebug, and install the [memcached] extension.

    At the time of writing, the PECL command installs packages via the PEAR-based system. In future versions of virtPHP, PECL extensions will install via the recent and improved Pickle system. This will remove a few issues that OS X seems to possess with supporting PEAR.

    Exiting an Environment

    To check if you’re still using an environment, two things will help. The first clue is to view the environment cognomen in brackets in your command prompt. The second is to spend which php and view if its pointing to a virtPHP environment.

    (airpair-api) $ which php /Users/phil/.virtphp/envs/airpair-api/bin/php (airpair-api) $ deactivate $ which php /Users/phil/.phpbrew/php/php-5.6.0/bin/php

    There you can view they were using the airpair-api environment. Then after deactivating it, the console fell back to using 5.6.0 installed from PHPbrew, as that is default.


    Playing with many installed versions fancy this can at first look a miniature confusing. In reality, there is much less to learn here than trying to discipline a beginner developer full about a full stack.

    If a recent developer was to try and build a basic PHP app, traditionally they would fade through the following steps to regain started:

  • Apache/nginx
  • MySQL
  • Virtual Hosts and /etc/hosts
  • Hack the core OS PHP version
  • Maybe install XAMPP/WAMP/MAMP instead
  • Try to upgrade the core versions or *AMP versions
  • Get confused that system PHP and MAMP PHP is different
  • Try to install PECL extensions to MAMP version, but install them to system PHP instead
  • You can avoid a lot of that throe with a tool fancy Vagrant and a provision script, but that assumes that this beginner is in a team. If going solo, the beginner would possess a much harder time getting started.

    This is how the Ruby on Rails community has done things for years. discipline beginners a framework, abstract away a lot of the arduous stuff, regain them structure and let them learn more about it full as they grow.

    Grab your PHP version, install what you need, accelerate the PHP progress server with php -S and only beef up your stack when (or if) you exigency to.

    Dev/Prod parity is important, but sometimes you can regain away with not caring too much if its just a simple miniature HTTP service. If you already possess CI testing in region then this is even more true.

    Finaly, even if you don’t want to accelerate the code through the progress server, having PHPbrew and virtPHP are still useful. You can install recent versions as soon as they reach out to play with the recent syntax, and not smash full your apps.

    Senior Engineer at, Author of “Build APIs You Wont Hate” and a PHP standards activist for the Framework Interoperability Group.

    A Beginner's pilot to Using pyGTK and Glade | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The beauty of pyGTK and Glade is they possess opened up cross-platform, professional-quality GUI progress to those of us who'd rather exist doing other things but who still exigency a GUI on top of it all. Not only does pyGTK allow neophytes to create Great GUIs, it besides allows professionals to create flexible, dynamic and powerful user interfaces faster than ever before. If you've ever wanted to create a quick user interface that looks honorable without a lot of work, and you don't possess any GUI experience, read on.

    This article is the direct result of a learning process that occurred while programming Immunity CANVAS ( Much of what was learned while developing the GUI from scratch was Put in the pyGTK FAQ, located at Another URL you no doubt will exist using a lot if you delve deeply into pyGTK is the documentation at It is unbiased to dispute that for a miniature company, using pyGTK over other GUI progress environments, such as indigenous C, is a competitive advantage. Hopefully, after reading this article, everyone should exist able to Put together a GUI using Python, the easiest of full languages to learn.

    As a metric, the CANVAS GUI was written from scratch, in about two weeks, with no prior knowledge of pyGTK. It then was ported from GTK v1 to GTK v2 (more on that later) in a day, and it is now deployed to both Microsoft Windows and Linux customers.

    The Cross-Platform Nature of pyGTK

    In a impeccable world, you never would possess to develop for anything but Linux running your favorite distribution. In the real world, you exigency to support several versions of Linux, Windows, UNIX or whatever else your customers need. Choosing a GUI toolkit depends on what is well supported on your customers' platforms. Nowadays, choosing Python as your progress tool in any recent endeavor is second nature if accelerate of progress is more of a requirement than runtime speed. This combination leads you to elect from the following alternatives for Python GUI development: wxPython, Tkinter, pyGTK and Python/Qt.

    Keeping in mind that I am not a professional GUI developer, here are my feelings on why one should chose pyGTK. wxPython has reach a long pass and offers attractive interfaces but is arduous to spend and regain working, especially for a beginner. Not to mention, it requires both Linux and Windows users to download and install a big binary package. Qt, although free for Linux, requires a license to exist distributed for Windows. This probably is prohibitive for many miniature companies who want to deal on multiple platforms.

    Tkinter is the first Python GUI progress kit and is available with almost every Python distribution. It looks ugly, though, and requires you to embed Tk into your Python applications, which feels fancy going backward. For a beginner, you really want to split the GUI from the application as much as possible. That way, when you edit the GUI, you don't possess to change a bunch of things in your application or integrate any changes into your application.

    For these reasons alone, pyGTK might exist your choice. It neatly splits the application from the GUI. Using libglade, the GUI itself is held as an XML file that you can continue to edit, rescue multiple versions of or whatever else you want, as it is not integrated with your application code. Furthermore, using Glade as a GUI builder allows you to create application interfaces quickly—so quickly that if multiple customers want multiple GUIs you could support them full easily.

    Version Issues with GTK and pyGTK

    Two main flavors of GTK are available in the wild, GTK versions 1 and 2. Therefore, at the start of a GUI-building project, you possess to execute some choices about what to develop and maintain. It is likely that Glade v1 came installed on your machine. You may possess to download Glade v2 or install the progress packages for GTK to compile the GTK v2 libglade. Believe me, it is worth the effort. GTK v2 offers several advantages, including a nicer overall look, installers for Windows with Python 2.2 and accessibility extensions that allow applications to exist customized for blind users. In addition, version 2 comes installed on many of the latest distributions, although you still may exigency to install progress RPMs or the latest pyGTK package.

    GTK v2 and hence pyGTK v2 tender a few, slightly more complicated widgets (Views). In the hands of a mighty GUI master, they result in awesome applications, but they really confuse beginners. However, a few code recipes weigh in you can handle them as you would their counterparts in GTK v1, once you learn how to spend them.

    As an example, after developing the entire GUI for CANVAS in GTK v1, I had to fade back and redevelop it (which took exactly one day) in GTK v2. support was lacking for GTK v1 in my customers' Linux boxes, but installing GTK v2 was smooth enough. The main exception is Ximian Desktop, which makes pyGTK and GTK v1 smooth to install. So, if your entire customer base is running that, you may want to stay with GTK v1. One thing to reserve in mind though—a Python script is available for converting projects from Glade v1 to Glade v2, but not vice versa. So if you're going to carry out both, develop it first in Glade v1, transform it and then reconcile any differences.

    An Introduction to Glade v2

    The theory behind using Glade and libglade is it wastes time to create your GUI using code. Sitting down and telling the Python interpreter where each widget goes, what color it is and what the defaults are is a huge time sink. Anyone who's programmed in Tcl/Tk has spent days doing this. Not only that, but changing a GUI created with code can exist a massive undertaking at times. With Glade and libglade, instead of creating code, you create XML files and code links to those files wherever a button or an entry box or an output text buffer is located.

    To start, you exigency Glade v2 if you don't possess it already. Even if you do, you may want the latest version of it. Downloading and installing Glade v2 should exist smooth enough once you possess GTK v2 progress packages (the -devel RPMs) installed. However, for most people recent to GUI development, the starting window for Glade is intimidatingly blank.

    To inaugurate your application, click the Window Icon. Now, you should possess a ample blank window on your screen (Figure 1).

    Figure 1. The cross-hatched area in the starting window is a region to Put another widget.

    The significant thing to learn about GUI progress is there are basically two types of objects: widgets, such as labels and entry boxes and other things you can see, and containers for those widgets. Most likely, you will spend one of three kinds of containers, the upright box, the horizontal box or the table. To create complicated layouts, its easiest to nest these containers together in whatever order you need. For example, click on the horizontal box icon. Clicking on the hatched area in window1 inserts three more areas where you can add widgets. Your recent window1 should examine fancy device 2.

    Figure 2. A basic three-pane vbox with the top pane selected.

    You now can select any of those three areas and further divide it with a upright box. If you don't fancy the results, you always can fade back and delete, prick and paste or change the number of boxes from the Properties menu (more on that later).

    Figure 3. The top pane has been split by a two-pane hbox, which is selected.

    You can spend these sorts of primitives to create almost any sort of layout. Now that they possess a tower layout, they can fill it with widgets that actually carry out something. In this case, I'll fill them with a label, a text entry, a spinbutton and a button. At first this looks pretty frightening (Figure 4).

    Figure 4. The initial window filled in with widgets.

    Remember that GTK auto-adjusts the sizes of the finished product when it is displayed, so everything is packed together as tightly as possible. When the user drags the corner of the window, it's going to auto-expand as well. You can adjust these settings in the Properties window (go to the main Glade window and click View→Show Properties). The Properties window changes different values for different kinds of widgets. If the spinbutton is focused, for example, they view the options shown in device 5.

    Figure 5. The Glade interface for changing a widget's properties is customized for each nature of widget.

    By changing the Value option, they can change what the spinbutton defaults to when displayed. besides significant is to change the Max value. A common mistake is to change the Value to something elevated but forget the Max, which causes the spinbutton initially to pomp the default but then revert to the Max value when it is changed, confusing the user. In their case, we're going to spend the spinbutton as a TCP port, so I'll set it to 65535, the minimum to 1 and the default to 80.

    Then, focus on the label1 and change it to read Host:. By clicking on window1 in the main Glade window, you can focus on the entire window, allowing you to change its properties as well. You besides can carry out this by bringing up the widget tree window and clicking on window1. Changing the cognomen to serverinfo and the title to Server Info sets the titlebar and the internal Glade top-level widget cognomen appropriately for this application.

    If you fade to the widget tree view and click on the hbox1, you can expand the spacing between Host: and the text-entry box. This may execute it examine a miniature nicer. Their finished GUI looks fancy device 6.

    Figure 6. The GUI in Glade does not examine exactly fancy it does when rendered, so don't worry about the size of the Host: area.

    Normally, this would remove only a few minutes to Put together. After a bit of exercise you'll find that putting together even the most complicated GUIs using Glade can exist accomplished in minutes. Compare that to the time it takes to nature in full those Tk commands manually to carry out the very thing.

    This GUI, of course, doesn't carry out anything yet. They exigency to write the Python code that loads the .glade file and does the actual work. In fact, I mind to write two Python files for each Glade-driven project. One file handles the GUI, and the other file doesn't know anything about that GUI. That way, porting from GTK v1 to GTK v2 or even to another GUI toolkit is easy.

    Creating the Python Program

    First, they exigency to deal with any potential version skew. I spend the following code, although a few other entries mentioned in the FAQ carry out similar things:

    #!/usr/bin/env python import sys try: import pygtk #tell pyGTK, if possible, that they want GTKv2 pygtk.require("2.0") except: #Some distributions reach with GTK2, but not pyGTK pass try: import gtk import except: print "You exigency to install pyGTK or GTKv2 ", print "or set your PYTHONPATH correctly." print "try: export PYTHONPATH=", print "/usr/local/lib/python2.2/site-packages/" sys.exit(1) #now they possess both gtk and imported #Also, they know they are running GTK v2

    Now are going to create a GUI class called appGUI. Before they carry out that, though, they exigency to open button1's properties and add a signal. To carry out that, click the three dots, scroll to clicked, select it and then click Add. You should conclude up with something fancy device 7.

    Figure 7. After Adding the Event (Signal) Handler

    With this in place, the signal_autoconnect causes any click of the button to muster one of their functions (button1_clicked). You can view the other potential signals to exist handled in that list as well. Each widget may possess different potential signals. For example, capturing a text-changed signal on a text-entry widget may exist useful, but a button never changes because it's not editable.

    Initializing the application and starting gtk.mainloop() gets the ball rolling. Different event handlers exigency to possess different numbers of arguments. The clicked event handler gets only one argument, the widget that was clicked. While you're at it, add the Destroy event to the main window, so the program exits when you proximate the window. Don't forget to rescue your Glade project.

    class appgui: def __init__(self): """ In this init they are going to pomp the main serverinfo window """ gladefile="" windowname="serverinfo" (gladefile,windowname) # they only possess two callbacks to register, but # you could register any number, or spend a # special class that automatically # registers full callbacks. If you wanted to pass # an argument, you would spend a tuple fancy this: # dic = { "on button1_clicked" : \ (self.button1_clicked, arg1,arg2) , ... dic = { "on_button1_clicked" : \ self.button1_clicked, "on_serverinfo_destroy" : \ (gtk.mainquit) } self.wTree.signal_autoconnect (dic) return #####CALLBACKS def button1_clicked(self,widget): print "button clicked" # they start the app fancy this... app=appgui() gtk.mainloop()

    It's significant to execute sure, if you installed pyGTK from source, that you set the PYTHONPATH environment variable to point to /usr/local/lib/python2.2/site-packages/ so pyGTK can exist institute correctly. Also, execute sure you copy into your current directory. You should conclude up with something fancy device 8 when you accelerate your recent program. Clicking GO! should produce a nifty button-clicked message in your terminal window.

    Figure 8. The Initial Server Info GUI

    To execute the application actually carry out something interesting, you exigency to possess some pass to determine which host and which port to use. The following code fragment, Put into the button1_clicked() function, should carry out the trick:

    host=self.wTree.get_widget("entry1").get_text() port=int(self.wTree.get_widget( "spinbutton1").get_value()) if host=="": return import urllib page=urllib.urlopen( "http://"+host+":"+str(port)+"/") print data

    Now when GO! is clicked, your program should fade off to a remote site, grab a Web page and print the contents on the terminal window. You can spice it up by adding more rows to the hbox and putting other widgets, fancy a menubar, into the application. You besides can experiment with using a table instead of nested hboxes and vboxes for layout, which often creates nicer looking layouts with everything aligned.


    You don't really want full that text going to the terminal, though, carry out you? It's likely you want it displayed in another widget or even in another window. To carry out this in GTK v2, spend the TextView and TextBuffer widgets. GTK v1 had an easy-to-understand widget called, simply, GtkText.

    Add a TextView to your Glade project and Put the results in that window. You'll notice that a scrolledwindow is created to encapsulate it. Add the lines below to your init() to create a TextBuffer and attach it to your TextView. Obviously, one of the advantages of the GTK v2 pass of doing things is the two different views can demonstrate the very buffer. You besides may want to fade into the Properties window for scrolledwindow1 and set the size to something larger so you possess a decent view space:

    self.logwindowview=self.wTree.get_widget("textview1") self.logwindow=gtk.TextBuffer(None) self.logwindowview.set_buffer(self.logwindow)

    In your button1_clicked() function, replace the print statement with:


    Now, whenever you click GO! the results are displayed in your window. By dividing your main window with a set of upright panes, you can resize this window, if you fancy (Figure 9).

    Figure 9. Clicking GO! loads the Web page and displays it in the TextView.

    TreeViews and Lists

    Unlike GTK v1, under GTK v2 a tree and a list basically are the very thing; the dissimilarity is the benevolent of store each of them uses. Another significant concept is the TreeIter, which is a datatype used to store a pointer to a particular row in a tree or list. It doesn't tender any useful methods itself, that is, you can't ++ it to step through the rows of a tree or list. However, it is passed into the TreeView methods whenever you want to reference a particular location in the tree. So, for example:

    import gobject self.treeview=[2]self.wTree.get_widget("treeview1") self.treemodel=gtk.TreeStore(gobject.TYPE_STRING, gobject.TYPE_STRING) self.treeview.set_model(self.treemodel)

    defines a tree model with two columns, each containing a string. The following code adds some titles to the top of the columns:

    self.treeview.set_headers_visible(gtk.TRUE) renderer=gtk.CellRendererText() column=gtk.TreeViewColumn("Name",renderer, text=0) column.set_resizable(gtk.TRUE) self.treeview.append_column(column) renderer=gtk.CellRendererText() column=gtk.TreeViewColumn("Description",renderer, text=1) column.set_resizable(gtk.TRUE) self.treeview.append_column(column)

    You could spend the following function to add data manually to your tree:

    def insert_row(model,parent, firstcolumn,secondcolumn): myiter=model.insert_after(parent,None) model.set_value(myiter,0,firstcolumn) model.set_value(myiter,1,secondcolumn) recur myiter

    Here's an case that uses this function. Don't forget to add treeview1 to your glade file, rescue it and copy it to your local directory:

    model=self.treemodel insert_row(model,None,'Helium', 'Control Current Helium') syscallIter=insert_row(model,None, 'Syscall Redirection', 'Control Current Syscall Proxy') insert_row(model,syscallIter,'Syscall-shell', 'Pop-up a syscall-shell')

    The screenshot in device 10 shows the results. I've replaced the TextView with a TreeView, as you can see.

    Figure 10. An case TreeView with Two Columns

    A list is done the very way, except you spend ListStore instead of TreeStore. Also, most likely you will spend ListStore.append() instead of insert_after().

    Using Dialogs

    A dialog differs from a established window in one significant way—it returns a value. To create a dialog box, click on the dialog box button and cognomen it. Then, in your code, render it with [3],dialogboxname). Then muster get_widget(dialogboxname) to regain a handle to that particular widget and muster its run() method. If the result is gtk.RESPONSE_OK, the user clicked OK. If not, the user closed the window or clicked Cancel. Either way, you can destroy() the widget to execute it disappear.

    One entangle when using dialog boxes: if an exception happens before you muster destroy() on the widget, the now unresponsive dialog box may hang around, confusing your users. muster widget.destroy() birthright after you receive the response and full the data you exigency from any entry boxes in the widget.

    Using input_add() and gtk.mainiteration() to handle Sockets

    Some day, you probably will write a pyGTK application that uses sockets. When doing so, exist vigilant that while your events are being handled, the application isn't doing anything else. When waiting on a socket.accept(), for example, you are going to exist stuck looking at an unresponsive application. Instead, spend gtk.input_add() to add any sockets that may possess read events to GTK's internal list. This allows you to specify a callback to handle whatever data comes in over the sockets.

    One entangle when doing this is you often want to update your windows during your event, necessitating a muster to gtk.mainiteration(). But if you muster gtk.mainiteration() while within gtk.mainiteration(), the application freezes. My solution for CANVAS was to wrap any calls to gtk.mainiteration() within a check to execute sure I wasn't recursing. I check for pending events, fancy a socket accept(), any time I write a log message. My log function ends up looking fancy this:

    def log(self,message,color): """ logs a message to the log window birthright now it just ignores the color argument """ message=message+"\n" self.logwindow.insert_at_cursor(message, len(message)) self.handlerdepth+=1 if self.handlerdepth==1 and \ gtk.events_pending(): gtk.mainiteration() self.handlerdepth-=1 return

    Moving a GUI from GTK v1 to GTK v2

    The entry in the pyGTK FAQ on porting your application from GTK v1 to GTK v2 is becoming more and more complete. However, you should exist vigilant of a few problems you're going to face. Obviously, full of your GtkText widgets exigency to exist replaced with Gtk.TextView widgets. The corresponding code in the GUI besides must exist changed to accommodate that move. Likewise, any lists or trees you've done in GTK v1 possess to exist redone. What may reach as a surprise is you besides exigency to redo full dialog boxes, remaking them in GTK v2 format, which looks much nicer.

    Also, a few syntax changes occurred, such as GDK touching to gtk.gdk and libglade touching to For the most part, these are simple search and replaces. spend GtkText.insert_defaults instead of GtkTextBuffer.insert_at_cursor() and radiobutton.get_active() instead of, for example. You can transform your Glade v1 file into a Glade v2 file using the libglade distribution's Python script. This gets you started on your GUI, but you may exigency to load Glade v2 and carry out some reconfigurations before porting your code.

    Final Notes

  • Don't forget you can prick and paste from the Glade widget tree. This can execute a redesign quick and painless.

  • Unset any practicable positions in the Properties window so your startup doesn't examine weird.

  • If you possess a question you account other people might too, add it to the pyGTK FAQ.

  • The GNOME IRC server has a useful #pygtk channel. I couldn't possess written CANVAS without the abet of the people on the channel, especially James Henstridge. It's a tribute to the Open Source community that the principal developers often are available to concede newbie questions.

  • The finished demo code is available from

    Deploying CLR Assemblies with T-SQL | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Microsoft introduced the talent to spend .NET CLR stored procedures and functions in SQL Server some time ago, starting with SQL Server 2005. Now more than 8 years later I account many developers are fancy me: I concede the power of CLR routines, but try to avoid using CLR.

    Part of the judgement for this avoidance has to carry out with technical considerations. But truthfully for me, Part of the judgement besides has to carry out with the increased complexity that CLR introduces into development, deployment, and maintenance of the database.

    This article will demonstrate an approach to deploying and managing CLR routines that may exist more comfortable for T-SQL developers and DBA's, and one that does not involve spend of Visual Studio. This approach besides encapsulates everything needed to deploy the CLR assembly within the database, acceptation that a database backup will store full needed dependencies.

    The basic goal of this exercise is to create a stored procedure that when executed will compile C# code, token the .DLL, register the assembly in SQL, and create the wrapper SQL objects, full within this stored procedure. In this way, deployment of the CLR assembly is as smooth as running a stored procedure. Everything is taken dependence of, and is full in one place: no independent .DLL 's, Visual Studio projects, or C# source to reserve track of.

    Additionally, this exercise attempts to result best practices for deployment, such as signing the assembly and properly securing it in SQL. These are things that often regain omitted when in a Hurry to set up a CLR assembly in SQL.


    For those who just want to skip to the final result: I possess created a stored procedure to deploy a sample assembly as follows:

    CREATE PROCEDURE dbo.spExample_RegisterAssembly_PDFCLR AS BEGIN DECLARE @FilePath varchar(1024) SET @FilePath = 'c:\ServerEnvironment\' CREATE TABLE #References (AssemblyName sysname, FQFileName varchar(1024)) INSERT INTO #References (AssemblyName, FQFileName) VALUES ('System.Drawing', 'C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\System.Drawing.dll') INSERT INTO #References (AssemblyName, FQFileName) VALUES ('itextsharp', @FilePath + 'itextsharp.dll') DECLARE @DropWrapperSQL varchar(MAX) SET @DropWrapperSQL = ' IF OBJECT_ID(''dbo.udfRenderPDF'') IS NOT NULL BEGIN DROP function dbo.udfRenderPDF; END ' DECLARE @CreateWrapperSQL varchar(MAX) SET @CreateWrapperSQL = ' CREATE function [dbo].[udfRenderPDF]( @TemplatePDF varbinary(MAX), @FieldsXML xml ) RETURNS [varbinary](max) WITH EXECUTE AS CALLER AS EXTERNAL cognomen [PDFCLR].[Functions].[RenderPDF] ' --C# Source Code. --Paste CLR source in below. replace full occurrences a lone quote with two lone quotes. DECLARE @SourceCode nvarchar(MAX) SET @SourceCode = ' //------start of CLR Source------ using System; using System.Data; using System.Data.SqlClient; using System.Data.SqlTypes; using Microsoft.SqlServer.Server; ....Rest of C# source code goes here //------end of CLR Source------ ' EXEC dbo.spsysBuildCLRAssembly @AssemblyName = 'PDFCLR', @FileName = 'PDFCLR_SQLCLR.cs', @FilePath = @FilePath, @DropWrapperSQL = @DropWrapperSQL, @CreateWrapperSQL = @CreateWrapperSQL, @SourceCode = @SourceCode END

    Calling this spExample_RegisterAssembly_PDFCLR procedure will build the C# source code provided in @SourceCode, and will token the .DLL, register full referenced assemblies, create an asymmetric key and associated login for each assembly, and create the assembly in SQL, along with wrapper procedures. (See the attached files to download the required routines.)

    In this way, executing your stored procedure will carry out everything needed to build and deploy this CLR assembly–even if you restore your database to a different server.

    There is no exigency to spend Visual Studio, or to access any external files: everything is encapsulated in your database, and can exist accelerate from a simple T-SQL stored procedure.


    Here is a step-by-step list of the labor this stored procedure needs to do:

  • Retrieve C# source from SQL
  • Write C# source to a temporary .cs file
  • Enable CLR support in the database (if necessary)
  • Temporarily enable xp_cmdshell (just for the duration of execution of this procedure)
  • Write and execute a batch file that does the following:
  • Generate signature with the command line "sn" (Strong Name) tool
  • Build C# source into a signed DLL using the command line "csc" (C acute Compiler) compiler
  • Disable xp_cmdshell (for security reasons)
  • Drop the SQL wrapper function that wraps the CLR fashion (if it exists)
  • Drop the CLR assembly (if it exists)
  • Create key to secure the assembly:
  • Create an asymmetric key (dropping if it exists)
  • Create a SQL login from the key (dropping if it exists)
  • Grant rights to the login
  • Create the assembly in SQL
  • Create the SQL wrapper function that wraps the CLR method
  • As smooth as 1, 2, 3…11. And that is Part of what I weigh in about the complexity of deploying and maintaining CLR assemblies in SQL: there are lots of steps to learn how to carry out (and then recollect to carry out them). These steps exigency to exist done every time you deploy this database to a recent server. Being able to carry out full of these things by executing a lone stored procedure simplifies things greatly.

    (Note that the sequence of some of these steps has been altered slightly in the final version of the code that is attached.)

    Step 1: Retrieve C# Source from SQL

    We are trying to avoid storing the C# source in a file because they want everything that is needed to create the assembly to exist encapsulated in the database. The source could exist stored in a table, or, as I possess done here, the source code can exist stored as a string literal inside the stored procedure.

    What I possess done is copy-and-pasted the C# source from Visual Studio, then used search-and-replace to replace lone quote characters with two lone quote characters, and then assigned this string to a variable which will later regain written out to a temporary .cs file.


    DECLARE @CLRSource nvarchar(MAX) SET @CLRSource = ' //------start of CLR Source------ using System; using System.Data; using System.Data.SqlClient; using System.Data.SqlTypes; using Microsoft.SqlServer.Server; .... //------end of CLR Source------ '

    Step 2: Write C# source to a temporary .cs file

    Phil Factor writes some usefull SQL code. One of his articles gives us a utility procedure they can spend to easily write a string to a file. I spend this procedure to write the C# source to a .cs file.


    EXEC dbo.sputilWriteStringToFile @FileData = @CLRSource, @FilePath = @FilePath, @FileName = @FileName Step 3: Enable CLR support

    This procedure will deploy a CLR assembly. Obviously they exigency CLR support enabled in the database.


    IF NOT EXISTS(SELECT * FROM sys.configurations WHERE cognomen = 'clr enabled') BEGIN SET @SQL =' EXEC master.dbo.sp_configure ''show advanced options'', 1 RECONFIGURE EXEC master.dbo.sp_configure ''clr'', 1 RECONFIGURE' EXEC(@SQL) END Step 4: Temporarily enable xp_cmdshell

    I fully understand and correspond that xp_cmdshell can interpose a number of security problems, and is best avoided in production databases. My approach here is that this stored procedure will enable xp_cmdshell temporarily. It will exist enabled just long enough to muster a batch file that the procedure will dynamically create.

    In my opinion, this spend of xp_cmdshell is safe and appropriate: it will only exist called at deploy-time by an administrator, will exist used to execute carefully scripted statements, and will exist immediately disabled.


    SET @SQL = ' EXEC master.dbo.sp_configure ''show advanced options'', 1 RECONFIGURE EXEC master.dbo.sp_configure ''xp_cmdshell'', 1 RECONFIGURE' EXEC(@SQL)

    Step 5: Create a batch file that will exist executed

    We exigency to execute the strong cognomen command line application (sn.exe), and besides the command line C# compiler (csc.exe)


    This CLR assembly requires iTextSharp, an open source library for creating PDF 's (from ). Download, and copy the itextsharp.dll file to c:\ServerEnvironment (or a folder of your choosing, updating the script as needed).


    The sn.exe and csc.exe utilities are Part of the "Windows SDK for Windows Server 2008 and .NET Framework 3.5 ", available as a free download at


    SQL Server 2005 and 2008 CLR support is limited to .NET Framework 3.5. SQL Server 2012 introduces support for .NET Framework 4.0, but can accelerate .NET Framework 3.5. This procedure uses .NET Framework 3.5–which is their only option on SQL 2005, 2008, and 2008 R2.

    Figuring out full the command line parameters necessary took a bit of research, but now that is done the procedure can automatically output the needed parameters to the batch file.


    DECLARE @Command varchar(2048) SET @Command = "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDKs\Windows\v6.1\Bin\sn" -k ' + @FilePath + '\' + 'PDFCLR_keyPair.snk' + @CRLF + '"C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v3.5\csc" /t:library' + ' /reference:c:\ServerEnvironment\itextsharp.dll' + ' /out:' + @FilePath + '\' + REPLACE(@FileName, '.cs', '.dll') + ' /keyfile:' + @FilePath + '\' + 'PDFCLR_keyPair.snk' + ' ' + @FilePath + '\' + @FileName EXEC dbo.sputilWriteStringToFile @FileData = @Command, @FilePath = @FilePath, @FileName = 'tmp.bat'

    Step 6: Disable xp_cmdshell

    We don 't want to leave xp_cmdshell enabled, and the procedure is done with it.


    SET @SQL = ' EXEC master.dbo.sp_configure ''show advanced options'', 1 RECONFIGURE EXEC master.dbo.sp_configure ''xp_cmdshell'', 0 RECONFIGURE' EXEC(@SQL)

    Step 7: Drop the wrapper SQL function

    CLR assemblies expose methods, but SQL requires a SQL function that is tied to the fashion in the assembly. Since they want to drop the assembly if it exists, they must first drop the wrapper function.


    IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.udfRenderPDF') IS NOT NULL BEGIN IF @Debug = 1 PRINT '***Dropping existing function' SET @SQL = 'DROP function dbo.udfRenderPDF' EXEC(@SQL) END Step 8: Drop the existing CLR assembly, if it exists

    We want to replace the existing assembly (if any), so they possess to drop it if it exists.


    IF ASSEMBLYPROPERTY ('PDFCLR' , 'MvID') IS NOT NULL BEGIN IF @Debug = 1 PRINT '***Dropping existing CLR assembly' SET @SQL = 'DROP ASSEMBLY PDFCLR' EXEC(@SQL) END Step 9: Create key to secure the assembly

    This is one of the harder parts to understand, but a detailed explanation is beyond the scope of this article. I 'll try to provide a brief overview:

    CLR code can carry out anything, including destructive or malicious things. CLR code that does potentially hazardous things (such as deleting files from the file system) gets flagged as "unsafe ". SQL prevents "unsafe " CLR assemblies from being loaded in an effort to protect the server environment from destructive or malicious things. SQL will allow "unsafe " CLR assemblies if one of two things is true: a) the TRUSTWORTHY database property is enabled, or b) the assembly is signed and tied to a key and login in SQL.

    TRUSTWORTHY is a atrocious idea, because basically it says that ANY "unsafe " assembly can exist loaded. They don 't want to open the door to load any and every "unsafe " assembly. If they did, a user could register hazardous or malicious .DLLs without the DBA's knowledge. Also, someone could potentially change the .DLL in the file system without the DBA's knowledge–and SQL would then continue to allow users to muster methods in the now-rogue assembly. (Think of TRUSTWORTHY as being SQL deeming the entire physical server and everything on it as being safe or "trustworthy".)

    Signing the assembly is a much better idea. It is slightly complicated to do, but the concept isn 't too hard. This involves signing the assembly with a cryptographic signature, creating an asynchronous key in SQL based on this signature, creating a SQL login associated with the key, and granting confiscate rights to this login. This in result gives us the talent to dispute that the specified user is allowed to load this specific "unsafe " assembly.

    Putting this another way, signing the assembly guarantees the DBA that only assemblies approved by the DBA will exist used by SQL. I will not dig into what full is going on in the mechanics of signing the code, but will instead just demonstrate you how to carry out it.



    Step 10: Create the assembly in SQL

    Now they can create the assembly in SQL. This terminology can exist a miniature confusing, as the .NET assembly is already created (i.e. the C# code has already been compiled and the .DLL already exists.) Really what they are doing here is "registering " the assembly for spend by SQL, though the SQL command is "CREATE ASSEMBLY ".


    SET @SQL = ' CREATE ASSEMBLY PDFCLR FROM ''' + @FilePath + '\' + REPLACE(@FileName, '.cs', '.dll') + ''' WITH PERMISSION_SET = UNSAFE' EXEC(@SQL)

    NOTE: This particular assembly (that renders PDF documents) requires "unsafe " operations. Some assemblies may not require "unsafe " operations, and can thus possess a different setting for PERMISSION_SET.

    Step 11: Create the SQL wrapper function

    Finally they can create the SQL wrapper function associated with the fashion in the CLR assembly. Parameters and types in the SQL wrapper must exactly match those in the C# code.


    SET @SQL = ' CREATE function [dbo].[udfRenderPDF]( @TemplatePDF varbinary(MAX), @FieldsXML xml ) RETURNS [varbinary](max) WITH EXECUTE AS CALLER AS EXTERNAL cognomen [PDFCLR].[Functions].[RenderPDF]' EXEC(@SQL)

    Trying it out

    Finally, they can try out the results of full their arduous labor by executing the recent function they just created, and seeing how it renders a PDF file.

    (Little is said here of what this assembly actually does or how to spend it. dispute tuned for tomorrow's article ""Rendering PDFs Natively in SQL" for details on this particular assembly.)


    DECLARE @FieldsXML xml SET @FieldsXML = CAST( '<Fields> <Field> <TextValue>Hello World</TextValue> <XPos>100</XPos> <YPos>700</YPos> <FontSize>18</FontSize> </Field> <Field> <TextValue>One more line, just for fun.</TextValue> <XPos>150</XPos> <YPos>650</YPos> <FontSize>12</FontSize> </Field> </Fields>' AS xml) DECLARE @PDFTemplate varbinary(MAX) SET @PDFTemplate = NULL DECLARE @ResultPDF varbinary(MAX) SET @ResultPDF = dbo.udfRenderPDF(@PDFTemplate, @FieldsXML) /*The PDF file now exists in the @ResultPDF variable. You can carry out whatever you want with the data. To write the binary data to a file on the server so that you can open it in Adobe Acrobat Reader you can spend this utility procedure (see attached). */ EXEC [dbo].[sputilWriteBinaryToFile] @FileData = @ResultPDF, @FilePath = 'C:\Temp', @Filename = 'test.pdf' Summary

    There are a lot of steps involved in properly deploying a CLR assembly in SQL. But the honorable tidings is that once these steps are encapsulated within a stored procedure, the procedure can exist executed any time the CLR source code is updated and whenever you exigency to deploy the CLR assembly to a different machine.

    Both the C# source and the script to build, token and register it are resident in the SQL database–and as such regain backed up and restored along with full other SQL objects. The DBA can view exactly what is going on in the assembly–both in terms of the C# source and the various compiler options–all in one place, by simply looking at the source of this stored procedure. Also, the DBA doesn't even exigency to open Visual Studio: everything can exist done from indigenous T-SQL

    Visual Studio is a fine progress tool, and is useful when developing the C# code. But in my opinion, a deployment script implemented in a SQL stored procedure is a much nicer pass for a T-SQL developer or DBA to deploy and update CLR assemblies in SQL.

    Will I spend CLR for everything? No, definitely not. But now when I exigency to spend a CLR assembly I can now carry out so with greater safety and greater ease than I could without the techniques described in this article.

    (See attached file for full source code.  You can download and execute BuildAndRegisterCLRAssembly.sql to create full procedures and functions referenced here, as well as to execute the case shown above.)

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    MORGAN Studio

    is specialized in Architectural visualization , Industrial visualization , 3D Modeling ,3D Animation , Entertainment and Visual Effects .