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DP-023W exam Dumps Source : Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0

Test Code : DP-023W
Test cognomen : Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0
Vendor cognomen : Veritas
: 86 real Questions

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Veritas Data Protection Admininstration for

Veritas technologies to provide govt corporations with information insurance intention and Cloud features | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Sep 18, 2018

Stephanie Simone

Veritas applied sciences, provider of enterprise statistics insurance intention and utility-described storage solutions, is getting into a government-huge compress for the U.S. time-honored capabilities Administration (GSA), providing federal agencies with records governance and cloud information management software.

below the contract, executive organizations may own entry to Veritas facts protection and cloud solutions at negotiated fees to permit for more desirable facts management.

The compress is derived from the GSA IT schedule 70 and utterly supports the Federal suggestions expertise Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Enhancement software.

The settlement brings Veritas’ enterprise statistics management portfolio to each and every eligible federal, state, local, and tribal govt companies.

These groups can build upon the statistics insurance policy basis of Veritas NetBackup and add extra records administration capabilities to accelerate their cloud initiatives.

one of the most initial choices include:

  • Veritas information perception helps agencies expand unstructured records governance to cleave back charges, risk and achieve compliance through actionable intelligence into records ownership, utilization and entry controls.
  • Veritas eDiscovery Platform offers governments with the optimal evaluation toolkit for keeping apart material felony, regulatory and investigative objects, revealing context and prioritizing what is most vital, using a solitary utility.
  • Veritas InfoScale helps federal IT groups superior tender protection to tips and purposes throughout actual and virtual infrastructures. InfoScale minimizes downtime with the aid of providing towering availability and catastrophe healing over any distance for vital enterprise capabilities, together with particular person databases, custom purposes and sophisticated multitier applications throughout actual, virtual and cloud environments.
  • Veritas commercial enterprise Vault, when provided as a solution with a FedRAMP licensed utility-as-a service (SaaS) cloud provider from bluesource (referred to as EV247), frees businesses from the overhead of possessing, working or managing e-mail and file archives. The EV247 retort is powered through the area’s main archiving technology from Veritas. it's a cloud platform, application archiving solution and managed provider multi functional.
  • Veritas 360 records management gives organizations the potential to seriously change their records to handle the challenges of conclusion-to-conclusion information administration by course of statistics visibility, compliance readiness, enterprise continuity, facts insurance intention and recoverability. It accomplishes each and every of those desires whereas conserving records/workload portability and storage optimization.
  • For extra assistance about this news, visit

    Veritas Enters unusual government-huge Cloud facts management settlement for the U.S. prevalent functions Administration | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif., Sept. 12, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Veritas applied sciences, the worldwide market participate chief within the enterprise facts coverage and utility-described storage market, has entered into a government-large agreement for the U.S. accepted features Administration (GSA) to give federal agencies with statistics governance and cloud facts administration utility.

    under the contract, govt groups may own entry to Veritas information insurance intention and cloud options at negotiated costs to allow for improved records administration. The compress is derived from the GSA IT time table 70 and fully supports the Federal tips expertise Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Enhancement software.

    The agreement brings Veritas' award-successful trade data management portfolio to each and every eligible federal, state, aboriginal and tribal executive groups. These corporations can construct upon the data insurance policy groundwork of Veritas NetBackup and add additional facts management capabilities to accelerate their cloud initiatives. one of the initial offerings consist of:

  • Veritas statistics insight helps businesses ameliorate unstructured data governance to cleave back charges, possibility and obtain compliance through actionable intelligence into facts ownership, usage and access controls.
  • Veritas eDiscovery Platform gives governments with the top-rated evaluation toolkit for keeping apart valuable prison, regulatory and investigative items, revealing context and prioritizing what is most important, the utilize of a solitary application.
  • Veritas InfoScale helps federal IT groups more desirable give protection to guidance and purposes across physical and digital infrastructures. InfoScale minimizes downtime via presenting immoderate availability and catastrophe healing over any distance for distinguished trade functions, together with particular person databases, customized purposes and sophisticated multitier purposes throughout physical, digital and cloud environments.
  • Veritas trade Vault, when provided as an retort with a FedRAMP authorized software-as-a carrier (SaaS) cloud provider from bluesource (called EV247), frees businesses from the overhead of owning, running or managing e-mail and file archives. The EV247 retort is powered by using the area's leading archiving know-how from Veritas. it is a cloud platform, software archiving solution and managed provider multi function.
  • Veritas 360 statistics administration gives businesses the means to radically change their data to tackle the challenges of end-to-conclusion facts administration by using statistics visibility, compliance readiness, company continuity, records protection and recoverability. It accomplishes each and every of those plane while holding information/workload portability and storage optimization.
  • "The IT agenda 70 FITARA Enhancement software will give executive groups with greater flexibility in getting access to the imaginitive application solutions they want at a more robust cost to taxpayers," stated Alan Thomas, GSA Federal Acquisition provider (FAS) Commissioner. "providing these solutions through a govt-wide, commercial enterprise-degree compress is a very suitable approach to cleave back duplication in their procurement procedure."

    "With the upward propel of cybercrime, the introduction of latest information laws, an upturn of records expand and escalation of digital privacy, federal businesses nowadays should live organized to compose strategic decisions around statistics collection, facts storage, the space of that facts—and how it will likewise live safeguarded," talked about Tom Kennedy, vp and accepted supervisor, Veritas Public Sector. "as the undisputed chief in information coverage and utility-defined storage, Veritas is providing govt corporations convenient entry to solutions that assist combat these pressures – to cop note facts, maintain it included, ameliorate information availability, free up the vigour of assistance and garner insights to obligate improvements in executive classes." 

    in regards to the IT time table 70 FITARA Enhancement ProgramThe Federal assistance technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) is a GSA program designed to compose it less complicated and extra inexpensive for federal corporations to purchase utility. FITARA changed into passed by Congress in 2014 and the workplace of management and funds (OMB) implemented advice in 2016. It aims to cleave back fees and bring imaginative technology to the federal executive.

    About VeritasVeritas applied sciences is the chief in the international enterprise facts insurance policy and application-defined storage market. We aid essentially the most essential agencies on earth, including 86 percent of the international Fortune 500, returned up and amass well their statistics, preserve it comfy and obtainable, guard in opposition t failure and obtain regulatory compliance. As corporations modernize their IT infrastructure, Veritas supplies the technology that helps them cleave back dangers and capitalize on their data. live taught more at or follow us on Twitter at @veritastechllc.

    Veritas and the Veritas brand are trademarks or registered logos of Veritas applied sciences LLC or its associates in the U.S. and different nations. other names could live logos of their respective homeowners.

    PR Contact

    Veritas TechnologiesDayna Fried +1 925 493


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    Data Protection Admininstration for Windows using NetBackup 5.0

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    Using Symantec NetBackup OpenStorage for disk-to-disk backup and recovery | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Three of the vast headlines so far this year own been data growth, the economy and data deduplication in backup. The first headline, relentless data growth, is the root occasions of most issues in the backup environment. In an distress to meet service-level agreements (SLAs) for data backup and recovery, more and more organizations are deploying disk in the backup process. With disk, IT organizations can better meet backup windows and recovery objectives. But as IT "modernizes" its backup infrastructure with disk-to-disk backup, unusual problems emerge -- specifically, the cost of managing copies stored on disk, and the feasibility of taking disk-based backup copies and making them portable for offsite and/or long-term storage.

    Deduplication addresses the first issue -- it changes the economics of disk-based backup, allowing more data to live stored in a smaller footprint. The second problem is the unusual twinge point for respite users that own adopted disk. How can they rapidly, securely, cost-effectively, and efficiently amass data offsite for catastrophe recovery (DR) or long-term retention? Sure, most target devices with deduplication can replicate copies, but is the backup application's catalog cognizant of the copy? That's where Symantec Corp. Veritas NetBackup OpenStorage (OST) technology comes in.

    Symantec announced its NetBackup OpenStorage initiative a few years ago. It is designed to allow NetBackup users to utilize third-party storage solutions without the need for tape emulation.

    Available as an option for NetBackup 6.5 and higher, NetBackup OpenStorage gives NetBackup a common interface for third-party disk targets. NetBackup sees OST-enabled appliances as disk, enabling features such as knowing capacity management, media server load balancing, reporting, and lifecycle policies. It likewise delivers optimized duplication. Without OST, NetBackup media servers own to manage each and every duplicate backup copies, which means that data must live transferred across the LAN, WAN, or SAN from the primary site secondary storage to a NetBackup media server and then to the catastrophe recovery site storage medium (i.e., another appliance of the very ilk or tape media). With OST, the OST-enabled device is doing the replication and the data path does not embrace NetBackup media servers. This means that only changed segments are replicated, creating savings in bandwidth and, importantly, time. NetBackup is cognizant of each and every copies and those copies follow established retention policies.

    Symantec Technology Enabled Program (STEP) partners -- such as Data Domain, EMC Corp., FalconStor Software, and Quantum Corp. -- leverage the NetBackup OpenStorage technology API to create plug-ins for their storage systems. OST allows for backup data to live stored on disk with whatever protocol the target device uses, such as a Fibre Channel or TCP/IP. Based on NetBackup policies or commands, the OST-enabled device will create, duplicate or delete copies.

    One of the more gripping byproducts of the utilize of the NetBackup OpenStorage interface is the performance improvement in backup. Several STEP partners with an OST-enabled solution pretense 50% to100% improvement in backup performance. Richard Nosal, a server administrator for towering Point Regional Health System in Greensboro, N.C., implemented the NetBackup OST option with a Data Domain DD660 and saw his pre-OST 10-hour backup window with a virtual tape library cleave in half.

    Since the NetBackup catalog is cognizant of each and every copies, recovery of data from a NetBackup OpenStorage-optimized duplicate copy is the very as recovery from another duplicate. Through NetBackup's Backup-Archive-Restore GUI, the OST-optimized duplicate copy can live designated as the primary copy and then a replete or granular recovery can live initiated. The potential time savings over recovery from a non-OST-optimized duplicate could live significant.

    About this author:Lauren Whitehouse is an analyst with Enterprise Strategy Group and covers data protection technologies. Lauren is a 20-plus-year veteran in the software industry, formerly serving in marketing and software development roles.

    NAS Advantages: A VARs View | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    NAS Advantages: A VAR`s View

    Potential benefits of network-attached storage (NAS) embrace faster data access, easier administration, and no-brainer configuration.

    Ron Levine

    Don Schrenk, a storage consultant with Direct Connect Systems, a value-added reseller in Marietta, GA, has specialized in providing network storage solutions to Fortune 1000 clients for more than four years. InfoStor recently talked with Schrenk to amass his thoughts about the advantages of NAS and how it can live implemented in a purview of environments.

    Why is NAS gaining popularity?

    Network administrators are always on the lookout for dependable, expandable, and easy-to-install options to alleviate server storage overload. NAS fills the bill. Basically, NAS removes the file-server office from overloaded general-purpose servers. It does this via a specialized, high- performance network-attached file server, sometimes referred to as a "filer."

    On a network, data-access time determines how rapidly you can execute your job. For instance, how posthaste securities traders process orders, how quickly product designers can amass their wares to market, and how promptly corporate intranet users can download a file depends, in part, on data-access time. NAS devices ensure users posthaste and dependable access to data.

    What are some of the factors to deem before implementing NAS?

    The first thing you peer at is how many users you own on the system. Are there enough users to warrant [buying a NAS device]? Next, you peer at what the users are doing when they log onto the server, because if you own 50 clients and each and every 50 need to log onto the very Unix machine, they own to depart through seven million lines of code essentially to amass to their data. What that does is space an undue overhead on that machine. It`s conjectural to live number-crunching, but it can`t because you own clients trying to access their data. That`s when you deem using a NAS device to offload those clients.

    When is NAS not a suitable idea?

    If a customer tells us they need absolute 100% frailty tolerance, I may not recommend NAS. Instead, I`d probably utilize dual-redundant servers with more than one network interface so there is no solitary point of failure.

    What makes NAS devices so light to install?

    It`s a specialized dedicated appliance designed to achieve one office only--file access and storage--so it`s not a complicated device. At Direct Connect Systems, we`re most confidential with Network Appliance`s NetApp Filer because we`ve used it as a storage solution for a number of their clients, but each and every NAS devices are similar in this respect.

    Filers attain with their own circuit boards, embedded software, and power supplies. The NetApp Filer simply plugs into a 10-BASE-T, 100-BASE-T, FDDI, ATM and/or Gigabit Ethernet LAN. Once installed, the applications never notice it.

    How execute you amass it going?

    It`s almost automatic in a Unix, Windows, or combination environment. Once plugged in, you wait a few minutes for the embedded software to detect and configure to your existing system. Then, it looks infatuation any other server on your network. We`ve establish that NAS servers easily integrate into LANs as an extension of the main servers` hard-disk capacity. Because the NetApp filer does not own proprietary hardware (it`s based on Alpha or Intel processors and an EISA bus), has a simplified operating system designed just for file serving, includes a RAID storage configuration and component redundancy, its reliability approaches 100% uptime.

    You mainly toil with Fortune 1000 clients. What are these companies most concerned with once the NAS server is up and operating?

    The questions they most often amass concern backup, administration, and various application issues.

    What are the appliance`s backup capabilities?

    Reliable data backup is essential to any catastrophe prevention intention and is a major concern to their clients. The NetApp Filer supports three file backup methodologies: the filer`s "dump" command, advocate for NDMP [Network Data Management Protocol], and backup across NFS or CIFS platforms. The "dump" command is similar to the confidential Unix "dump" command. NDMP is a benchmark by which an enterprise backup system--such as Veritas` Netbackup, IBM`s ADSM, or Legato`s Networker--can direct the backup of the NetApp Filer. The third backup mode supported is a straight NFS or CIFS backup. Here, the Filer is backed up as if it were local disk space to the NFS or CIFS client station.

    How does a NAS server ease system administration issues?

    This is another intuition why these devices are so popular. As an illustration of their simplicity, the NetApp Filer they install has just 39 commands and a small group of configuration files, making it extremely light to maintain and administer. Filer administration can live accomplished through the serial console connection, a telnet connection across the TCP/IP network, or through the FilerView GUI using a Java-capable Web browser. Administrators usually require less than a half day to learn how to fully operate and administer the Filer.

    Sounds easy, but are there risks to running user applications?

    The NAS server provides file service--that`s all. The application actually runs locally to a compute server that has accessed the filer using NFS mounts or CIFS shares. Now, there are some applications that prevent their data from being stored on a network-attached drive. But if your application can utilize disk space accessed across the network, it will sprint on the NetApp Filer or other NAS devices.

    Because you`re most confidential with the NetApp Filer, what are some of its key features?

    -The WAFL (write anywhere file layout) file system, which reduces drive bottlenecks.

    - The Data ONTAP operating system, which contains only 300,000 lines of code. This is extremely efficient compared to Unix or NT with millions of lines of code.

    - replete read-ahead caching on files less than 100K in size.

    - aboriginal multi-protocol support. The NetApp filer currently supports NFS (Unix), CIFS (NT and Windows), and HTTP, allowing for file sharing across LANs.

    - RAID-4 configuration to ensure data protection.

    What`s an illustration of a recent NAS installation you`ve done for a client, and what were the advantages?

    One client of ours, ADTRAN Inc. in Huntsville, AL, is a designer and manufacturer of transmission products. They had a network storage problem, and the NetApp Filer provided the faultless solution. The huge CAD files used by the company`s engineers were negatively impacting overall network performance and were proximate to utilizing replete network storage capacity. Not only was a network storage bottleneck near, but exacerbating the problem was the fact that Unix and Windows NT users could not participate files. What they needed was a common pool of disk storage that would maintain more files on-line and allow replete file sharing across the enterprise. NAS provided added capacity for each and every users across the network, and it`s likewise extremely reliable; a lost CAD file is something that ADTRAN can`t tolerate.

    The key benefits for ADTRAN were file sharing, reliability, high-speed performance, and ease of administration. And because it supports multiple-protocols, Unix and NT users can participate stored files without using any emulation software on the clients. They installed a NetApp Model F520 Filer with 80GB in a RAID-4 configuration. Since then, ADTRAN has added another 80GB. The additional drives were light to install--just slip them into the drive shelf and execute a solitary command. In seconds, the usable disk space was doubled. Today, ADTRAN has about 40 users accessing the Filer over a posthaste Ethernet LAN--mostly engineers storing big CAD files and backup file indices on the NAS device. The filer, which is available 24 hours a day, likewise supports remote access.

    Click here to enlarge image

    NetApp`s multiprotocol architecture provides aboriginal advocate for NFS, CIFS and HTTP, which eliminates the overhead and compatibility issues sometimes associated with emulation software.

    Ron Levine is a freelance writer in Carpenteria, CA, and a regular contributor to InfoStor. Direct Connect Systems can live contacted at (770) 933-9327 or by visiting their Web site at

    Shootout at the Disk Repair Corral | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Some things are inevitable. Death, taxes, and disk crashes. One day you will try to open an distinguished file, only to receive a dire error message. Or perhaps you’ll discover that an entire folder has vanished. Worse yet, maybe your Mac won’t even boot, thanks to some sort of disk corruption.

    Fortunately, you own a replete backup of each and every your data, so you just restore the missing data from your backup, and you’re back in business. What’s that you say? The terminal time you backed up was during the Reagan administration?

    If an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, then surely the most efficacious disk repair program is actually a dependable backup utility. My favorite is Dantz’s Retrospect. But whatever backup program you choose, you must utilize it regularly, so you own a current backup when your arduous disk is called to that distinguished spotless margin in the sky. (See the TidBITS article series, "Have You Backed Up Today?" for more details on setting up a suitable backup strategy.)


    Yet just as so many of us would prefer to lose weight by taking a magic pill rather than through diet and exercise, we’d rather fix a corrupted disk with a disk utility, rather than restoring from a backup, even when a recent backup is available. It can cop many hours to execute a replete restore from a backup, whereas a suitable disk utility can often fix minor disk errors in minutes.

    Some of the Macintosh world’s favorite disk repair programs own recent upgrades, and here I’ll compare the Norton Disk Doctor appliance in Symantec’s Norton Utilities 8.0 ($100), Alsoft’s DiskWarrior 3.0 ($80), Micromat’s Drive 10 1.1.4 ($70), SubRosaSoft’s DiskGuardian 2.2 ($70), and Apple’s Disk Utility (free). Although these programs hold a wide variety of disparate features, I concentrate on their disk repair functions in Mac OS X. I chose not to embrace Prosoft Engineering’s Data Rescue X, because it recovers files onto another disk and does not repair the damaged disk itself.

    <><>< introduction.html><>< _rescue.php>

    The user interface and ancillary features of a disk repair program are secondary, because in the event of catastrophe you custody about only one thing: will it amass my data back? So let’s concentrate on the heart of the issue: what are the most common disk errors you may experience, and which disk repair programs can rescue your bacon when you’re luckless enough to suffer disk corruption?

    In my experience, most people sprint into three universal categories of disk problems: hardware failure, despicable sectors, and damaged directories. After a brief examination of how you amass started with these programs, given that you can’t repair an energetic startup disk in Mac OS X, I peer at the worst ilk of problem – hardware failures, after which I examine the soft errors and compare the performance of the disk repair programs.

    Booty convoke — One drawback of Mac OS X is that a disk repair program can’t safely check the startup disk. Despite this, and the fact that Apple’s official line is that checking startup disks is not supported, Norton Disk Doctor and DiskGuardian both allow checking of the startup disk, although they caution against doing so. I deem messing about with startup disks under Mac OS X dangerous, and I counsel you not to execute it.

    Fortunately, there is a simple solution. Restart in "single user mode" by holding down Command-S while the Mac is starting up. In solitary user mode, you’re dropped into a command line version of Mac OS X, without windows or a mouse pointer. ilk "fsck -y" to check (and repair, if necessary) the boot disk, after which you restart the Mac by typing "reboot" (sans quotes for both commands). Disk Utility and fsck depend on the very engine, so running fsck in solitary user mode is exactly the very as running Disk Utility.

    If you’re uncomfortable with the command line for even two commands, you own an alternative. If you boot your Mac using the Mac OS X Installer CD, you can sprint Disk Utility from there. At the first screen in the Installer, select Open Disk Utility from the Installer menu.

    What about the other disk repair programs? each and every except DiskGuardian (for now, but a unusual version is expected soon) attain on bootable CDs. Insert the CD, eddy on your Mac, and hold down the C key to obligate the computer to boot from the CD. Bootable CDs are essential in the event that your arduous disk is so badly damaged that your computer won’t even start up.

    It’s Dead, Jim — Let’s peer at what can depart wrong now. Hardware failure can result from the electronics on the drive’s controller board burning out, or the heads or the arm developing mechanical problems. Sometimes a problem with the lubricating grease prevents the disk from spinning or the read arm from moving, causing a problem known as "sticktion."

    These problems are caused by dropping the disk, by defective components, by static discharge, or even by sheer age. Usually the disk won’t even point to up on the Desktop. As far as the disk utilities go, Drive 10 can detect hardware errors with a "Unit Ready" test, which is just what it sounds like. Drive 10 asks the drive "Are you ready?" and the drive replies "No." This test is mostly helpful for confirming hardware errors you probably already suspect.

    Hopefully there’s no vital data locked in the lifeless drive. No software program can repair a disk with hardware problems. If you desperately need to retrieve the data, your only option is a data recovery company such as DriveSavers, who I’ve establish to live professional, competent, and expensive. (Also remark Jeff Carlson’s report in "DriveSavers to the Rescue" in TidBITS-495.)


    Extended Warranties — If your drive has just suffered a hardware failure, you’re probably checking the warranty and hunting for your receipt. Don’t despair, even if your computer or external arduous drive is out of warranty from the manufacturer. Many arduous drives, even those installed in computers, are likewise covered by longer warranties provided by the OEM (original paraphernalia manufacturer), the company that actually made the drive. If you’re willing and able to open a case and remove the drive mechanism, you can cop advantage of this warranty.

    Here’s the trick. Although you may own bought the computer from Apple, or the drive from VST, those companies don’t compose drive mechanisms. Instead, your drive was probably made by IBM, Seagate, Maxtor, HP, Western Digital, or another arduous drive manufacturer. These companies often tender an independent warranty on their drives, and it’s often longer than the warranty on your Mac or external arduous drive. Drive mechanism warranties may live two years, and some sprint as long as five years. Better yet, if you’ve lost the receipt, the company can sometimes peer up a drive’s serial number to verify that it’s silent under warranty.

    Both HP and IBM own replaced lifeless drives for me, without a receipt, simply by checking my serial numbers. Even better, IBM didn’t compose 14 GB drives anymore, so they replaced my lifeless one with a 20 GB unit.

    SMART Stuff — Some modern arduous drives own a feature called SMART, which stands for Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology. Originally developed by IBM, SMART-compliant drives constantly achieve diagnostics to monitor variables infatuation drive temperature, spin up time, and how well the heads remain on track. By noting when these physical parameters slip out of spec, SMART can foretell some types of drive failure before they happen, giving you time to back up your data and buy a unusual drive.

    Unfortunately, most arduous drives own no course to narrate you about an impending disaster; you need a program to query the drive’s SMART statistics. Both DiskWarrior and DiskGuardian can check the drive at regular intervals and alert you if they find trouble.

    Using SMART works well if your disk has a factory defect that’s slowly getting worse, because it gives you time to run your data to a unusual disk. But SMART doesn’t advocate you deal with the occasional despicable sector or corrupted directory, much less catastrophic hardware failures. Since I don’t own a drive with impending hardware failure, I was unable to test the SMART capabilities of DiskWarrior and DiskGuardian.

    Unsavory Sectors — Now it’s time to run from absolute hardware problems to problems that could live either physical (hardware) or rational (software). Disks are broken up into sectors. Each sector usually holds 512 bytes of data. There are two types of problems that lead to despicable sectors: arduous errors and soft errors.

    Hard errors are caused by physical damage to the disk surface. Dropping the disk and manufacturing defects are the most common causes of arduous errors. Although there’s no course to repair arduous errors, they can live "fixed" by "sparing" the despicable sector. Disks maintain a small number of spare sectors in reserve; when a arduous error occurs, the drive controller maps out the despicable sector and uses one of the spare sectors in its place.

    How are these despicable sectors spared? SCSI arduous disks provide a SCSI command – "reassign" – to spare a despicable sector. A low-level format likewise spares any despicable sectors. On pre-SCSI disks, a low-level format was the only course to fix despicable sectors.

    Many modern disks, including many internal ATA, FireWire, and USB drives, automatically spare sectors with arduous errors the next time the sector is written. That’s helpful, but if data is stored on that sector, programs may live unable to read it successfully, causing problems and making it difficult to spare. Erasing the disk with Apple’s Disk Utility spares any despicable sectors if you select the "Zero each and every data" option.

    What about soft errors? In addition to the 512 bytes of data stored in each sector, a few additional bytes hold an error correction code (ECC). When the sector is written, the drive’s controller computes and records the ECC. When the file system later reads that sector, it checks the ECC to compose positive the data hasn’t been corrupted. If the ECC doesn’t match the data, it’s called a soft error. The disk surface is fine, but the data on that sector has become scrambled.

    Soft errors can live caused if the disk is jarred while it’s writing or if power is lost while writing, either of which can leave a sector half written. big magnets (such as can live establish in electric motors) next to arduous disks likewise minister to own despicable effects on the data. As with arduous errors, most modern disks repair soft errors automatically the next time the sector is written.

    Bad Sector Detector – Norton Disk Doctor, DiskGuardian and Drive 10 (but not DiskWarrior or Disk Utility) pretense to detect despicable sectors using a test called either a "defective media check" or a "surface scan." Using a proprietary appliance that creates soft errors on disks, I tested each program.

    Although Norton Disk Doctor claims to live able to find and repair despicable sectors, its defective media check didn’t detect the despicable sectors on my test disk, erroneously giving it gave a spotless bill of health.

    DiskGuardian detected the despicable sectors, although it took several hours to sprint a replete check. Unfortunately, it didn’t narrate me which files used the despicable sectors, so I had no course of finding out which files were damaged and would thus need to live restored from backup. DiskGuardian lacks the capability to repair despicable sectors.

    Like DiskGuardian, Drive 10 detected the despicable sectors, but didn’t identify which files were damaged. Confusingly, Drive 10’s report describing the damage claimed it could fix the despicable sectors, but I couldn’t find a command to fix them. Micromat tech advocate confirmed the report was wrong; Drive 10 can’t fix the despicable sectors it finds. It’s too bad, since Drive 10 could fix the despicable sectors merely by writing zeros to them.

    Although Disk Utility cannot scan for despicable sectors, it can fix despicable sectors on modern disks if you delete the disk with the "Zero each and every data" option selected.

    I must rate each and every these products unacceptable in dealing with despicable sectors. Even though two could detect despicable sectors, zero of them could narrate you which files hold despicable sectors, making it impossible to learn which files you should restore from your backup. Only Disk Utility successfully fixed the despicable sectors, but at the cost of erasing the entire disk.

    Ripping the Yellow Pages — We’ve now looked at absolute hardware failures, and despicable sectors, which can live either arduous errors or soft errors, and so far, their disk repair utilities don’t advocate much at all. Now it’s time to run on to problems that exist entirely in software, the most common ilk of which are errors in the directory, which tracks the files and folders on the disk. In the case of directory errors, there is nothing wrong with the drive mechanism or the disk surface; instead, the directory information that’s necessary to locate your data on the disk has simply become scrambled. Often your data is intact, if it could just live located.

    As an aside, people with distinguished data sometimes utilize mirrored disks or RAID arrays, which faithfully duplicate each byte on the main disk to a backup disk. If the main disk suffers a hardware failure or develops a despicable sector, the backup disk can rescue the day. However, it’s worth noting that this strategy provides absolutely no protection against directory damage. That’s because the RAID faithfully records each and every data to the backup disk, whether or not that data is good, which results in both the main disk and the backup disk containing vitiate data. I may sound infatuation your mother telling you to devour your vegetables, but the best protection really is regular backups.

    The most common occasions of directory damage is crashing. If the computer crashes while a file is being created or saved, causing only piece of the change to live written to disk, the directory will hold inconsistent information. Mac OS X crashes far less often than Mac OS 9, but directory-corrupting crashes can and execute silent occur. Both Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X automatically check and repair the startup disk after a crash, which reduces the incidence of disk damage dramatically.

    A unusual feature in Mac OS X 10.3 Panther that should reduce directory errors even more is the journalled file system. You can enable it in Disk Utility, and it’s usually turned on for disks onto which you install Panther. Here’s how journalling works. Before the file system changes the directory, it leaves a note on the disk saying, "I’m going to compose this change in the directory." Then the file system makes the change, and once it finishes, it clears the note. If the file system ever sees an incomplete change note on the disk during startup, it knows something despicable happened and "rolls back" the directory to its previous state. You will lose your terminal change, but the directory won’t suffer any damage.

    Other causes of damaged directories embrace buggy programs that write despicable data to disk, buggy programs that overwrite cached data waiting to live written to disk, and even bugs in the file system itself. The first two are much less likely in Mac OS X than in Mac OS 9 because of its file privileges and recollection protection, respectively. Bugs in the file system are extremely rare but own occurred at times in the past.

    It’s worth noting that directory damage is not always readily apparent. A damaged disk may issue to operate perfectly, but regular utilize can occasions minor errors to grow into earnest problems. Most directory problems are light to fix if they’re caught early but can live difficult, if not impossible, to fix later. That’s why checking and repairing startup disks automatically after a crash is so important, and why it’s essential to leave the Check Disk option turned on in Mac OS 9’s universal Controls control panel (the disk check isn’t optional in Mac OS X).

    To test how the disk repair utilities achieve with different types of directory errors, I created an HFS+ disk image, copied an assortment of files and folders to it, and then used a low-level disk editor to damage various directory data structures. I then duplicated the damaged disk image, and let each utility try to repair its own copy. Each utility repaired an identical disk image, with identical damage.

    Errors converse Volumes — For my first test, I started with relatively simple damage in the volume bit map, which is likewise known as the allocation file. The volume bit map tracks which blocks on the disk hold files, and which are unused. each and every five utilities fixed my damaged volume bit map easily.

    Next up was damage to the volume header, which tracks vital information about the disk, such as the amount of used and free space, and the locations of the catalog and allocation file. The volume header is stored at the nascence of the HFS+ partition. I erased the volume header’s signature, which makes the file system assume the volume header is vitiate and refuse to utilize the disk. Fortunately, the file system keeps a backup copy of the volume header at the respite of the disk; it’s imaginatively called the alternate volume header. each and every five of their utilities successfully repaired the disk, although Drive 10 and DiskGuardian couldn’t figure out the cognomen of the damaged disk.

    Catalog Catastrophe — The catalog b-tree tracks each and every the files and folders on the disk. It’s a vitally distinguished piece of the directory, and many of my tests focus on it. The catalog is divided into nodes, and each node is divided into records. Most records track a file or folder on the disk, although some hold threads or indexes, which are used internally by the file system to peer up files and folders.

    The first node in the catalog is called the header node, which points to other key nodes. I erased the header node. Norton Disk Doctor, DiskWarrior, and Drive 10 recreated the header node properly; Disk Utility and DiskGuardian failed to fix it. Once again, Drive 10 couldn’t figure out the cognomen of the damaged disk.

    The header node likewise contains a map which tracks which nodes are used and which are free. I corrupted this map, but my corruption didn’t faze any of the utilities, each and every of which successfully fixed the header node map.

    The nodes in the catalog are linked together in a precise pattern of connections. Horizontal links connect nodes on the very level, and downward links connect the levels. The file system relies on these links to peer up files and folders. I damaged these links. As happened when I erased the catalog header node, Norton Disk Doctor, DiskWarrior, and Drive 10 fixed these links, but Disk Utility and DiskGuardian weren’t able to assign the links back together.

    File and folder records are stored in alphabetical order in the catalog. I rearranged these records, putting them in random order. each and every the utilities restored the alphabetical order.

    Certain characters, such as a colon, are illegal in file and folder names. Normally, the operating system prevents you from typing an illegal character when saving a file or creating a folder, but it’s not inconceivable that unusual circumstances could occasions one to appear. I renamed a folder with a colon by inserting the colon directly into the folder record in the catalog. With this test, the results start to become more interesting. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian didn’t detect any problem. Drive 10 noticed the illegal character, but didn’t fix it. Norton Disk Doctor and DiskWarrior both fixed it properly by replacing the colon with a legal character.

    More Catalog Corruption — Each catalog node ends with a map that points back to the records in that node. I damaged the map for one of the nodes, which sounds bad, but it’s silent practicable to find the records by calculating the size of each record to find the next record. Disk Utility and Norton Disk Doctor realized there was a problem, but they couldn’t fix it. Drive 10 and DiskGuardian both identified and fixed the problem, but in the process lost five and six files, respectively. Partial repair isn’t always better than complete failure, since you may believe the disk was repaired successfully and only later – potentially much later – realize that some files own been lost. DiskWarrior fixed the catalog node map properly.

    Next, I changed a thread record to live an unknown ilk of record, which creates two problems. A thread record that the file system relied upon was missing, and it was confronted by a record with an illegal type. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian detected the corruption, but couldn’t fix it. DiskWarrior fixed the problem but lost some of the data in one file. Only Drive 10 and Norton Disk Doctor managed to repair my damage properly.

    Note that DiskWarrior moves any files it suspects may own problems into a folder called Rescued Items. In my tests, most of these files turned out to live fine. This approach has the advantage that it’s transparent which files may live damaged. But if the Rescued Items folder contains many files, checking them and putting them away can live tedious. Norton Disk Doctor can optionally assign aliases to damaged files in a folder, a potentially more helpful feature. But in my tests it didn’t work. Norton Disk Doctor likewise lists the names of damaged files in its report.

    The most distinguished aspect of a file record is the location of the file’s data on the disk. One of the worst sorts of directory damage that you may remark happens when two files try to occupy the very physical space at the very time. Different utilities advert to this problem as "overlapping extents" or "cross-linked files." In the best case, one file has entirely overwritten the other, since then one file has cogent data, while the other’s data is completely gone. In the worst case, the two files in any course manage to interleave their data, which results in both being damaged beyond repair. I cross-linked two files, thus damaging the files’ catalog records, as well as the volume header and volume bit map. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian repaired the catalog records, the volume header, and the volume bit map, but they didn’t actually divide the two files. In contrast, Drive 10, DiskWarrior and Norton Disk Doctor fixed the damage and separated the files. It’s distinguished to realize that the data in the overwritten file couldn’t live recovered, but not through any failing of these repair programs. When one file overwrites another, the unlucky file has no haphazard of surviving the encounter.

    I remark Fragged People — Some months ago, I wrote an article for TidBITS explaining why defragmenting disks generally isn’t worthwhile (see "Optimizing Disks Is a squander of Time" in TidBITS-686). Although fragmentation is totally proper and acceptable, earnest fragmentation requires additional directory structures, and they too can become corrupted and require repair.


    Using another proprietary tool, I fragmented a disk very badly, which breaks files into so many pieces that the file record in the catalog b-tree can’t track them all. The file system responds by creating unusual records in the extents b-tree to advocate track each and every the pieces. The extents b-tree is infatuation the catalog b-tree, but exists solely to advocate track highly fragmented files. Again, stern fragmentation is not inherently a problem, but I had assign the disk into a precarious, if legal, state. I then damaged two extent records so the file system couldn’t find each and every the pieces to two files, but I damaged each in a different way. Disk Utility, DiskGuardian, and Drive 10 each and every detected my damaged extent records, but weren’t able to repair the damage. DiskWarrior and Norton Disk Doctor performed better, fixing the problem but losing piece of the data in one file. Considering the ilk of damage I inflicted, they did as well as could live expected.

    HFS+ volumes are enclosed in a "wrapper," which is actually a modest musty HFS volume. The intuition for the wrapper is historical. Apple first released HFS+ with Mac OS 8.1. If you connected an HFS+-formatted disk to a Mac running Mac OS 8.0 or earlier – in other words, one that understood only the older HFS format, the wrapper kept the older system from deciding the HFS+ disk was damaged and offering to initialize it. For my next test, I damaged the catalog b-tree header node in the wrapper. Disk Utility and DiskGuardian didn’t notice anything wrong. Drive 10 and DiskWarrior detected the vitiate wrapper, but didn’t fix it. Norton Disk Doctor identified the damage and fixed it properly.

    Disks can hold multiple partitions, which are listed in a partition map at the nascence of the disk. Since disk images don’t own partition maps, I used an external FireWire arduous disk for this test, in which I damaged the partition map, making the disk driver’s partition overlap the HFS partition. Of each and every these disk repair utilities, only Norton Disk Doctor claims to check partition maps, and indeed it was the only one to detect the problem, although even it proved incapable of fixing the overlapping partition map. Luckily, damaged partition maps are extremely rare, which may live why zero of the other utilities bother to check them.

    The majestic Finale — Finally, I decided to recreate the worst damage I’ve ever seen on a Macintosh arduous disk. Starting with the badly fragmented disk above, I corrupted and overwrote various parts of the catalog and extent b-trees. In some nodes I corrupted the node header (not to live confused with the header node), in some I munged the data records, and in others I zapped the record offset map. A few lucky nodes suffered each and every three types of damage at the hands of my disk editor. Only DiskWarrior was able to bring the disk back to a usable state, although 35 files were either lost or partly damaged. That 35 files were lost or damaged is not an indictment of DiskWarrior; the program couldn’t own done any better, considering how much vital information had been destroyed. zero of the other utilities managed to repair the disk successfully.

    And the Winner Is… Of my 15 tests, DiskWarrior fixed 12 successfully, Norton Disk Doctor fixed 11, Drive 10 fixed 9, DiskGuardian fixed 5, and Disk Utility fixed 4. "Fixed" includes cases where recovery may not own been perfect, but was suitable enough.

    So what, in my professional opinion, should you execute if your disk starts acting up? First, try Apple’s free Disk Utility. It may fix only a limited set of problems, but when Disk Utility finds a problem, it’s invariably correct, and it applies fixes only when it’s absolutely inescapable it knows the remedy fix. I’ve never seen Disk Utility accidentally compose a problem worse, something the other utilities can do, even if only very occasionally.

    If Disk Utility doesn’t succeed, let DiskWarrior execute battle with your damaged directory. It was their overall winner, and it deserves its excellent reputation. DiskWarrior can likewise point to you a preview of the repairs before you accept them, which lets you check that a damaged file or folder really was fixed before DiskWarrior makes the fix permanent.

    If DiskWarrior fails, give Norton Disk Doctor a try, since it can address some problems that DiskWarrior misses. After that, try sacrificing chickens. Seriously, if the combination of Disk Utility, DiskWarrior, and Norton Disk Doctor can’t repair your disk, you can either restore your data from backup, or, if that’s not possible, determine if the data is sufficiently distinguished to pay DriveSavers for recovery.

    I silent deem the most distinguished data protection utility you should own is a backup program. But sometimes a suitable disk repair program can rescue the day by repairing minor damage quickly so you don’t own to sprint through the time-consuming process of reinitializing your arduous disk and restoring from backup.

    [David Shayer was a senior engineer on Norton Utilities for Macintosh 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0. Before that he worked on Public Utilities, a disk repair program that won the MacUser Magazine Editor’s altenative Award, and on Sedit, a low-level disk editor.]

    PayBITS: If David’s circumstantial and expert testing told you whichdisk utility you should depend on, reward his efforts via PayBITS!<>Read more about PayBITS: <>

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