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: 120 real Questions

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IBM Assess: Fundamentals of Applying

linked Healthcare Market 2019 Highlights and Fundamentals – Accenture, IBM, SAP, GE Healthcare, Oracle, Microsoft, Airstrip expertise, Medtronic | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Harrisburg, NC -- (SBWIRE) -- 01/23/2019 -- world connected HEALTHCARE MARKET size, fame AND FORECAST 2019-2025

The record provides a helpful source of insightful facts for enterprise strategists and aggressive evaluation of connected Healthcare Market. It provides the linked Healthcare industry overview with augment evaluation and futuristic cost, salary and many other features. The research analysts give an complicated description of the cost chain and its distributor evaluation. This linked Healthcare peek at gives complete information which reinforces the figuring out, scope and utility of this document.

in keeping with the report, global related healthcare market turned into valued at about USD 1,860.26 million in 2017 and is anticipated to generate income of round USD 10,798.45 million with the aid of intermission of 2025, growing at a CAGR of round 27.forty seven% between 2018 and 2025.

The file presents the market aggressive landscape and a corresponding designated evaluation of the primary dealer/key avid gamers out there. accurate organizations within the world linked Healthcare Market: Accenture, IBM, SAP, GE Healthcare, Oracle, Microsoft, Airstrip expertise, Medtronic, Allscripts, Boston Scientific, Athenahealth, Cerner, Philips, Agamatrix, Qualcomm, AliveCor and others.

click the hyperlink to regain a free sample copy of the report:https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/experiences/01181057103/international-related-healthcare-market-dimension-status-and-forecast-2019-2025/inquiry?supply=releasewire&Mode=34

world linked HEALTHCARE MARKET split via PRODUCT class AND functions:

This report segments the world linked Healthcare market on the foundation of types are:TelemedicineHome MonitoringAssisted LivingClinical Monitoring

On the basis of software, the international related Healthcare market is segmented into:analysis and TreatmentMonitoring ApplicationsEducation and AwarenessWellness and PreventionHealthcare ManagementOthers

REGIONAL analysis FOR connected HEALTHCARE MARKET:

For complete knowing of market dynamics, the world related Healthcare market is analyzed across key geographies namely: united states, China, Europe, Japan, South-east Asia, India and others. each and every of those areas is analyzed on groundwork of market findings throughout main countries in these regions for a macro-stage realizing of the market.

have an sequel on OF THE connected HEALTHCARE MARKET file:-complete assessment of totality opportunities and random in the linked Healthcare market.- connected Healthcare market fresh improvements and major routine.-precise study of traffic strategies for augment of the linked Healthcare market-leading players.-Conclusive resolve about the augment plot of related Healthcare market for coming near near years.-In-depth knowing of related Healthcare market-specific drivers, constraints and essential micro markets.-favourable repercussion interior essential technological and market latest trends awesome the connected Healthcare market.

The record has 150 tables and figures browse the report description and TOC:https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/stories/01181057103/world-linked-healthcare-market-measurement-status-and-forecast-2019-2025?source=releasewire&Mode=34

WHAT ARE THE MARKET components which are defined within the file?

-Key Strategic tendencies: The resolve likewise contains the key strategic tendencies of the market, comprising R&D, novel product launch, M&A, agreements, collaborations, partnerships, joint ventures, and regional growth of the main opponents operating available in the market on a global and regional scale.

-Key Market points: The record evaluated key market elements, including revenue, fee, skill, capacity utilization fee, gross, creation, construction rate, consumption, import/export, provide/demand, can charge, market share, CAGR, and raw margin. furthermore, the peek at presents a comprehensive resolve of the valuable thing market dynamics and their latest developments, along with pertinent market segments and sub-segments.

-Analytical equipment: The world connected Healthcare Market record comprises the precisely studied and assessed facts of the key trade avid gamers and their scope out there via aptitude of a number of analytical equipment. The analytical outfit reminiscent of Porter's five forces analysis, SWOT analysis, feasibility study, and funding recrudesce analysis had been used to investigate the augment of the valuable thing gamers operating out there.

Customization of the file: This file can likewise exist custom-made as per your needs for additional data as much as 3 groups or international locations or 40 analyst hours.Please connect with their income group ([email protected]).

ABOUT US:MarketInsightsReports provides syndicated market analysis on industry verticals including Healthcare, suggestions and communique know-how (ICT), technology and Media, chemical compounds, materials, power, heavy industry, etc. MarketInsightsReports provides global and regional market intelligence coverage, a 360-diploma market view which includes statistical forecasts, aggressive landscape, exact segmentation, key developments, and strategic techniques.

CONTACT US: Irfan Tamboli (Head of revenue) - Market Insights ReportsPhone: + 1704 266 3234 | +91-750-707-8687[email protected] | [email protected]

For more tips on this press release talk over with: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/linked-healthcare-market-2019-highlights-and-fundamentals-accenture-ibm-sap-ge-healthcare-oracle-microsoft-airstrip-expertise-medtronic-1129108.htm

Irfan TamboliSales HeadMarket Insights ReportsTelephone: 1-704-266-3234Email: click to email Irfan TamboliWeb: https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/


utility administration functions Market to surge US$ 27.50 Billion by 2023 | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Feb 07, 2019 (Heraldkeeper by way of COMTEX) -- manhattan, February 07, 2019: The international software administration services Market is expected to exceed more than US$ 32.5 Billion via 2024 at a CAGR of 21% within the given forecast duration.The scope of the report includes an in depth resolve of international and regional markets on software administration functions Market with the reasons given for variations within the growth of the traffic in inevitable areas.The report covers designated aggressive outlook including the market partake and company profiles of the valuable thing members working in the global market. Key players profiled in the file consist of akin to Cognizant (US), Atos (France), Accenture (Republic of eire), Capgemini (France), Fujitsu (Japan),HCL (India), DXC (US), IBM (US), Tech Mahindra (India) and Wipro (India). company profile includes assign comparable to enterprise summary, monetary summary, company strategy and planning, SWOT evaluation and current tendencies.you could Browse plenary file: https://www.marketresearchengine.com/software-management-capabilities-market

A more associated commercial center has made overseeing enterprise greater at a loss for words. huge measures of guidance now attainable to the company are each a controversy to convey and an chance to searching for. software administration functions potential which assigns the administrations of massive traffic software administration contributed by means of diverse associations to corporations that should outsource their assignment software administration approaches. The associations that soak up the application administration carrying out Have their IT abilities and Have the mastery of comparative application administration for distinctive companies working in a similar zone of business.

The restraining components of world application administration features Market are as follows:

Imbalance or extreme prices within the application security budget will offset the IT utility budgetApplication management is a time vicious processOrganizations are mainly worried of software statistics securityLot of complications in operational and Architectural implementationThe main riding elements of global application administration capabilities Market are as follows:

predominant partake of the software management approach is cloud computingProliferation of cellular Apps demand bizarre cellular App management features and Emergence of Byod.Unexplored possibilities can exist paved by means of open sourced technologyPresence of gigantic number of common functions which present massive profit opportunitiesTime-To-Market is accelerated because of increasing want for enterprise AgilityThe global utility management services Market has been segmented as below:

The global software administration functions Market is Segmented on the traces of corporation size analysis, provider analysis, perpendicular analysis and Regional evaluation. by solid measurement analysis this market is segmented on the foundation of minuscule and Medium-Sized enterprises and broad organizations. through service analysis this market is segmented on the basis of application safety, application Integration, software Portfolio evaluation, net utility safety, cellular software protection, application Modernization, Cloud utility Migration, utility Replat forming, UI Modernization, utility Managed features and software upkeep and help.

via perpendicular analysis this market is segmented on the groundwork of executive, Retail and eCommerce, Banking, monetary functions, and coverage (BFSI), Telecom and IT, Manufacturing, Healthcare and Lifesciences, power and Utilities and Others (go back and forth and Hospitality, education, and Transport and Logistics, Media and leisure). by Regional analysis this market is segmented on the groundwork of North the us, Europe, Asia-Pacific and relaxation of the world.

This record gives:

1) a top flush view of the global marketplace for application management features Market and related applied sciences.2) Analyses of international market trends, with facts from 2015, estimates for 2016 and 2017, and projections of compound annual boom rates (CAGRs) via 2024.3) Identifications of recent market opportunities and centered promotional plans for utility administration services Market.4) discussion of research and construction, and the demand for brand spanking novel items and novel applications.5) comprehensive enterprise profiles of main avid gamers in the business.

Request sample file from here:https://www.marketresearchengine.com/utility-administration-capabilities-market

desk of Contents:

1 Introduction2 Market analysis tactics

3 Market abstract

4 pleasant Market Insights

5 software administration features Market Overview

6 Regulatory Market Synopsis7 software management features Market, with the aid of Service8 application management capabilities Market, by means of company Size9 utility administration features Market, through Vertical

10 application administration functions Market, by way of Geographic Region11 aggressive Landscape12 enterprise Profiles(enterprise Overview, Product Portfolio, fiscal Overview, Key Devolopements)*12.1 Accenture12.2 ATOS12.three Capgemini12.four Cognizant12.5 Fujitsu12.6 DXC12.7 HCL12.8 IBM12.9 Tech Mahindra12.10 Wipro

different connected Market analysis studies:

Case management Market is meant to gain US$ 7.0 Billion by way of 2023

supplier possibility management Market is expected to regain US$ 6 Billion by using 2023

Media Contact

enterprise identify: Market analysis Engine

Contact adult: John Bay

electronic mail:john@marketresearchengine.com

telephone: +1-855-984-1862

country: united states

web site: https://www.marketresearchengine.com/


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No result discovered, are trying novel key phrase!make inevitable you pick into account IT fundamentals before accepting analyst assertions ... each architectures champion contemporary and legacy working techniques and application utility. exist conscious that the IBM's Intel chip ...

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Resilience and efficiency in transportation networks | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Abstract

Urban transportation systems are vulnerable to congestion, accidents, weather, special events, and other costly delays. Whereas typical policy responses prioritize reduction of delays under regular conditions to ameliorate the efficiency of urban road systems, analytic champion for investments that ameliorate resilience (defined as system recovery from additional disruptions) is quiet scarce. In this effort, they portray paved roads as a transportation network by mapping intersections to nodes and road segments between the intersections to links. They built road networks for 40 of the urban areas defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. They developed and calibrated a model to evaluate traffic delays using link loads. The loads may exist regarded as traffic-based centrality measures, estimating the number of individuals using corresponding road segments. Efficiency was estimated as the tolerable annual retard per peak-period auto commuter, and modeled results were organize to exist immediate to observed data, with the notable exception of novel York City. Resilience was estimated as the change in efficiency resulting from roadway disruptions and was organize to vary between cities, with increased delays due to a 5% random loss of road linkages ranging from 9.5% in Los Angeles to 56.0% in San Francisco. The results demonstrate that many urban road systems that operate inefficiently under regular conditions are nevertheless resilient to disruption, whereas some more efficient cities are more fragile. The implication is that resilience, not just efficiency, should exist considered explicitly in roadway project selection and warrant investment opportunities related to calamity and other disruptions.

INTRODUCTION

Existing roadway design standards emphasize the efficient movement of vehicles through a transportation network (1–4). Efficiency in this context may embrace identification of the shortest or fastest route (1, 5–7), or the route that minimizes congestion (8). It is the primary criterion on which road networks are modeled and design alternatives are considered (6, 7, 9, 10). The Texas A&M Transportation Institute defines and reports traffic retard in urban areas as the annual retard per auto commuter (11). Other studies define efficiency as retard for the individual driver in terms of time spent stirring or stopped (7), or matter travel time between totality origin-destination pairs in the network (9). However, as the experience of any motorist in big American cities can attest, conditions beyond the scope of the roadway design, including congestion, accidents, obnoxious weather, construction, and special events (for example, a marathon race), can occasions costly delays and frustrating inefficiencies that result in fuel waste, infrastructure deterioration, and increased pollution (12, 13). Evaluating road networks based only on efficiency under regular operating conditions results in slight to no information about how the system performs under suboptimal or disrupted conditions.

Infrastructure systems that exhibit adaptive response to stress are typically characterized as resilient (14–21). Given the essential role of transportation in emergency response, provision of essential services, and economic well-being, the resilience of roadway networks has received increasing policy attention. Nonetheless, scholars Have yet to converge on a shared understanding of resilience suitable to pilot design, operation, and reconstruction of roadway networks. Although resilience in infrastructure systems is characterized as a multidimensional concept (22, 23), in many engineering and civil infrastructure implementations, resilience is defined as the aptitude of a system to prepare for, absorb, regain from, and adapt to disturbances (16). Specific to transportation, resilience has been defined as “the aptitude of the system to maintain its demonstrated flush of service or to restore itself to that flush of service in a specified timeframe” (24). Others narrate transportation resilience as simply the aptitude of a system to minimize operational loss (25) or expend the term synonymously with robustness, redundancy, reliability, or vulnerability (26–28).

Current efforts in transportation resilience research Have focused on framework progress and quantification methods. These efforts embrace the specification of resilience indicators, such as total traffic retard (24), economic loss (29), post-disaster maximum rush (30), and autonomous system components (31). Practical concerns with this type of resilience evaluation are that it relies on uncertain performance data and often omits indicators that are unquantifiable (19). Other resilience approaches apply traffic network modeling to identify locations for captious buildings (for example, hospitals and fire stations) (32), minimize trip distance for individual passengers (33), and minimize travel time across the system (12). One drawback of existing network resilience methods is that they are data-intensive, often requiring limited information about resources for unusual road system repair (26, 28) or network conduct following a disruptive event (34). Moreover, existing resilience quantification approaches necessity calibration and testing across a ambit of transportation systems. Because many disruptive events, and their associated consequences, are difficult to predict, resilient road systems must exist characterized and evaluated by the capacity to adapt to a variety of different stress scenarios. Partly because of these obstacles, joint consideration of efficiency and resilience has yet to exist implemented for transportation networks.

Here, they study the interconnections between resilience and efficiency (20) among road transportation networks in 40 major U.S. cities. They develop an urban roadway efficiency model, calibrate it on the basis of the observed data (11) of annual retard per peak-period auto commuter, and apply the model to pattern efficiency in 40 cities. Then, they model traffic response to random roadway disruptions and recalculate expected delays to determine the sensitivity of each city to loss of roadway linkages. The results may expose valuable considerations for assessing proposals for improvement of roadway infrastructure that maintain efficiency under stress conditions.

METHODS

The Methods section appears here to assist clarify the subsequent sections. To develop the urban roadway efficiency model, they defined the urban zone boundaries, constructed the road networks, and evaluated the population density within cities using the Census Bureau data sets (35, 36) and OpenStreetMap (OSM) data sets (37). They relied on these data to assess commuter patterns, which they used to measure efficiency and resilience of road networks.

Alternative approaches to transportation Have been offered and embrace those based on percolation theory and cascading failures (38–40), human mobility pattern studies (41–43), queueing (44, 45), and the expend of historical data to call traffic. They review these approaches in the Supplementary Materials and note that the main benefit of their model is that it relies solely on readily available public data, rather than on particular data sets that may or may not exist practical to obtain for any particular region. The model’s algorithmic simplicity allows us to consider spatial topologies of cities in tall resolution including tens of thousands of nodes and links. They did not create a more accurate transportation model than the existing ones, but they were able to obtain measurable characteristics of transportation systems (average delays) using their model.

Geospatial boundaries and population density

To define geospatial boundaries for the transportation infrastructure networks, they used the U.S. Census Bureau geospatial data set (35) for urban areas—densely developed residential, commercial, and other nonresidential areas (46). They approximated the exact urban zone polygon with a simplified manually drawn one (Fig. 1A) and included totality roadways within 40 km (25 miles) of it in the network. For each of the links, they calculated its length on the basis of the polyline defining the link and assigned a number of lanes m and the FFSs (see the Supplementary Materials).

Fig. 1 Definition of urban areas and assignment of nodes’ population.

(A) Boston, MA-NH-RI urban zone as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau shapefiles (gray background). To simplify the model and the algorithms calculating the distance from network nodes to the city boundary, they approximate each of the urban areas shapefiles with a indelicate manually drawn polygon (pink outline). (B) Assignment of the number of people departing from each of the network nodes. Population distribution (color polygons; red corresponds to higher population density), Voronoi polygons (black outline), and network nodes (dots) in Downtown Boston.

We next estimated population in vicinity of each intersection i using the Census Tract data (36). To this end, they split the map into Voronoi cells centered at intersections and then evaluated the population of each cell Ni asEmbedded Image

Embedded Image

(1)

Above, Nt is the population of Census Tract t, and Pi and Pt are the polygons of the cell and the tract, respectively (Fig. 1B and table S2).

Transportation model

We built on the gravity model to generate commuting patterns. The gravity model (47) is a classical model for trip distribution assignment and is extensively adopted in most metropolitan planning and statewide travel demand models in the United States (48–51). Other trip distribution models include, for example, destination choice models (52, 53). However, these models are not as widely used in big scale, because the minute data required by these models are frequently unavailable (48).

We assumed that (i) the rush of commuters from source region o to destination region d is proportional to the population at the destination Nd and that (ii) the rush of commuters depends on the distance xod between the source and destination and is given by a distance factor, P(xod). Using these assumptions, they assessed the fraction of individuals commuting from region o to destination region d, fod, asEmbedded Image

Embedded Image

(2)

Then, the commuter rush from source region o to destination region d isEmbedded Image

Embedded Image

(3)

Although individual driving habits may vary (54), they assumed that totality drivers tended to optimize their commute paths such that their travel time was minimized. This assumption allowed us to pattern commute paths for every origin-destination pair using inferred FFSs. To pattern commuter flows between totality pairs of intersections, they estimated distances xod as the distance of the shortest time path from o to d. Furthermore, in residence of the distance factor P(xod), they used the distribution of trip lengths from the U.S. Federal Highway Administration National Household Travel Survey (55, 56), which they approximated with the exponential office (Fig. 2A and table S3).

Fig. 2 Model details.

(A) Distance factor P(xod) (Eq. 2) of trips given the distance between nodes (solid line) and the statistical data (bars). (B) Dependency of speed on density for V = 100 km/hour.

Next, they defined the commuter load on each road segment asEmbedded Image

Embedded Image

(4)where θod(ij) is a binary variable equal to 0 when the link ij is not on the shortest path connecting nodes o and d, and 1 otherwise. Note that in Eq. 4, they only considered origins that were not farther than 30 km from the urban zone frontier polygon. The nodes farther than 30 km from the frontier were only used as destinations to evaluate the fraction of commuters not going toward the urban zone (Eq. 2).

Because most commuters travel during peak periods, commuter loads Lij can exist regarded as traffic-based centrality measures estimating the number of individuals using corresponding road segments. Then, the cumulative time lost by totality commuters isEmbedded Image

Embedded Image

(5)where Vij and vij are, respectively, the FFS and the actual traffic speed along the ij road segment, lij is its length, l0 is the length correction due to traffic signals, and β is the proportionality coefficient selfsame for totality urban areas. The summation in Eq. 5 includes only links, whose origins and destinations are within the frontier polygon. A similar equation was obtained for the stirring retard in the study of Jiang and Adeli (45), where the authors looked at the retard induced from road repairs.

The actual traffic speed vij depends on many factors including the speed limit, the number of drivers on the road, and road conditions. Although there exist a number of approaches to assay actual traffic speed (57, 58), they chose to expend the Daganzo model (59) to derive the traffic speed, as shown in the Supplementary MaterialsEmbedded Image

Embedded Image

(6)where vmin is the minimum speed in the traffic, vveh is the correction for the finite size of the car, and α is the proportionality coefficient (Fig. 2B).

Efficiency and resilience metrics

We measured efficiency as the tolerable annual retard per peak-period auto commuter. In practice, lower retard means higher efficiency. There are multiple ways to map from delays to efficiency, such as taking the inverse values of delays, taking negative values of delays, etc. To avoid ambiguity and facilitate the interpretation of results, they used the delays themselves to quantify the transportation efficiency of urban areas.

We operationalized resilience through the change in traffic delays relative to stress, which is modeled as loss or impairment of roadway linkages. Looking at resilience from the network science perspective, they focused on topological features of cities, rather than on recovery resources available. Sterbenz et al. (60) evaluated a network’s resilience as a ambit of operational conditions for which it stays in the acceptable service region and highlighted that remediation mechanisms drive the operational status toward improvement. They are studying how availability of alternate routes helps remediate the consequences of the initial disruption to the network. In the traffic context, the immediate repercussion of a given physical disruption (and the time for it to unfold) in terms of closing lanes or reducing speed limits on affected roads will not vary much from network to network, although the number and type of these disruptions will. Likewise, the speed of restoring plenary functionality (through action in the physical domain) is not so much relative on the road network as it is on the nature of the disruption (snow versus earthquake versus flood) and the resources that the city allocates to such repair. The flush of functionality that these repairs achieve ought to exist the plenary predisruption functionality, that is, eventually totality roads can exist fully cleared or restored. However, the immediate loss of office for a given traffic rush can very quickly exist partially recovered after a disruption by action in the information domain, namely, rerouting of traffic. From the novel equable status at that flush of functionality, plenary functionality is gradually restored. Thus, their model proxies for resilience and is calibrated against the data that proxy for efficiency. At the selfsame time, they note that to fully capture resilience characteristics of a transportation system, it is required to resolve recovery resources available and the effectiveness of coordination between the pertinent authorities. Lower additional retard corresponds to higher resilience, but using the selfsame reasoning that they had for efficiency, they quantified resilience through additional delays.

RESULTS Efficiency

Together, their traffic model has three parameters (proportionality coefficient α, minimum speed vmin, and finite vehicle size correction vveh) and is summarized in Eqs. 5 and 6. Given parameter values of the model, one can assay the total retard incurred by totality commuters in any given suburban zone or, equivalently, the tolerable retard per commuter. They pick vveh = 9 km/hour and vmin = 5 km/hour and calibrate the model to determine the value of α to match the real data on the annual tolerable retard per peak-period auto commuter provided by the Urban Mobility Scorecard (11).

We divide the 40 urban areas into two equally sized groups for model calibration and validation, respectively. They Have organize that for the 20 urban areas used for calibration, the R-squared coefficient took values in the ambit (−0.01 to 0.83) (Fig. 3 and Supplementary Materials). This allows us to set model parameters α and β (see Methods) as follows: α = 4.30 × 104 hour−1 and β = 10.59. These values correspond to the Pearson coefficient of 0.91 (P = 2.17 × 10−8).

Fig. 3 Modeled and observed delays in 40 urban areas.

Pearson correlation coefficients and P values between observed and modeled delays are (0.91, 2.17 × 10−8) for the 20 cities used to calibrate the model and (0.63, 3.00 × 10−3) for the 20 cities used to validate the model. Observed delays were taken from the Texas A&M Transportation Institute Urban Mobility Scorecard (11).

To validate the model, they assay travel delays in 20 different urban areas. As seen from Fig. 3, the estimated travel delays are significantly correlated (R = 0.63, P = 3.00 × 10−3) with actual retard times (11), validating the transportation model. pattern 4 is a Google Maps representation of real and modeled results for Los Angeles and San Francisco. Road conditions under real, tolerable traffic patterns at 8 a.m. provided by Google Maps are in Fig. 4 (A and D). Modeled conditions are given for comparison in Fig. 4 (B and E). Finally, Fig. 4 (C and F) shows the new, modeled traffic patterns that result from redistribution of travel in response to a disruption of 5% of the links.

Fig. 4 Traffic distributions.

Typical congestion at 8 a.m. for Los Angeles (top) and San Francisco (bottom) as given by Google Maps (A and D), modeled with no disruptions (B and E), and modeled with a 5% link disruption (C and F). Notably, in Los Angeles, the disruption results in traffic redistribution to smaller roads, whereas in San Francisco, it results in increased congestion along the major highways.

Resilience

Our approach to model stress is inspired by percolation theory. For every independent simulation of stress, they select a finite fraction of affected road segments r at random, with the probability of failure proportional to segment length. They collect statistics for 20 realizations of the percolation. On failed segments, free-flow speeds (FFSs) are reduced to 1 km/hour (representing near-total loss), and loads L and traffic delays are then recalculated using the updated FFSs. Low-stress scenarios (r < 0.1) might exist caused by accidents or construction. Larger disruptions might occur during power failures that disrupt traffic signals or strict flooding that makes many roadways nearly impassable. Finally, widespread stress might exist caused by snow, ice, or dust storms that move nearly the entire roadway system. pattern 5 displays the analysis of retard times in six representative urban areas for the plenary spectrum of adverse event severities, r ⋲ [0; 1]. In addition, fig. S5 shows the results for totality urban areas. Some routes within a lone urban zone experience longer delays than others. The inset of Fig. 5 shows the retard distribution for both Los Angeles, which is narrowly clustered, and Boston, where greater variability between roadways is evident. Traffic retard times grow rapidly as r increases and gain saturation (all routes stirring at 1 km/hour) as r approaches 1. They determine the most resilient urban transportation network to exist Salt Lake City, UT, whereas the least resilient among the 40 metropolitans is shown to exist Washington, DC.

Fig. 5 Dependency of the additional retard on the severity of the links disruption for six representative urban areas.

Error bars exhibit matter values ± SD. The inset shows distribution densities for two selected urban areas for 1000 realizations of 5% disruption. Note that San Francisco’s unique topology makes it susceptible to failures of a minuscule number of discrete roadways, and this produces an anomalous repercussion at 5 to 15% disruption.

Figure 6 shows both the efficiency (in blue) and resilience response (additional delays due to 5% link disruption, in orange) for the 40 urban areas modeled. Some cities with tall efficiency under regular operating conditions (that is, low delays) nevertheless exhibit low resilience (that is, a acute augment in traffic delays) under stress. Virginia Beach, VA; Providence, RI; and Jacksonville, FL totality drop into this category of urban areas in which traffic operates well under ordinary circumstances but rapidly become snarled under mild stress. On the other hand, Los Angeles is notorious for traffic delays under totality conditions—yet minor stress levels result in slight degradation of efficiency. By contrast, regular traffic delays in San Francisco are comparable to Los Angeles, but mild stress in San Francisco results in big increases in additional delays. These examples attest that resilience (that is, additional retard response to stress) is independent of regular operating efficiency.

Fig. 6 Comparison of resilience and efficiency metrics.

Annual repercussion of 5% disruption (additional delay) has a low correlation with regular annual retard per peak-period auto commuter (delay). Pearson R = 0.49, P = 1.18 × 10−3.

DISCUSSION

The disturbances affecting the road infrastructure are often complex, and their repercussion on the structure and office of roadway systems may exist unknown (28, 31). These disturbances might exist natural and irregular, such as distributed road closures caused by an earthquake or homogeneous vehicle slowing down because of a snowstorm. The disturbances might likewise exist anthropogenic and intentional, such as a street objective or marathon race. Whatever the disturbance, the results of this analysis allow several meaningful inferences to exist made that may Have valuable implications for highway transportation policy. The first is that resilience and efficiency portray different aspects related to the nature of transportation systems; they are not correlated and should exist considered jointly as complementary characteristics of roadway networks.

Second, there are characteristic differences in the resilience of different urban areas, and these differences are persistent at mild, medium, or widespread levels of stress (Fig. 5). Except for San Francisco, CA, which is the most delicate of totality cities represented in Fig. 5 at stress levels r < 20% but then surpassed by Boston, MA and Washington, DC, the rank ordering of urban zone resilience is insensitive to stress levels. That is, cities that exhibit relatively low resilience under mild stress are the selfsame cities that exhibit low levels of resilience (relative to peers) under widespread roadway impairment. This suggests that the characteristics that impart resilience (such as availability or alternate routes through redundancy of links) are protective against both the intermittent outages caused by occasional car crashes and those caused by snow and ice storms. For cities without resilience, a widespread hazard such as snow may lead to a cascade of conditions (for example, crashes) that rapidly deteriorate into gridlock. This was exactly the case for Washington, DC 20 January 2016 under only 2.5 × 10−2 m or 2.5 cm of snow (61), and for Atlanta, GA 2 years earlier, which experienced 5.1 × 10−2 m or 5.1 cm of snow in the middle of the day that resulted in traffic jams that took days to disentangle (62). Whereas favorite explanations of these traffic catastrophes focus on the failure of roadway managers to prepare plows and emergency response equipment, Fig. 5 suggests that cities with similar climates (Memphis, TN and Richmond, VA) are less likely to exist affected, regardless of the availability of plow or sand trucks.

The third inference follows from Fig. 6, which suggests that urban areas that develop capital investments to reduce traffic delays under regular operating conditions may nevertheless exist vulnerable to traffic delays under mild stress conditions. Because these stressors are inevitable, whether from crashes, construction, special events, extreme weather, outfit malfunctions, or even deliberate attack, investment strategies that prioritize reduction of regular operating delays may Have the unintended consequence of exacerbating tail risks—that is, the risk of worse catastrophe under unlikely but viable conditions.

Finally, the exceptional position of novel York City in Fig. 3 calls attention to the fact that substitutes for roadway transportation are available in many cities and Have an valuable role to play in relieving traffic congestion. According to the Texas A&M Institute (63, 64), public transit reduces delays per peak-period auto commuter in the novel York urban zone by 63 hours, in Chicago by 23 hours, and by less than 20 hours in other urban areas. Because their model considers only roadway transit, and novel York City contains a myriad of nonroad-based options to avoid roadway congestion, it is unlikely that their model can provide informative results for the novel York urban area.

Although interest has increased in policies that enhance roadway resilience, few analytic tools are available to pilot novel investments in achieving resilience goals. It is widely understood that roadway infrastructure is expensive, both in acquiring land for rights-of-way and in construction of improvements, and thus, decisions regarding alignment, crossing, and access made over a period of decades may Have long-lasting consequences that are observable in traffic data today. Consequently, urban areas exhibit different unintentional traffic characteristics, including delays under regular and random stress conditions. Investments motivated exclusively by expected efficiencies under regular operating conditions are unreliable safeguards against loss of efficiency under stress conditions. Therefore, novel analytic tools are required that allow designers to assess the adaptive capacity of roadway infrastructure and assess the potential of novel investments to provide enhanced resilience. The adaptive network-based model described herein is one such approach.

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS

Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/12/e1701079/DC1

Alternative approaches to model transportation

Mapping from OSM Foundation shapefiles to network nodes and links

Population assignment algorithm

Distance factor of the likelihood of travel between nodes

Estimation of the traffic speed from the density of vehicles

Model calibration procedure

Sensitivity of the model to ramp speeds

Additional retard as a office of the severity of link disruption

table S1. Mapping original OSM types to network link types and assignment of the number of lanes.

table S2. The algorithm of the node population assignment.

table S3. Distance factor P(xod) of the likelihood of travel between nodes.

table S4. Model sensitivity to ramp speed coefficient.

fig. S1. Effects of the removal of nodes of degree 2.

fig. S2. Density-flow relationship in the Daganzo traffic model.

fig. S3. Model calibration.

fig. S4. Modeled delays for ramp speed coefficients of 1/3 and 1/2.

fig. S5. Dependency of the additional retard on the severity of the link disruption for totality 40 urban areas.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant expend is not for commercial odds and provided the original labor is properly cited.

REFERENCES AND NOTES
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  • Acknowledgments: They would like to thank S. Buldyrev (Yeshiva University) and J. Palma-Oliveira (University of Lisbon) for their insightful comments. Funding: This study was supported by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and progress center and by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Basic Research Program (P. Tandy, program manager). A.A.G. was additionally supported by the Virginia Transportation Research Council and Virginia Department of Transportation. T.S. was supported by the NSF under award no. 1441352. Author contributions: A.A.G., M.K., and I.L. conceived the model and designed the simulations. A.A.G. developed software and performed data retrieval and simulations. A.A.G. and M.K. analyzed results. I.L. provided senior guidance. A.A.G., M.K., J.M.K., T.S., and I.L. wrote the paper and contributed to the interpretation of the results. Competing interests: The authors declare that they Have no competing interests. Data and materials availability: totality data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the Supplementary Materials. Additional data related to this paper may exist requested from the authors. Map data were copyrighted by OSM contributors and are available at www.openstreetmap.org.

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    Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12023865
    Youtube : https://youtu.be/4Z3o2BW2x28
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    publitas.com : https://view.publitas.com/trutrainers-inc/where-can-i-get-help-to-pass-a2010-573-exam
    Google+ : https://plus.google.com/112153555852933435691/posts/N67MCfd19Ma?hl=en
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    Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/iginewcbmes1crxhu6bed56d8l819yii
    zoho.com : https://docs.zoho.com/file/5bym214ca77d8bb30459280764ae29017cbbd
    coursehero.com : "Excle"






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