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922-089 Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 Upgrades for Engineers

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922-089 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 Upgrades for Engineers

Test Code : 922-089
Test denomination : Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 Upgrades for Engineers
Vendor denomination : Nortel
: 30 real Questions

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Nortel Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0

Microsoft-Nortel observe Unified Communications features | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps


Microsoft-Nortel observe Unified Communications noble points
  • through Kurt Mackie
  • 07/18/2007
  • A one-12 months-historic partnership between Microsoft and Nortel on unified communications technology, general as the resourceful Communications Alliance , is mien fruit. the two groups announced this week that they beget got sold greater than 430,000 joint-options licenses to date.

    The Alliance lately won three unique purchasers as well, together with Indiana tuition, U.okay.-primarily based Worcestershire fitness tips and Communications know-how services, and an IT and telephony issuer called 4ward.

    Microsoft and Nortel fashioned the imaginitive Communications Alliance in July of terminal yr with the plane of offering unified communications solutions to agencies. below the Alliance, the groups initiated joint analysis and pile efforts. They besides created customer demonstration centers and engaged in joint sales and advertising.

    within the Alliance's initial press release, Jeff Raikes, Microsoft's enterprise Division president, brought up that the joint unified communications reply would allow a "single id across electronic mail, voice mail, voice over internet protocol (VoIP) denomination processing, rapid messaging and video."

    The Alliance's critical product is called Nortel Converged office, a unified communications device that integrates Nortel's VoIP telephony system with Microsoft's server know-how.

    The main components of Converged office include:

  • Microsoft office Communicator 2005 choice customer
  • Microsoft workplace reside Communications Server 2005, and
  • Nortel communique Server one thousand liberate four.5 or greater IP PBX.
  • there's besides a Nortel utility focus Part that supports not obligatory capabilities, together with net integration, interactive voice response and contact core features.

    Unified communications receives described in quite a few techniques, however based on the IEEE, it typically encompasses "unified messaging, collaboration and interplay programs." These methods additionally customarily permit actual-time and proximate precise-time communications. in addition, mixed media (voice, email, fax, etc.) may besides be accessed from a lone application, independent of the access device.

    competitors within the unified communications house is thick with expansive names. In March of this yr, IBM and Cisco, introduced a collaborative endeavor on unified messaging customer technology called Unified Communications and Collaboration (UC2). UC2 is in accordance with open technologies, akin to Eclipse pile atmosphere and the Open services Gateway Initiative framework. Citrix methods and Nokia, among others, beget expressed assist for the UC2 platform.

    under the IBM-Cisco unified communications partnership, Cisco plans to promote IBM's Lotus Sametime collaboration solution and IBM plans to sell Cisco's Unified Communications supervisor, Cisco solidarity and Cisco Unified MeetingPlace items. The entire unified communications reply is designed and delivered by course of IBM international know-how capabilities.

    about the writer

    Kurt Mackie is senior intelligence producer for the 1105 enterprise Computing neighborhood.

    Microsoft and Nortel latest Alliance Roadmap | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps


    Microsoft and Nortel existing Alliance Roadmap
  • by means of Stuart J. Johnston
  • January 18, 2007
  • Six months after asserting a telecommunications alliance, Microsoft and Nortel this week introduced some early consequences of their efforts and outlined a roadmap for future projects.

    both businesses first introduced their collaboration closing summer.

    The highway map contains three unique joint solutions “to dramatically enhance enterprise communications through breaking down the boundaries between voice, email, rapid messaging, multimedia conferencing and other kinds of communication,” according to a statement with the aid of both organisations.

    also blanketed within the announcement are 11 unique implementation capabilities from Nortel and the opening of greater than 20 joint demonstration centers where consumers can journey the expertise, the remark continued.

    moreover, both agencies said they beget got signed agreements with dozens of purchasers, and beget developed a “pipeline of lots of of possibilities who want to recognise the benefits of unified communications.”

    From Microsoft's point of view, it's totality Part of the enterprise's long-term play to merge totality types of communications and messaging into a lone framework. A yr ago, the enterprise introduced that it turned into merging its change Server group with its precise-Time Collaboration (RTC) neighborhood, and that it had begun to believe of both applied sciences comprising a "platform."

    the brand unique neighborhood turned into named the Unified Communications neighborhood (UCG) and resides in Microsoft's traffic Division. The thought for the brand unique community emanated from a imaginative and prescient of adding continuity to a myriad of communications contraptions, technologies and modes -- from email and immediate messaging to Voice over internet Protocol (VoIP), audio/video and net conferencing -- in a unified method.

    The three unique joint options announced with the aid of the alliance this week are named Unified Communications integrated branch, Unified Messaging, and Conferencing.

    When it's obtainable within the fourth quarter, UC built-in department will incorporate Nortel and Microsoft expertise on a lone piece of hardware that promises VoIP and unified communications in far off workplaces.

    Coming a bit of prior in the 2d quarter, Unified Messaging will plane to simplify customer deployments, aboriginal session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel verbal exchange Server 1000 and Microsoft exchange Server 2007. The reply contains Nortel knowledgeable capabilities for design, deployment and aid.

    also coming within the fourth quarter, Conferencing will prolong Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft office Communicator 2007. It goals to give a lone customer undergo constant throughout functions comparable to voice, immediate messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing.

    This year, the businesses additionally blueprint to extend their latest unified communications reply — a unified desktop and choice mobilephone for VoIP, electronic mail, immediate messaging and presence — to the Nortel communication Server 2100, a carrier-grade enterprise telephony product helping as much as 200,000 clients on a lone equipment, in line with enterprise statements.

    As for the street map, the two organizations beget equipped more than 20 joint demonstration facilities in North the united states, Europe and Asia, with more than one hundred additional centers scheduled to open through midyear.

    Nortel has additionally added 11 core integration services to advocate consumers build, installation and aid joint unified communications options, including end-to-end venture management. Nortel claims it has already trained more than 2,200 VoIP consultants to carry these functions and may add more as deployment ramps up.

    concerning the creator

    Stuart J. Johnston has coated expertise, particularly Microsoft, due to the fact that February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, tips Week, and computing device World, as well as for commercial enterprise Developer, XML & internet features, and .net magazines.

    latest Nortel utility free up offers SMBs unique ranges of Simplicity and Unified Communications | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    common utility movement gives complete, reasonably priced, and Scalable solution throughout systems and into offshoot places of work

    TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Nov. 3, 2009) - miniature and medium-sized corporations (SMBs) can gleam productiveness, can charge-savings and the funding insurance policy critical to success in contemporaneous traffic environment with unique unified communications-based (UC) software from Nortel* (OTCBB:NRTLQ). The latest application unencumber 5.0 for Nortel's award-winning enterprise Communications manager (BCM) provides unique UC capabilities, including unified presence, and enhanced simplicity with the introduction of a typical application movement for BCM50 and BCM450.

    The Nortel BCM450 and BCM50 are Linux-based mostly IP/TDM PBXs providing utility-rich, all-in-one options for converged voice and information communications. The BCM50 serves organizations with as much as 50 users while the greater capability BCM450 is preempt for starting to be medium to huge companies and department offices with as much as 300 users. each helps a merge of IP and digital customers and might permit corporations to store as much as 70 percent of their customary investment by course of reusing present machine.

    As Part of the unique BCM Rls 5.0 software, BCM450 and BCM50 provide SMBs with dynamic UC facets dote InTouch, which promises genuine federated presence, and widely wide-spread built-in communications functions and capabilities. InTouch lets users communicate simply with anyone in their own listing – across Microsoft Outlook, Nortel BCM, MSN, and Skype for click-to-name, click on-to-IM, and click on-to-e mail. by course of connecting people quicker, improving collaboration and rushing up the time to determination, Nortel estimates that unified communications can aid organizations realize cost-savings and an multiply in productivity of as much as 18 %.

    closing 12 months, the Nashville conference and guests Bureau** (NCVB) leveraged its BCM450 solution to booklet greater than 650,000 hotel rooms whereas advertising and marketing tourism on behalf of quite a lot of companions. NCVB is now trialing BCM Rls 5.0 and plans to roll out the InTouch application in the coming weeks. Kay Hopwood, NCVB's director of guidance know-how, is fervent for seeing actual-time presence for every person on the network and having a view into ignored calls even when a caller does not leave a voicemail. For now, NCVB is having fun with the first BCM Rls 5.0 characteristic it deployed, FindMe/FollowMe (FMFM), which permits simultaneous ringing of up to 5 extra exterior instruments. "each denomination is abilities business," spoke of Hopwood. "With BCM's FindMe/FollowMe potential, their revenue team under no circumstances has to miss a further profits-generating convene once again."

    Minitel**, a premier Nortel companion featuring carrier throughout Canada, additionally selected to ordeal BCM Rls 5.0 in its own office construction device. Its Toronto vice chairman of Operations, Dan Silverman, became so completely satisfied with the progress of the in-house ordeal he convinced a big accounting arduous customer to deploy it as neatly. "The setting up became as smooth as could be and the client is now rolling out both InTouch and FindMe/FollowMe to dissimilar clients of their corporation with ease. They beget been able to find their customer as much as accelerate on the interface and rolling the application out by themselves in less than an hour," referred to Silverman.

    Mexico's Universidad Latinoamericana** (ULA) in a similar fashion established the latest BCM software with wonderful outcomes. "we're in the enterprise of educating contemporaneous youth and making ready them for the long evade and the challenges forward," celebrated Mario Ahumada Sandoval, subdirector of methods, ULA. "To accomplish that, they import on having the latest in communications know-how that helps us offer a loaded UC adventure for workforce and students. Trialling BCM Rls 5.0, they discovered that the product's unique characteristic set enhances their UC event, while maximizing device already in place."

    BCM50 consumer, Philkeram-Johnson**, the oldest ceramic tile producer in Greece, besides welcomed the brand unique application free up. "Our Nortel BCM50 offers us elbowroom to grow, when it comes to capability and performance, and it grants the facets they should evolve to a unified communications atmosphere," spoke of Christos Syropoulos, traffic supervisor, Philkeram-Johnson. "we are at totality times seeking ways to boost their products and their productiveness in order to reply more immediately to shoppers. i'm desperate to find out greater in regards to the unique features purchasable in BCM Rls 5.0 and the course they will exercise them to boost their communications."

    in addition to the InTouch and FMFM capabilities, BCM Rls 5.0 lets a person forward a voice message the usage of a file in order that it can besides be performed or examine by course of any cellular paraphernalia on this planet. Meet-Me Conferencing for BCM now gives up to a hundred twenty five ports with advocate for as many as 300 users. professional convene Recording, a means usually provided through a 3rd birthday party is additionally attainable as Part of the newest BCM unlock.

    As a further capacity of streamlining charges and operations making it even more primary for SMBs and Nortel channel partners to install, provision, and migrate pre-current data, the unique BCM50 and BCM450 portfolio includes commonplace software and applications, O/S, practicing, accreditation, user interfaces, and documentation.

    Dell'Oro ranks Nortel's SMB portfolio #1 on the earth in variety of hybrid-IP lines shipped and #2 in SMB market revenue for the 2nd quarter 2009. Nortel's BCM options are localized and offered in over one hundred twenty nations via greater than one thousand channels.

    Hear from extra BCM users and companions:

  • "FindMe/FollowMe and Message Forwarding permit charter Telecom's** revenue and technical team of workers to be extra accessible to their customers, even if within the office or on the street. With the means for individual users to personalize these aspects to their liking via an internet-primarily based GUI appliance Mailbox manager. Their paraphernalia administrator now not has to outcome each day adjustments. FMFM and the competence to seamlessly switch calls between their desk phones and cellular phones has additionally allowed us to lessen their expenses, provide their workforce with extra flexibility, and boost their availability to consumers." – David Harper, voice programs engineer, charter Telecom - Canada
  • "Our office communications had been primarily based exclusively on Nortel's BCM techniques for years. They these days upgraded to the latest BCM technology, maintaining most of their initial investment in hardware and totality the investment in utility licenses. the unique UC performance increases their productiveness and saves time. It besides makes it feasible for us to connect with other systems dote Communications Server 1000 and Microsoft OCS. With InTouch we're capable of control their on-line contacts at MSN and Skype from a lone application interface in MS Outlook, along with their workplace colleagues, consumers, and partners." – Nikos Koulioumbis, SMB options director, UniNortel SA** - Greece
  • "imaginative unique facets such as InTouch with federated presence, FindMe/FollowMe, professional convene Recording and enhanced CTI functions are totality extremely noble productiveness enhancers so that you can retain corporations time and cash and this in fact resonated with the purchasers they talked to at a recent seminar held in Nortel's Maidenhead office. They had enthusiastic comments from attendees including a London-based mostly voice and information solutions provider who mentioned he most enjoyed the portion of the seminar that focused on BCM Rls 5.0." – Thomas Jacques, managing director, 1st Communications** - UK
  • "The BCM product has at totality times been one which they beget now been proud to offer to their valued clientele due to its converged voice and records solution for miniature and medium companies. As a longtime channel associate of Nortel's in Mexico, they issue forward to being capable of present these identical elements, moreover newly superior ones with the brand unique software liberate of BCM Rls 5.0 with unique features equivalent to FindMeFollowMe, expert convene Recording, and improved CTI functions that will enhance their consumer's productiveness." – Jorge Alberto Jimenez Hernandez, director of engineering, Innovaciones Telemáticas, S.A. de C.V.** (INTELEMATICA) - Mexico
  • About Nortel

    Nortel offers communications capabilities that outcome the covenant of company Made standard a veracity for their valued clientele. Their next-generation technologies, for both service provider and enterprise networks, profit multimedia and enterprise-vital applications. Nortel's applied sciences are designed to profit liquidate brand unique boundaries to effectivity, accelerate and efficiency through simplifying networks and connecting individuals to the guidance they need, when they want it. For more assistance, talk over with Nortel on the net at For the latest Nortel news, visit

    certain statements in this press release might besides accommodate words comparable to "might", "expects", "may additionally", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "ambitions", "envisions", "seeks" and different similar language and are regarded forward-looking statements or assistance below material securities legislation. These statements are according to Nortel's present expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections in regards to the operating environment, economies and markets through which Nortel operates. These statements are sphere to critical assumptions, risks and uncertainties, that are intricate to foretell and the genuine outcome may well be materially different from those contemplated in ahead-searching statements. For more information with respect to inescapable of those and other elements, observe Nortel's Annual document on Form10-k, Quarterly studies on profile 10-Q and other securities filings with the SEC. unless in any other case required by applicable securities laws, Nortel disclaims any objective or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, even if on account of unique suggestions, future hobbies or otherwise.

    *Nortel, the Nortel logo and the Globemark are emblems of Nortel Networks.

    **this is a third party link as described in their net linking practices.

    Use of the terms "associate" and "partnership" doesn't imply a prison partnership between Nortel and every other celebration.

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    Communication Server 1000 Rls.5.0 Upgrades for Engineers

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    What is 5G? totality you exigency to know about the next generation of wireless technology | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    UPDATED: January 2019

    Last September, consumers began to observe the first service bundles offered by telecommunications companies in their area, marketed with some profile of the term "5G." "5G is here," declared Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg, specifically for cities such as Sacramento, Los Angeles, and Indianapolis where rival AT&T had already been drumming up excitement around its 5G trials.

    It was a bit dote SpaceX's 2016 announcement, its 2017 announcement, and its 2018 announcement that the race to Mars had begun.

    Read also: T-Mobile and Sprint merger: The numbers and assumptions you exigency to know

    5G Wireless is an express set of technologies specified by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as "Release 15" and "Release 16." 3GPP is an organization consisting of essentially totality the world's telecommunications standards bodies who agreed to partake the definition of 3G Wireless, and to sail on from there to successive generations.


    Overlooked by London's skyscrapers EE's 5G mobile ordeal kicks off.

    Image: EE Who gets to hiss what 5G really is and isn't

    Today, 3GPP specifies which technologies constitute 5G Wireless and, by exclusion, which outcome not. 5G is an endeavor to create a sustainable industry around the wireless consumption of data for totality the world's telcos. One key goal of 5G is to dramatically ameliorate quality of service, and extend that quality over a broader geographic area, in order for the wireless industry to remain competitive against the onset of gigabit fiber service coupled with Wi-Fi.

    The 5G transition plan, once complete, would constitute an overhaul of communications infrastructure unlike any other in history. Imagine if, at the proximate of the 19th century, the telegraph industry had Come together in a joint decision to implement a staged transition to fax. That's essentially the scale of the shift from 4G to 5G. The real judgement for this shift is not so much to find faster as to outcome the wireless industry sustainable over the long term, as the 4G transmission scheme is approaching unsustainability faster than the industry experts predicted.

    SEE: How 5G will transform traffic (ZDNet special report) | Download the report as a PDF (TechRepublic)

    To outcome the transition feasible in homes and businesses, telcos are looking to sail customers into a 5G traffic track now, even before most real 5G services exist yet. More to the point, they're laying the "foundations" for technology tracks that can more easily be upgraded to 5G, once those 5G services outcome become available.

    New traffic models 180430-06-ericsson-ntt-docomo-5g-trial.jpg


    Equipment staged by NTT DOCOMO for 5G urban locality trials in Japan.

    (Image: Ericsson)

    The initial costs of these infrastructure improvements may be tremendous, and consumers beget already demonstrated their intolerance for rate hikes. So to retrieve those costs, telcos will exigency to offer unique classes of service to unique customer segments, for which 5G has made provisions. These include:

  • Fixed wireless data connectivity in dense metropolitan areas, with gigabit-per-second or better bandwidth, through a dazzling, perhaps bewildering, unique array of microwave relay antennas;
  • Edge computing services that bring computing power closer to the point where sensor data from remote, wireless devices would be collected, eliminating the latency incurred by public cloud-based applications;
  • Machine-to-machine communications services that could bring low-latency connectivity to devices such as self-driving cars and machine assembly robots;
  • Video delivery services that would compete directly against today's multi-channel video program distributors (MVPD) such as Comcast and Charter Communications, perhaps offering unique delivery media for Netflix, Amazon, and Hulu, or competing against them as well.
  • "It's not only going to be they humans that are going to be consuming services," remarked Nick Cadwgan, director of IP mobile networking, speaking with ZDNet. "There's going to be an poverty-stricken lot of software consuming services. If you gaze at this total thing about massive machine-type communications [mMTC], in the past it's been primarily the human either talking to a human or, when they beget the internet, the human requesting services and experiences from software. lamentable forward, they are going to beget software as the requester, and that software is going to be talking to software. So the total dynamic of what services we're going to beget to deliver through their networks, is going to change."

    Driving for higher yields

    5G is comprised of several technology projects in both communications and data focus architecture, totality of which must collectively bow benefits for telcos as well as customers, for any of them to be individually considered successful. The majority of these efforts are in one of three categories:

  • Spectral efficiency — Making more optimal exercise of multiple frequencies so that greater bandwidths may be extended across further distances from base stations (historically, the main goal of any wireless "G");
  • Energy efficiency — Leveraging whatever technological gains there may be for both transmitters and servers, in order to drastically reduce cooling costs;
  • Utilization — To afford the tremendous communications infrastructure overhaul that 5G may require, telcos may exigency to create additional revenue generating services such as edge computing and mobile apps hosting, placing them in direct competition with public cloud providers.
  • Service tiers 180430-03-itu-5g-usage-scenarios-pyramid.jpg


    Projection of interrelated 5G service tiers

    (Image:International Telecommunications Union)

    It was during the implementation of 4G that telcos realized they wished they had different grades of infrastructure to advocate different classes of service. 5G allows for three service grades that may be tuned to the special requirements of their customers' traffic models:

  • Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) aims to service more densely populated metropolitan centers with downlink speeds approaching 1 Gbps (gigabits-per-second) indoors, and 300 Mbps (megabits-per-second) outdoors. It would accomplish this through the installation of extremely high-frequency millimeter-wave (mmWave) antennas throughout the landscape -- on lampposts, the sides of buildings, the branches of trees, existing electrical towers, and in one novel exercise case proposed by AT&T, the tops of city busses. Since each of these antennas, in the metro exercise case, would cover an locality probably no larger than a baseball diamond, hundreds, perhaps thousands, of them would be needed to thoroughly service any densely populated downtown area. And since most would not be omnidirectional -- their maximum beam width would only be about 4 degrees -- mmWave antennas would bounce signals off of each other's mirrors, until they eventually reached their intended customer locations. For more suburban and bucolic areas, eMBB would quest to supplant 4G's current LTE system, with a unique network of lower-power omnidirectional antennas providing 50 Mbps downlink service.
  • Massive Machine character Communications (mMTC) [PDF] enables the machine-to-machine (M2M) and Internet of Things (IoT) applications that a unique wave of wireless customers may Come to hope from their network, without imposing burdens on the other classes of service. Experts in the M2M and logistics fields beget been on record saw that 2G service was perfectly fine for the narrow service bands their signaling devices required, and that later generations actually degraded that service by introducing unique sources of latency. MMTC would quest to restore that service plane by implementing a compartmentalized service tier for devices needing downlink bandwidth as low as 100 Kbps (kilobits-per-second, right down there with telephone modems) but with latency kept low at around 10 milliseconds (ms).
  • Ultra trustworthy and Low Latency Communications (URLLC) would address critical needs communications where bandwidth is not quite as critical as accelerate -- specifically, an end-to-end latency of 1 ms or less. This would be the tier that addresses the autonomous vehicle category, where decision time for reaction to a feasible accident is almost non-existent.  URLLC could actually outcome 5G competitive with satellite, opening up the possibility -- quiet in the discussion aspect among the telcos -- of 5G replacing GPS for geolocation.
  • Plotting the "inflection point"

    "The first generation of mobile systems that were launched around 1991 -- popularly known as 2G/GSM -- was really focused on massive mobile device communication," explained Sree Koratala, head of technology and strategy for 5G Wireless in North America for communications paraphernalia provider Ericsson, speaking with ZDNet. "Then the next generation of mobile networks, 3G, launched starting in 1998, enabled mobile broadband, feature phones, and browsing. When 4G networks were launched in 2008, smartphones popularized video consumption, and data traffic on mobile networks really exploded.

    "All these networks primarily catered towards consumers," Koratala continued. "Now when you gaze at this next generation of mobile networks, 5G, it is very unlike the previous generation of network. It's truly an inflection point from the consumer to the industry."




    The complete release of the first complete set of 5G standards (officially "Release 15") by 3GPP took spot in June 2018.  By the pause of 2019, the organization expects to declare a supplemental set of 5G standards called "Release 16." That release is slated to include specifications for:

  • Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communications, which would incorporate low-latency links between lamentable vehicles (especially those with autonomous driving systems) and cloud data centers, enabling much of the control and maintenance software for lamentable vehicles to operate from within stationary, staffed, and maintained data centers.
  • Satellite access, which may include the competence for satellite transmission to fill in gaps for under-served or geographically remote areas.
  • Wireline convergence, which would finally deliver the outcome that AT&T famously warned Congress was absolutely necessary for the communications industry to survive: the phasing out of divorce wireline service infrastructure and the deconstruction of the extinct telephone lines and circuit-switched networks that were the backbone of the Bell System, and other state-sanctioned monopoly service providers of the 20th century.
  • Are "5G Evolution" and other intermediate steps necessary for 5G?

    The real purpose of 5G Wireless, as you'll observe momentarily, is to produce a global traffic model where expenses are lower and revenue from services is higher, on account of the presence of more and greater services than 4G could provision for. So there is a cogent argument, from a marketing standpoint, in favor of a gradual deconstruction of 4G branding. As consumers hear more and more about the onset of 5G, enumeration leaves them sentiment more and more dote their 4G paraphernalia is extinct and obsolete.

    With so many technologies under the 5G umbrella -- home broadband, office broadband, home television, Internet of Things, in-vehicle communication, as well as mobile phone -- there's no guarantee that, when it comes time, any consumer will elect the selfsame provider for each one unless that consumer is willing to token a compress beforehand. That's why telcos are stepping up their 5G branding efforts now, including rolling out prefatory 4G upgrades with 5G monikers, and re-introducing the total thought of 5G to consumers as a fuzzy, cloudy, nebulous entity that encapsulates a sci-fi-like ideal of the future.

    "The general purpose technology for the Fourth Industrial Revolution is actually the obscure sort of connectivity that 5G can bring," admitted Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg, in no less conspicuous an arena than the keynote address of CES 2019.



    Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg explains "5G for All" to attendees at CES 2019.

    [Photo courtesy Verizon]

    "So what is 5G? 5G is a promise," Vestberg continued, "of so much more than we've ever seen in any wireless technology. From the beginning, they had the 1G, the 2G, the 3G, and the 4G. They were sort of leaps of differences, when it comes to accelerate and throughput. When they reckon about 5G, they reckon about 10 gigabits per second throughput, they talk about 10x battery life, they reckon about 1000 times more data volumes in the networks. It's just radically different. I would hiss it's a quantum leap compared to 4G."

    The first wave of 5G-branded services are effectively 4G, or 4G extensions, that spot consumers on the right track for future 5G upgrades, thus guaranteeing the revenue sources that 5G will require to be successful, or if only to just rupture even.

  • Verizon's "First on 5G" began with the October 2018 rollout of what's being called 5G Home — a broadband Wi-Fi service that bundles wireless phone with no-longer-cable TV service, for a cost that, after short-term discounts, could mount to as much as $120/month. In the test cities where it was first deployed, 5G Home may utilize wireless spectrum that is indeed being earmarked for 5G. Yet it involved a grade of paraphernalia only capable of 300 megabits-per-second (Mbps) throughput, that would eventually exigency to be upgraded to 1 gigabit-per-second (Gbps) for it to qualify as 5G technology. In January 2019, Verizon CEO Hans Vestberg indicated to monetary analysts that 5G Home rollout may remain limited to the initial test locality for some time to come, as the company awaits unique standards for customer premise (CP) equipment, probably as Part of 3GPP's Release 16. This after it seemed limpid to observers that Verizon was willing to continue rolling out intermediate paraphernalia with a "5G" brand until that time.  
  • AT&T's "5G Evolution" began in December 2018 with the sudden, unanticipated appearance of a "5G E" icon in the notifications locality of 4G customers' phones. The icon appears if the phone is presently being serviced by a 4G LTE transmitter capable of being upgraded to 5G specifications. Those transmitters may beget begun using frequencies over and above those originally reserved for 4G LTE, in addition to those already being used, for greater multiplexing and presumably greater bandwidth, although phones may not necessarily be equipped to receive these extra frequencies, even if they interpret the "5G E" icon.
  • AT&T's "5G+" besides began in December 2018, and refers to a mobile hotspot service that uses an early version (some would hiss "prototype") of the very-high-speed mmWave technology that is being earmarked for 5G, in addition to existing 4G LTE.  The hotspot device itself (Netgear's Nighthawk 5G Mobile Hotspot) will be sold separately by AT&T for $499, while it offers the service for $70 per month for the first 15 GB. With a speculative peak throughput of 300 Mbps, it's conceivable that this device's initial bandwidth allocation could be completely burned through in less than seven minutes' time.
  • T-Mobile has said it plans to launch what it characterizes as "true 5G service" to select cities, very soon after the finalization of its merger agreement with Sprint. In a statement, the company says it will exigency access to the mid-range of 5G spectrum currently delegated for Sprint, in addition to the low- and high-range spectrum T-Mobile currently holds, to deliver the first wave of its services. At the time of this writing, the ongoing federal government shutdown appears to beget interfered with these plans.
  • But consumers aren't the only parties facing down the exigency to climb onto a unique track. Telcos beget their own service providers -- for example, Nokia, which has absorbed the assets of the former Alcatel-Lucent, and is now the holder of the massive Bell Laboratories intellectual property portfolio. These providers besides exigency their customers to find with the program. In a January 22 blog post, Nokia's marketing strategist Clare McCarthy stated that communications service providers (CSPs) can start miniature if they want, but to become fully 5G compliant, they'll eventually beget to overhaul their communications infrastructure completely. McCarthy wrote:

    CSPs can start miniature by upgrading their radio access software and and maintaining the connection to an existing LTE core network if increased capacity is totality they need, but capacity is not totality CSPs need.  They observe their role as central to a flourishing digital economy.  They exigency to offer unique digital services and advocate unique operating and traffic models across industry verticals — and this requires more than a radio-only upgrade.  Delivering a unique benevolent of traffic requires a network capable of higher speeds, greater spectral efficiency, a cloud aboriginal core and a coherent, end-to-end framework.  CSPs exigency to deploy a fundamentally different infrastructure to meet the needs for greater capacity, latency and extreme reliability.

    Why cooling made 5G an urgent necessity

    In May 2017, AT&T President of Technology Operations Bill Hogg declared the existing wireless traffic model for cell tower rental, operation, and maintenance "unsustainable." Some months earlier, a J. P. Morgan analyst characterized the then-business model for wireless providers in Southeast Asia as unsustainable, warning that the then-current system has rendered it impossible for carriers to retain up with customer demand. And as research arduous McKinsey & Company asserted in a January 2018 report, the growth path for Japan's existing wireless infrastructure is becoming "unsustainable," rendering 5G for that country "a necessity."

    One senses a theme.

    The world's telcos exigency a different, far less constrained, traffic model than what 4G has left them with. The only course they can accomplish this is with an infrastructure that generates radically lower costs than the current scenario, particularly for maintaining, and mainly cooling, their base station equipment.

    Read also: Stingray spying: 5G will protect you against surveillance

    Cooling and the costs associated with facilitating and managing cooling equipment, according to studies from analysts and telcos worldwide, account for more than half of telcos' total expenses for operating their wireless networks. Global warming (which, from the perspective of meteorological instrumentation, is indisputable) is a direct contributor to compound annual increases in wireless network costs. Ironically, as this 2017 study by China's National Science Foundation asserts, the act of cooling 4G LTE paraphernalia solitary may contribute as much as 2 percent to the entire global warming problem.

    The world's biggest example 180430-02-china-mobile-bs-cost-estimates.jpg


    China Mobile's breakdown of its annual capital and operational expenditures for maintaining one 3G base station.

    (Image: China Mobile)

    The 2013 edition of a study by China Mobile, that country's state-licensed service provider, examined the elevated costs of maintaining energy-inefficient paraphernalia in its 3G wireless network, which happens to be the largest on the planet in both territory and customers served. In 2012, CM estimated its network had consumed 14 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity annually. As much as 46 percent of the electricity consumed by each base station, it estimated, was devoted to air conditioning.

    That study proposed a unique manner of constructing, deploying, and managing network base stations. Called Cloud architecture RAN (C-RAN), it's a manner of building, distributing, and maintaining transmitter antennas that history will record as having triggered the entire 5G movement.

    Read also: Samsung and KDDI complete 5G ordeal in baseball stadium

    One of the hallmarks of C-RAN cell site architecture is the total elimination of the on-site base band unit (BBU) processors, which were typically co-located with the site's radio head. That functionality is instead virtualized and moved to a centralized cloud platform, for which multiple BBUs' control systems partake tenancy, in what's called the baseband pool. The cloud data focus is powered and cooled independently, and linked to each of the base stations by no greater than 40km of fiber optic cable.



    An Ericsson 5G transmitter used in NTT DOCOMO's Japan trials.

    (Image: Ericsson)

    Moving BBU processing to the cloud eliminates an entire base transmission system (BTS) paraphernalia elbowroom from the base station (BS). It besides completely abolishes the principal source of heat generation inside the BS, making it feasible for much, if not all, of the remaining paraphernalia to be cooled passively -- literally, by exposure to the open air. The configuration of that paraphernalia could then be optimized, dote the 5G ordeal transmitter shown above, constructed by Ericsson for Japan's NTT DOCOMO. The goal for this optimization is to reduce a lone site's power consumption by over 75 percent.

    What's more, it takes less money to rent the site for a smaller base station than for a big one. Granted, China may beget a unique concept of the real estate market compared to other countries. Nevertheless, China Mobile's figures interpret that rental fees with C-RAN were reduced by over 71 percent, contributing to a total operational expenditure (OpEx) reduction for the entire base station site of 53 percent.

    Read also: T-Mobile and Sprint to merge, finally, strutting 5G clout

    Keep in mind, though, that China Mobile's figures pertained to deploying and maintaining 3G equipment, not 5G. But the unique standards for transmission and network access, called 5G unique Radio (5G NR), are being designed with C-RAN ideals in mind, so that the paraphernalia never generates enough heat to trip that wire, requiring OpEx to effectively quadruple.

    The unique cloud at the unique edge

    It would issue a lot of the success of 5G rests upon this unique class of cloud data centers, into which the functionality of today's baseband units would move. As of now, there is quiet considerable doubt as to where this centralized RAN controller would reside. There are competing definitions.

    Some beget taken a noble gaze at the emerging crop of edge data centers sprouting adjacent to today's cell towers, and are suggesting that the unique Service Oriented Core (SOC) could be distributed across those locations. Yet skeptics are wondering, why bother with the elimination of the BTS station in the first place, if the SOC would only allot it back? Alternately, a divorce SOC station could be established that services dozens of towers simultaneously. The problem there, obviously, is that such a station would be a full-fledged data focus in itself, which would beget real estate and cooling issues of its own.

    Either option might be more palatable, some engineers believe, if the servers operating there could delegate computing infrastructure among internal operations and special customer services -- edge computing services that could compete with cloud providers such as Amazon and Microsoft Azure, by leveraging much lower latency. The competence to outcome so is entirely conditional upon a concept called network slicing. This is the subdivision of physical infrastructure into virtual platforms, using a technique perfected by telecommunications companies called network functions virtualization (NFV).

    Also: Microsoft Azure: Everything you exigency to know about Redmond's cloud service 

    The dicey subject of slicing 180430-04-ngmn-network-slicing-suggestion.jpg


    One scenario mobile operators envision for 5G network slicing.

    (Image: Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance)

    Exactly what routes these network slices would seize through the infrastructure is completely up in the air. T-Mobile and others beget suggested slices could divide classes of internal network functions -- for instance, dividing eMBB from mMTC from URLLC. Others, such as the members of the Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance (NGMN), imply that slices could effectively partition networks in such a course (as suggested by the NGMN diagram above) that different classes of user equipment, utilizing their respective sets of radio access technologies (RAT), would perceive quite different infrastructure configurations, even though they'd be accessing resources from the selfsame pools.

    Another suggestion being made by some of the industry's main customers, at 5G industry conferences, is that telcos offer the premium option of slicing their network by individual customer. This would give customers willing to invest heavily in edge computing services more direct access to the fiber optic fabric that supports the infrastructure, potentially giving a telco willing to provide such a service a competitive edge over a colocation provider, even one with facilities adjacent to a "carrier hotel."

    Read also: Micro circuitry innovation needed to implement 5G

    But depending upon whom one asks, slicing networks by customer may actually be impossible. There are diametrically split viewpoints on the subject of whether slicing could congregate telco functions and customer functions together on the selfsame cloud. Some beget suggested such a convergence is vitally necessary for 5G to fulfill the value proposition embodied in C-RAN. Architects of the cloud platforms seeking to play a central role in the SOC, such as OpenStack and CORD, argue that this convergence is already happening, and the total point of the architecture in the first place.

    AT&T has gone so far as to imply the controversy is moot and the discussion is actually closed: Both classes of functions beget already been physically separated, not virtually sliced, in the 5G specifications, its engineers assert. In a January 2019 statement, the company said it has already begun deployments of what it calls Multi-access Edge Compute (MEC) services with select customers, in some cases using existing 4G LTE connectivity. "The data that runs through AT&T MEC," the statement reads in part, "can be routed to their cloud or stay within an enterprise's private environment to profit multiply security."

    But AT&T isn't the "Bell System" any more -- it doesn't find the final say. Thus one of the most critical decisions in 5G architecture may pause up being the result of ordeal and error.

    However this issue gets resolved, the very fact that slicing must seize spot somehow, if only to virtually divorce those functions that will not beget already been physically separated, suggests that 5G will not be "a fully meshed world of wirelessly connected everything."  Security -- the topic that always waits until the terminal second -- will ensure that inescapable things will remain strategically disconnected, for their own good.

    The emergence of fixed wireless

    Ericsson's own forecasts of wireless connectivity beget been known to fool people. In June 2017, its annual Mobility Report estimated that mobile data traffic would grow at an average compound annual growth rate of 42 percent through 2022, having grown eightfold by the pause of that period. "By the pause of the forecast period," stated Ericsson, "more than 90 percent of mobile data traffic will Come from smartphones."

    That forecast generated a truckload of headlines. A half-billion 5G mobile subscriptions are expected worldwide by 2022, reported ZDNet's Corinne Reichert. Ericsson's updated report, published terminal November, doubled that forecast number for 2023, adding that 5G access would achieve one-fifth of the world's population by the pause of that year.

    Read also: Robots could find cheaper, thanks to 5G

    The keyword in the above paragraphs is "mobile." Up to now, totality the "Gs" beget pertained to the wireless access technology we've historically perceived as synonymous with mobility. For 5G to be truly successful, Ericsson's Koratala told us, it will exigency to open up access to a broader compass of devices, many of which are actually not the least bit mobile.

    The not-so-mobile proposition

    "These connections are expected to be going into devices in factories, transportation, and the grid," said Koratala. "So the compass of applications means a huge diversification of performance and requirements for communication. Then there are some exercise cases that might be demanding a 5x improvement in latency, a 100x or 1000x data volume, as well as [extending] battery life. So when you gaze at that set of requirements, it's very limpid that it is not a lone exercise case. It really becomes an enabler for a wide variety of exercise cases, that will beget different requirements to be met to outcome them viable."

    The key mission of mMTC is to service wireless devices that don't move. Its transmission scheme will be tuned for very elevated density -- for situations dote factory floors where thousands of individual mechanical elements are sending operational data, simultaneously, to an off-site location for instant analytics.

    Read also: UK government seeks city to showcase 5G connectivity

    Viewed in this light, the prediction that nine-tenths of mobile data will be consumed by the largest class of mobile devices, seems about as spot-on as a forecast that rain will continue to be wet. What is completely unpredictable at this point is whether a fixed wireless exercise case will be competitive in an environment where wired broadband is besides undergoing a revolution.

    Exchanging yesterday's unique technology for today's

    You will hear from many sources that 5G is not about what anything is, but rather what it enables you to do. No, it isn't. 5G is about the things in which the telecom industry, and to a growing extent the data focus networking industry, must invest in order to produce the latest editions of platforms such as V2X and mMTC, so that it can start earning revenue from those services. 5G is totality about what it is.

    If you pause up watching smoothly streaming 4K video on a unique class of smartphone, allowing yourself to be ferried between cities in an otherwise unoccupied vehicle, or participate in a virtual, real-time football tournament with a few dozen goggle-wearers scattered throughout the planet, then you will be fulfilling the hopes of telco engineers who hope to outcome 5G viable. The veracity is, nonexistent of these consumer technologies are the real judgement 5G is being engineered. Indeed, they are the side benefits.

    The expansive gamble 180430-05-at-t-5g-cacti.jpg


    Three experimental AT&T cell tower designs for desert deployment. (Yes, they're right in front of you.)

    (Image: AT&T)

    5G is a collective compact between the telecommunications industry and society. To allow for anything proximate to evenly distributed coverage over a metropolitan area, the base stations containing the transmitters and receivers (the "cells") must be smaller, much lower in power, and much greater in number than they are today. Essentially, the unique cell towers must co-exist with the environment. An outdoor photograph taken in any direction will be just as likely to include a 5G tower as not. (The specimen above, provided by AT&T, includes three.)

    Read also: How US carriers moved up the timeline on 5G

    It would not be unprecedented in history. We've borne telephone and electric poles through their neighborhoods and, not totality that long ago, willingly installed TV aerials the size of kites on their chimneys. Some of us quiet exercise their extinct mounting posts for their satellite dishes. In exchange for the hopefully minor vice on their landscapes that 5G may bring, many would wave a cheerful good-bye to departed spots.

    All these things must happen, and in relatively quick succession, in order for telcos to afford the infrastructural overhaul they now beget no election but to make.

    Explore further — From the CBS Interactive Network Elsewhere Previous and related coverage

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    5G could lead to an multiply in customers' data plans, Sprint's CEO said.

    How 5G will repercussion the future of farming

    ZDNet caught up with Julian Sanchez, director of John Deere Technology Innovation Center, during CES 2018 to talk about how bucolic connectivity will repercussion the future of precision agriculture.

    SSA goes expansive on VOIP | real questions and Pass4sure dumps


    SSA goes expansive on VOIP

    Agency’s program is one of the world’s largest voice-over-IP implementations

  • By William Jackson
  • May 27, 2009
  • The gregarious Security Administration is about a third of the course into a program to supplant phone systems at 1,526 sphere offices nationwide with a single, centrally managed voice-over-IP solution that runs on the agency's data network.

    By late February, the VOIP system had handled more than 1.6 million calls. SSA officials hope to add as many as 16 offices a week to the unique system during the next two years, said Roderick Hairston, deputy associate commissioner of SSA's Office of Telecommunications and Systems Operations. When completed, the system will be one of the largest VOIP deployments in the world.

    "For SSA to travel with VOIP to this extent, they had to beget a lot of faith in it," said Benjamin Moses, vice president of solutions at Nortel Government Solutions, the project's lead contractor.

    The agency needed technology that could profit multiply productivity during the labor crunch officials hope in the coming years. "They are losing employees, and they are getting ready to deal with the baby boom explosion of retirees," Moses said.

    SSA's network of sphere offices has 63,000 employees and a budget of about $10 billion a year. The agency paid $650 billion in gregarious Security benefits to 55 million people in 2008, and for years, it has been preparing for a wave of baby boomer retirements. SSA will be hit twice because many of its employees will achieve retirement age at the selfsame time the agency's workload spikes.

    That process has already started. SSA's sphere office staff decreased by 4.4 percent from 2005 to 2008, according to a recent study by the Government Accountability Office. Visits to SSA offices increased from 42 million in 2006 to 44.4 million in 2008. Forty-four percent of the agency's staff is expected to retire by 2016, while the agency expects to be processing 1 million additional claims a year from retiring boomers by 2017.

    Meanwhile, the agency's telephone infrastructure was aging. It had never been a lone system but rather a collection of divorce systems with different carriers at each office.

    "Our system was more than 12 years old," Hairston said. "Some of it was past its pause of life, and other parts were approaching it. They beget been running out of parts," and the tasks of adding, dropping or lamentable lines were lengthy and labor-intensive. "We really had to outcome something to supplant them. This was a consummate opening to gaze at what benevolent of system they needed."

    What officials needed was a lone system that could be centrally managed and offer a common gaze and feel for employees and customers. They wanted to be able to equipoise traffic among offices and re-route calls in case of an outage, and they wanted to be able to consolidate trunk lines to rescue money. The result of that assessment was the 10-year, $300 million Telephone Systems Replacement Project (TSRP).

    Because it was a wholesale replacement rather than an upgrade, "it was pretty much a no-brainer" to travel with VOIP, Hairston said. "We made the decision in 2003 to outcome it, but only after they did a pilot. It was a fairly unique technology when they made the decision."

    The pilot project was conducted from 2004 to 2006 at 43 offices, with divorce systems operated by AT&T and Nortel as primary vendors. The results were satisfactory, and Nortel Government Solutions was awarded the TSRP compress in 2007. Implementation began in March 2008.

    The system uses Nortel's Contact focus Manager Server, Communication Server 1000 for switching, Media Processing Server 500 for interactive voice response, Unified Messaging 2000 for voice mail and IP Phone 1100 progression handsets. Other members of the contractor team include general Dynamics, Black Box Network Services, Shared Technologies, York Telecom, elevated Wire Networks, NetIQ, Netcom Technologies, AttivaSoft and Pal-Tech.

    There are divorce parts to an IP phone system, Moses said. The IP telephony functions — the core switching and applications such as interactive voice response and convene records — reside on the network and are independent of the means used to transport calls.

    "VOIP is really transport," he said. "All we're doing is pointing to a [Session Initiation Protocol] trunk rather than to a [public switched telephone network] trunk. The applications are available either way." But VOIP allows trunk consolidation and better bandwidth exercise for improved pricing. "VOIP is a cost issue — it's not about application availability."

    Combining the applications with the transport is the trickiest Part of the implementation.

    "If it was just providing a dial tone, it wouldn't be much more than putting a few servers on the network," Moses said. "This customer has an extremely lunimous application environment."

    One of the most unusual features of SSA's systems is the competence to partition convene and performance data for each plane of management. Managers log on through a Web front end, using SSA's authentication system, for access to the data that they are authorized to see. An office manager has access to data and security controls only for that office. District, regional and headquarters managers beget access to progressively broader swaths of data.

    Applications and dial tone are provided from four redundant service delivery points at Richmond, Calif.; Kansas City, Mo.; Durham, N.C.;and the SSA computer focus in Baltimore. The service delivery points provide automatic failover in case of an outage.

    "We beget experienced an outage," Hairston said. "It works very well."

    Each office has a divorce gateway to the public switched telephone network for additional failover. In case of a local-area or wide-area network outage, the phone can automatically re-register to the PSTN. Emergency 911 service is directed through the PSTN gateway on a local trunk, so that the public safety answering point receives accurate information about the number and address from which the convene is being made.

    The handsets besides outcome their Part to ensure quality of service. Each acts as a voice quality agent, and when quality moves outside acceptable parameters, the system automatically alerts the service delivery point. Calls can be re-routed, problems identified and solutions launched without interrupting the call.

    Ultimately, the quality of voice service depends on the quality of the network transporting it. Nortel works with SSA's Division of Network Engineering to resolve network health and troubleshoot problems before an office implements VOIP.

    "In most cases, they are in pretty noble shape," Moses said. "Our solution is rather tolerant" of network conditions.

    "We scholarly from the pilot how to tune the network and find voice traffic where it needed to be," Hairston said.

    SSA was fortunate that it had done a major network upgrade shortly before TSRP, during which it implemented Multiprotocol Label Switching. MPLS supports multiple services and simplifies traffic management for applications such as voice and video that are sensitive to latency. A few years ago, it was an expensive, leading-edge technology used primarily by big service providers to provision multiple services, but affordable high-performance MPLS routers now are available in a variety of sizes, making the technology practical for other organizations.

    SSA quiet has a lot of drudgery to outcome to transition sphere offices to VOIP, said Andre Pinto-Lobo, program manager at Nortel Government Solutions. "We are coming to the pause of Year One," he said. The rate of implementation will multiply during the second and third years and then slack again as the implementation concludes.

    But "we're seeing the advantages already," Hairston said. System management has been simplified, there is better redundancy, and calls can be better routed to the proper person or automated service, which should tickle both employees and retiring baby boomers.

    About the Author

    William Jackson is a Maryland-based freelance writer.

    The Navy’s newest warship is powered by Linux | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The USS Zumwalt getting a coat of paint at Bath Iron Works. The ship is exotic in many ways, but it runs on off-the-shelf computing technology. It  besides costs nearly $4 billion.The USS Zumwalt getting a coat of paint at Bath Iron Works. The ship is exotic in many ways, but it runs on off-the-shelf computing technology. It besides costs nearly $4 billion. General Dynamics Bath Iron Works reader comments with 129 posters participating, including tale author Share this story
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  • When the USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000) puts to sea later this year, it will be different from any other ship in the Navy's fleet in many ways. The $3.5 billon ship is designed for stealth, survivability, and firepower, and it's packed with advanced technology. And at the heart of its operations is a virtual data focus powered by off-the-shelf server hardware, various flavors of Linux, and over 6 million lines of software code.

    On October 10, I flew up to Rhode Island to visit Raytheon's Seapower Capability focus in Portsmouth, where engineers assembled and pre-tested the systems at the heart of the Zumwalt and are preparing to outcome the selfsame for the next ship in line, the USS Michael Monsoor—already well into construction. There, Raytheon's DDG-1000 team gave me a tour of the centerpiece of the ship's systems—a mockup of the Zumwalt's operations center, where the ship's commanding officer and crew will control the ship's sensors, missile launchers, guns, and other systems.

    Over 20 years ago, I scholarly how to be a ship watch stander a few miles from the Raytheon facility at the Navy's Surface Warfare Officer School. But the operations focus of the Zumwalt will beget more in common with the fictional starship USS Enterprise's bridge than it does with the combat information centers of the ships I went to sea on. Every console on the Zumwalt will be equipped with finger screens and software capable of taking on the needs of any operator on duty, and expansive screens on the forward bulkhead will display tactical plots of sea, air, and land.

    Perhaps it's preempt that the first commanding officer of the Zumwalt will be Captain James Kirk (yes, that's actually his name). But considering how heavily the ship leans on its computer networks, maybe they should gaze for a chief engineer named Vint Cerf.

    Off the shelf and on the ship Data  focus in a box: Electronic Modular Enclosures being configured at Raytheon's Portsmouth, Rhode Island, facility. Enlarge / Data focus in a box: Electronic Modular Enclosures being configured at Raytheon's Portsmouth, Rhode Island, facility.

    In the past, you couldn't just allot off-the-shelf computer systems aboard a ship for mission critical tasks—when I was aboard the USS Iowa, they had to shut down non-tactical systems before the guns were fired because the shock and vibration would crash systems hard. So typically, individual computer systems are ruggedized. But that adds heavily to the cost of the systems and makes it more difficult to maintain them.

    The design of the Zumwalt solves that problem by using off-the-shelf hardware—mostly IBM blade servers running Red Hat Linux—and putting it in a ruggedized server room. Those ruggedized server rooms are called Electronic Modular Enclosures (EMEs), sixteen self-contained, mini data centers built by Raytheon.

    Measuring 35 feet long, 8 feet high, and 12 feet wide, the 16 EMEs beget more than 235 paraphernalia cabinets (racks) in total. The EMEs were totality configured and pre-tested before being shipped to Bath, Maine, to be installed aboard the Zumwalt. The EME approach lowered overall cost of the hardware itself, and allows Raytheon to pre-integrate systems before they're installed. "It costs a lot to outcome the drudgery in the shipyard," said Raytheon's DDG-1000 deputy program manager Tom Moore, "and they find limited time of access."

    Each EME has its own shock and vibration damping, power protection, water cooling systems, and electromagnetic shielding to preclude interference from the ship's radar and other expansive radio frequency emitters.

    The EMEs tap into the Total Ship Computing Environment, the Zumwalt's shipboard Internet. Running multiple partitioned networks over a merge of fiber and copper, TSCE's redundantly switched network system connects totality of the ship's systems—internal and external communications, weapons, engineering, sensors, etc.—over Internet protocols, including TCP and UDP. Almost totality of the ship's internal communications are based on Voice Over IP (with the exception of a few old-school, sound-powered phones for emergency use).

    A diagram of the Zumwalt's control systems and their connections to the Total Ship Computing Environment. Enlarge / A diagram of the Zumwalt's control systems and their connections to the Total Ship Computing Environment.

    There's besides some wireless networking capability aboard the Zumwalt, but Raytheon officials giving me the tour were not at liberty to argue just what sort of wireless this is. Still, that capability is reputed to allow for roving crew members to connect to data from the network while performing maintenance and other tasks.

    Systems that weren't built to be wired into an IP network—other "programs of record" within the ship, which are installed across multiple classes of Navy ships—are wired in using adaptors based on single-board computers and the Lynx OS real-time Linux operating system. Called Distributed Adaptation Processors, or DAPs, these systems connect things dote the ship's engineering systems, fire suppression systems, missile launchers, and radio and satellite communications gear into the network so they can be controlled by networked clients.

    It looks dote you want to launch a missile The mock-up of the Zumwalt's operations  focus at Raytheon's Portsmouth facility, complete with haze-gray paint, has the exact dimensions of the space on the ship itself. The Zumwalt will include a second  plane to host the operations of units deployed with the ship. Enlarge / The mock-up of the Zumwalt's operations focus at Raytheon's Portsmouth facility, complete with haze-gray paint, has the exact dimensions of the space on the ship itself. The Zumwalt will include a second plane to host the operations of units deployed with the ship.

    Some of those networked clients were what I was looking at in the mocked-up Zumwalt operations center. The operations focus isn't just where screens are watched and commands are shouted—the total ship can be practically evade from the space, from guns and missiles to engines. There's no "radio room" on the Zumwalt; totality the communications are managed from the operations center. The ship's guns are fully automated and operated by an operations focus watch stander instead of a gunner's mate in the mount. Theoretically, the ship could even be steered from the ops center—the ship is piloted by computer, not a helmsman. And totality of these tasks are performed from the selfsame character of console.

    The   outcome 57  upright launch system, developed by Raytheon, can carry a  merge of anti-ship, anti-aircraft, and land attack cruise missiles. It communicates with the operations  focus over the ship's network.

    Enlarge / The outcome 57 upright launch system, developed by Raytheon, can carry a merge of anti-ship, anti-aircraft, and land attack cruise missiles. It communicates with the operations focus over the ship's network. Called the Common display System, or CDS (pronounced as "keds" by those who drudgery with it), the three-screen workstations in the operations focus are powered by a collection of quad-processor Intel motherboards in an armored case, which gives unique sense to the nautical phrase "toe buster." Even the commanding officer's and executive officer's chairs on the bridge beget CDS workstations built-in.

    Each CDS system can evade multiple Linux virtual machines atop LynuxWorx's LynxSecure, a separation kernel tthat has been implemented in CDS as a hypervisor. This allows the workstation to connect to various networks partitioned by security plane and purpose. "Every watch stander station runs out of the selfsame box," Raytheon's DDG-1000 developer lead Robert Froncillo told me. "So they can sit at any CDS and bring up their station."

    This may not look dote a expansive deal to most people. But on past ships, workstations tended to be purpose-built for a specific weapons system or sensor. That meant every system had a different configuration and interface, and you couldn't beget a watch stander maneuver multiple tasks without having to switch seats. The CDS workstation uses common USB interfaces for its peripheral devices (such as trackballs and specialized button panels) and is equipped with touchscreens, as well, so that watch standers beget a election between "classic" and finger interfaces.

    That doesn't involve there's necessarily a "Clippy" to profit unique operators master their systems. The Raytheon team has had sailors in to achieve usability assessments from before code was even written, showing them screen shots of interfaces to find feedback from users. "We had a chief that said, 'We don't want any 'wizards,'" said Froncillo.

    A digital illustration of how the Zumwalt's operations  focus will look, complete with its second-level suite for hosting operations for air detachments and other units deployed aboard.A digital illustration of how the Zumwalt's operations focus will look, complete with its second-level suite for hosting operations for air detachments and other units deployed aboard. Raytheon

    Putting totality of the pieces together is a collection of middleware running on those IBM blade servers. Many of the shipboard systems exercise a commercial publish/subscribe middleware platform to forward updates to operator consoles. But for other systems that exigency to be more tightly coupled (like, for example, missile launch commands), the Navy has specified the exercise of the Common remonstrate Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)—the military's favorite mission-critical middleware model. (The software for the Joint Tactical Radio System's software-defined radios was besides developed using CORBA.)

    The next release The Zumwalt bow-on at Bath Iron Works. DDG-1001, the USS Michael Monsoor, sits behind her, more than 60 percent complete. Enlarge / The Zumwalt bow-on at Bath Iron Works. DDG-1001, the USS Michael Monsoor, sits behind her, more than 60 percent complete.

    The Zumwalt may not beget sailed yet, but its software has already shipped six times. When Release 5 was completed, Raytheon brought in more sailors to test the system, tethering it to the company's Total Ship System Simulator to evade through a number of combat scenarios. "We did antisubmarine warfare, air, and land attack missions," Froncillo said. The lessons scholarly were incorporated into release 6, and 7 will be installed on the ship before the ship's "shakedown" cruise. Another upgrade will be installed post-delivery, and continuous improvements will be made as the software is deployed to the other two ships in the class.

    But the life of the technology being deployed on the Zumwalt won't pause there. CDS will be used as Part of the Navy's Aegis Modernization Program to upgrade the systems of the fleet's guided missile cruisers and destroyers. "And there are a lot of things we're developing that will be reused," Moore said.

    Considering how much has been spent over the past decade trying to find the Zumwalt built, and the other technologies that were developed in the process, one can hope that more than just the software gets some reuse.

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