920-335 exam Dumps Source : BCM50 3.0 Installation and Initial Configuration
Test Code : 920-335
Test appellation : BCM50 3.0 Installation and Initial Configuration
Vendor appellation : Nortel
: 150 actual Questions
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As mentioned in a extinct tip, organizations are enforcing IP telephony greater often on their records infrastructures. The expanded deployment has created a necessity for licensed IP telephony engineers to provide confirmed, most appropriate-of-breed know-how.
The IP telephony certifications Nortel at present presents are divided into 4 classes: lead expert, Design professional, aid professional, and Design knowledgeable. This tip discusses the Nortel aid tune.
The champion professional certifications are supposed to exhibit someone's skill to enforce, function, and troubleshoot a Nortel Networks IP Telephony solution. The champion professional certification reflects a candidate with three to six months of event that can exploit movements technical concerns of a common Nortel IP Telephony answer.
NNCSS - VoIP Succession BCM 3.0
This certification checks the skill to establish in force, function, and troubleshoot the enterprise Communications manager three.0. This certification covers hardware, birth-up, information and voice networking, functions, and troubleshooting the BCM. To strain the certification, two checks must exist effectively completed: know-how requirements and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions, and Succession BCM three.0. The expertise requirements and Protocols for IP Telephony options exam is an outline of convergence applied sciences.
NNCSS - CallPilot Rls. 2.0
This certification tests the skill to implement, operate, and troubleshoot the VoIP CallPilot 2.0. This certification covers hardware, administration, interoperability with Meridian 1 switches, and safety of a sole website CallPilot system. To flow the certification, two checks beget to exist effectively achieved: Meridian Database and CallPilot 2.0.
NNCSS - Symposium convoke core Server or Symposium appellation focus Server installation and protection
These two certifications test the skill to establish into effect, function, and troubleshoot the Symposium convoke core Server. both certifications cowl hardware, utility setting up, administration, and upkeep of Symposium appellation focus Server four.2, Symposium internet client 4.0, and Symposium categorical 3.0. besides the fact that children, the Symposium appellation core Server certification also checks the structure, customized configuration and integration of the server. To flow either of these certifications, one exam must exist correctly completed: Symposium appellation middle or Symposium appellation core setting up and protection, respectively.
NNCSS - Symposium convoke core TAPI/Agent or appellation focus TAPI/Agent installation and protection
These two certifications verify the skill to establish into effect, operate, and troubleshoot the Symposium convoke middle TAPI/Agent. each certifications cover hardware, utility installation, administration, and preservation of Symposium TAPI 2.three and Symposium Agent 2.3. besides the fact that children, the Symposium appellation middle TAPI/Agent certification also exams the structure, integration, and customized configuration of the TAPI/Agent. To strain either of these certifications, one exam beget to exist efficaciously completed: Symposium appellation focus TAPI/Agent or Symposium convoke focus TAPI/Agent Inst/leading, respectively.
NNCSS - Symposium specific convoke focus or Symposium categorical appellation middle installation and maintenance
These certifications verify the capacity to enforce, function, and troubleshoot the Symposium express appellation core. each certifications cowl hardware, utility installing, administration, and upkeep of Symposium express appellation middle 4.2. however, the Symposium categorical convoke core certification additionally assessments the architecture and integration of the convoke middle. To flow both of the certifications, one examination ought to exist effectively accomplished: Symposium categorical appellation core or Symposium categorical appellation focus Inst and Maint respectively.
NNCSS - VoIP Multimedia verbal exchange Server (MCS) 5100 2.0
This certification tests the capacity to enforce, function, and troubleshoot the VoIP Multimedia verbal exchange Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. This certification covers installing of the hardware and software, configuration, protection, and administration of the Multimedia verbal exchange Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. To strain the certification, two checks should exist efficaciously achieved: know-how requirements and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions, and VoIP Multimedia communication Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. The expertise requisites and Protocols for IP Telephony options exam is an outline of convergence applied sciences.
NNCSS - VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 DB Administrator
This certification exams the skill to maintain and troubleshoot the VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0 DB Administrator. This certification covers the architecture, configuration, preservation, and administration of the Meridian 1, Succession 1000 Rls. three.0, and Succession 1000M Rls. 3.0 using primary Alternate Route option (BARS) and community Alternate Route preference (NARS). To pass the certification, two exams should exist efficaciously accomplished: expertise specifications and Protocols for IP Telephony options, and Succession 1000/1000M Rls. 3.0 DB Administrator.
NNCSS - VoIP Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0 installation and protection
This certification exams the capability to deploy, configure, and hold the VoIP Succession 1000/1000M Rls. three.0. This certification covers the setting up, structure, configuration, upkeep, and administration of the Meridian 1, Succession one thousand Rls. 3.0, and Succession 1000M Rls. three.0, cyber web Telephones i2xxx, and Optivity Telephony manager (OTM) 2.1. To strain the certification, three tests must exist successfully accomplished: know-how necessities and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions, and Succession 1000/1000M Rls. 3.0 for Technicians, and Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0.
The champion skilled certifications build on the professional's handicap through demonstrating their skill to establish in force, operate, and troubleshoot an superior Nortel Networks IP Telephony solution. The succor knowledgeable certifications reflect a candidate with six to twelve months of arms-on event with the potential to lead or assist intermediate-stage personnel to retain intricate Nortel IP Telephony options.
NNCSE - CallPilot 2.0 Unified Messaging options
This certification exams the skill to establish in force, operate, troubleshoot and optimize the VoIP CallPilot Unified Messaging reply 2.0. This certification covers the installing, administration, interoperability, protection, upgrade tactics and beget utilization for a multi web site CallPilot device. To pass the certification, the candidate must first obtain their NNCSS - CallPilot Rls. 2.0. as a result, the CallPilot 2.0 Unified Messaging options necessity to exist efficiently completed to acquire this certification.
NNCSE - Contact core
This certification checks the skill to implement, function, troubleshoot and optimize the Contact focus products. This certification covers the candidate's capabilities on the Symposium appellation core Server (SCCS)/Symposium specific appellation center/Symposium net client, Symposium TAPI service provider (TAPI SP), Symposium Agent, and the Symposium net focus Portal. To strain the certification, the candidate should first acquire their NNCSS - Symposium convoke core Server and the NNCSS - Symposium appellation middle TAPI/Agent certification. in consequence, the Contact core examination necessity to exist efficaciously accomplished to achieve this certification.
NNCSE - IP Convergence Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. three.0
This certification exams the skill to install, configure, retain, and optimize the VoIP Succession 1000/1000M Rls. three.0. This certification covers the configuration, succession arm office (BO), far flung workplace, operation, and Meridian 1 to Succession 1000M three.0 migration methods for the Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0, internet Telephones i2xxx, far flung workplace 91xx, and Optivity Telephony supervisor (OTM) 2.1. To strain the certification, the candidate must first gleam their NNCSS - VoIP Succession CSE a thousand Rls. 2.0 or the VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 installation & renovation certification. because of this, yet another greater elaborate edition of the Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 examination ought to exist effectively achieved to gain this certification.
within the IT industry, certifications are a means to validate an individual's scholarship inside a unique enviornment. The above Nortel IP Telephony certifications are one of the crucial tools that may exhibit the capabilities of an IP Telephony succor expert. These certifications could not replace years of industry event, but they enact supply the foundation to aid and manage Nortel Voice over IP options.
The next tip will focus on Nortel's Design IP Telephony certification tune.
Richard Parsons (CCIE#5719) is a manager of knowledgeable services for Callisma Inc., a totally owned subsidiary of SBC. He has developed a superior groundwork in networking ideas, advanced troubleshooting, and monitoring in areas comparable to optical, ATM, VoIP, routed, routing, and storage infrastructures. prosperous resides in Atlanta GA, and is a graduate of Clemson college. His historical past includes senior and most principal consulting positions at exotic network capabilities, Lucent, and Callisma.
With the announcement of release three.0, Nortel’s software communication gear (SCS) solution now caters to organizations beyond diminutive and medium-measurement businesses. The solution, which comprises significant, dispensed commercial enterprise networks, is designed to champion businesses add unique users and acquire other alterations in-apartment.
The answer helps groups converge their communications into a centralized, effortless-to-set up, -manipulate and -use reply that may integrate seamlessly into an latest IT environment with open net-primarily based interfaces.
free up 3.0 of SCS extends champion to trade-typical structures from IBM, Dell and HP, including IBM vitality programs and system i, Dell Optiplex, and HP Proliant DL360, as neatly as the currently announced IBM x3350 and Dell PowerEdge R300 methods. moreover the supported platform enlargement, the Nortel SCS Developer program additionally presents dozens of interoperable third-birthday party items corresponding to desktop telephones, tender phones, gateways, IP consoles, purposes relish appellation recording and contact accounting, wireless mobility solutions, and lots extra.
"The UC market is in a transition from hardware to application, and for carriers this transition requires conviction to utility openness. IP-most efficacious carriers will learn this transition a all lot more tricky. The winners during this market can exist providers who embody open, software primarily based solutions and who acquire application loom to exist another application in the community," observed Zeus Kerravala, senior vice president, Yankee group.
based on Nortel, SCS offers transparent pricing with an ‘all-in-one’ strategy. A ground person license includes each and every applications relish voicemail and unified messaging, integrated voice conferencing, secure presence and quick messaging, computing device-based video conferencing, sole number reachability, an ‘informal’ convoke middle, and integration with Microsoft Outlook, IBM Lotus Notes and IBM Lotus Sametime.
also, through the expend of SCS, groups can secure rid of or reduce lower back on the charges concerning outsourced conferencing costs, calling card and second line fees for teleworkers, actual property, and legacy PBX preservation costs.
Nortel Unveils network Platform
simply in case you thought you may chitchat with authority about USB specifications at your next dinner party, a unique one comes alongside to quiver everything up once more. The newest USB 3.2 ordinary goes to exist proven in September, and perquisite here’s what that capability to your laptop, your phone, and people unique USB-C cables you just went out and acquired.a extremely brief inheritance of USB
USB, or accepted Serial Bus, is an agreed-upon incurious that makes certain if you buy kit with USB expertise built in, then it’s each and every going to travail happily together. while we've a specific amount of dongle hell to contend with nowadays, it’s nothing in comparison to the early 90s, when desktop peripherals used every kindhearted of different and marvelous connectors, and it took as a minimum half a morning to install and configure your latest purchase.
The expansive computing beasts Compaq, DEC, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, NEC, and Nortel each and every started travail on the USB regular in 1994, with the long-established USB 1.0 specification arriving in January 1996, with its blazing ordinary pace of 1.5 Mbit/s.
USB 2.0 adopted in April 2000, ramping up speeds to 480 Mbit/s—now not each and every that crucial for a joystick however useful for an external challenging power. yet another immense better arrived in November 2008 with USB three.0, upping the capabilities records transfer quotes once more to 5 Gbps whereas keeping backwards compatibility with USB 2.0 equipment. when you've got the latest USB three.1 installed nowadays, then you definitely beget the talents for up to 10 Gbps of statistics transfer, in spite of the fact that most customer peripherals don’t secure near that. There’s also champion for providing 100W of power, which is why laptops can now exist charged by passage of USB.Cords, plugs, and information
The USB specifications as set out via the USB Implementers forum (USB-IF) cover a number of applied sciences: not simply the protocols for moving facts, but additionally the cables which you can use, and the connectors on the quit of those cables. The USB-C port we’ve been listening to so much about these days is linked to, but technically slice loose, the USB specifications for facts switch. It was additionally developed by using the USB-IF, and it was introduced across the identical time as USB 3.1, but it surely also works with USB 2.0 cables and gear.
In other words, just as a result of your cable has a USB-C connector on the conclusion doesn’t always imply you’re getting the goodness of USB three.1. most likely it’s more convenient to forward connectors and cables alongside information protocols—USB-C is specially designed to select abilities of the benefits of USB three.1, merits relish carrying enough vitality to freight laptops—however they’re basically two part requirements, albeit closely connected. Cables the expend of the usual, flat USB-A connectors can nevertheless beget USB three.1 inside (look for the turquoise coloring as a simple passage to determine).
USB-C has been designed as the port and connector of the future, one on the passage to travail with every shrimp thing from telephones to laptops (and travail each approaches up as neatly, as an brought bonus). We’re no longer there yet, but over the next brace of years USB-C and USB three.1 will revolve into the usual on electronics gear, at the least except the subsequent spec rolls around...The USB three.2 standard
USB 3.2 is (as the identify suggests) the next step up from USB 3.1, even though it won’t exist performing in your local foremost purchase any time soon—it’s most efficacious simply been introduced by means of the USB-IF, and its headline feature is its aid for what’s known as multi-lane operation, where two lanes of 5 Gbps or 10 Gbps can sprint together in tandem by using using extra wires inner USB cables. The speculative maximum transfer expense hence gets bumped up to twenty Gbps.
aside from that relatively immense hurry boost, the USB three.2 spec is a relatively minor upgrade, which might exist why it simplest receives a further 0.1 on the quantity count. it's going to of course travail with USB-C connectors, and in most situations you received’t ought to better your cables in case your laptop or phone makes expend of USB three.2 (more on this under).
The USB 3.2 spec is expected to exist finalized in September however how quickly they delivery seeing in purchaser electronics depends on a few components, including market developments, manufacturing schedules, and income margins. as a minimum having just a minor upgrade this time round potential the USB ports on their contraptions received’t deserve to exist tremendously retooled to secure the usual supported.Future-proofing your USB buying
The edifying news for us humble consumers is that older USB necessities mind to stick round for a very long time, and newer requisites are sometimes backwards compatible—new cables will travail with historical computers and telephones, simply with probably the most performance perks dialled down. to establish it one other means, you don’t necessarily necessity to upgrade your microUSB smartphone just to secure on the USB-C bandwagon, as a result of microUSB goes to exist supported for a long time yet.
That stated, if you necessity to future-proof your purchases and ensure they’re going to travail with each and every the other shiny unique gear popping out this yr and next, search for contraptions and cables that include the good-end composite of USB three.1 and USB-C connectors. You might no longer secure blazing speeds in case you relate them up to older machine, however they’ll exist able for the next wave of hardware that comes along.
The bump to USB three.2 capability some latest cables will potentially exist in a position to double their records transfer rates. in case you’re using USB three.0 or USB three.1 cables with USB-C connectors, they’ll exist capable of ship twice as lots records—either 2 x 5 Gbps or 2 x 10 Gbps—due to the multi-lane technology in USB three.2. You’ll necessity gear that helps the unique USB three.2 usual at each quit of the cables, however the cables themselves don’t should secure replaced to secure the additional speeds.
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This may exist one of the most difficult items I beget ever been given to review simply because this device can exist so many things to so many different people. The Intel Compute Stick was one of those products that, upon unboxing and holding it in my hands, made me think, “I had no idea that this technology even existed.” If you are wondering what makes this device so extraordinary it’s the fact that the Intel Compute stick is a full blown Windows 10 operating computer that is about the very size as a pack of gum. Now, there are other products on the market that harness similar technology in this micro shape factor relish the Roku or Chromecast, but these devices utilize their own proprietary software, and the scope of what they can actually accomplish, is very narrow. You almost beget to hold it in your palm and expend it for a shrimp while before it really sinks in on how advanced this thing really is.
Installation and initial startup were extremely intuitive. The Compute stick plugs into the HDMI port of your TV or monitor and you provide it with power using the power cable they conveniently provided you with. In the Compute Stick’s first boot up, it was immediately able to recognize my wireless media keyboard, which for me, was the Microsoft each and every In One Media Keyboard, and I was gently ushered through your typical Windows 10 setup menus. After no more than 10 minutes from when I plugged it each and every in, it booted into the OS, and I was soon free to explore. I was very jubilant to perceive that there was virtually no bloatware to exist found, not that it would exist wise to bog down a PC this diminutive anyways with frivolous programs. After just a few days of use, and only installing programs relish Google Chrome and Steam, the C drive only had 12 Gb left of the 32 Gb that it had total, before the operating system. If you are a person who would exist using this device heavily, it would really exist wise to invest in some major cloud storage. There is a micro SD slot on the device, as well, so that you can expend for expanded physical storage space, if you are not a fan of the cloud.
In my testing, the Intel Compute Stick performed very well in nearly everything I tried to enact with it. It was able to sprint everything in the Microsoft Office Suite, Photoshop, and, most importantly for me, ran very smooth as a remote desktop interface to my primary desktop… sort of. While the compute stick does brag a dual troupe wireless internet card, I had a difficult time getting a solid signal in my house, even in the exact very spot where my Roku and Chromecast would travail perfectly. With optimal signal, I was able to stream DOOM from my primary PC to the Compute Stick and it looked really antiseptic and the controls had virtually no lag. moving the Stick a few rooms over was another yarn entirely. Streaming DOOM was extremely choppy, Street Fighter V was playable, but it didn’t survey very good. To exist completely honest, streaming games that are that graphically intensive is a huge task for any streaming device. Games relish Castle Crashers, Nidhogg, and freedom Planet each and every worked perfectly, and looked awesome, even from across the house. I pushed the Compute Stick to its remote streaming limits, and from a gamer’s perspective, it really did impress me, under pattern Wi-Fi circumstances. If you live in a larger house, though, and intend on trying to expend the Compute Stick to enact some remote PC gaming, you will likely need to invest in either some edifying Wi-Fi extenders, or utilize one of your USB slots for a USB-to-network adapter.
What’s in the Box?
Typical of Intel, the retail packaging is satiny and without much wasted space. The size of the box is much more than what you would hope to see, housing a CPU, and not a complete PC. Included were the yardstick safety and precautions paperwork that comes with everything these days, as well as the basic Intel Compute Stick user manual, that I enact recommend reading before setup, just so you know how to secure your configuration and wireless peripherals working correctly the first time without having to backtrack. Thankfully, there is also an HDMI male-to-female dongle adapter, which is a necessity for people who don’t beget much scope on your HDMI TV ports, or beget any port obstructions from a wall mount. They were also generous enough to include not only the wall wart, but also each and every of the different wall adapters, based on whatever region you live in. final and most importantly in the box is the computer, itself.
The computer is powered by the aforementioned wall wart, which connects to the Compute Stick via micro USB plug-in. There is one blue USB port for USB 3.0 and one black port for USB 2.0, a physical power button, and a mini-SD slot to expand on the 32 Gb of physical remembrance that comes stock with the computer.
Processor: Intel Atom x5-Z8300 (2M Cache, Up to 1.8 GHz)
Storage: 32 GB
Memory: 2 GB DDR3L-1600
Graphics: Intel Integrated
Intel Wireless 802.11ac w/ Bluetooth 4.0
Check The Complete Specs HERE
I deem that the Intel Compute Stick is damn impressive. The most difficult thing for me – when trying to review it – is imagining who this device is for. It’s a shrimp too expensive and less user-friendly when trying to justify using it as an alternative to the Roku or Chromecast. While its shape factor is incredibly diminutive and portable, it’s not quite powerful enough to compete with a solid productivity tablet or netbook. From a pure consumer standpoint, this is something that is really icy , but I wouldn’t necessarily recommend it to my mom and dad, due to the level of distress it takes to maintain it. Windows updates, the potential for viruses, needing to hold a wireless keyboard handy, they each and every require the user to exist pretty technical. On the other hand, in the industry and professional settings this thing is astonishing. Setting this thing up to sprint simple programming macros, slideshows for the television of your diminutive industry lobby, or performing presentations at a conference are just the tip of the iceberg of what this thing is capable of. This thing is a Swiss army knife of functionality. While many of its functions can exist done by other products in a more focused capacity- and enact them arguably better- the Intel Compute Stick can noiseless secure the job done, as well as a dozen other jobs you might not even know you necessity it to enact yet. Plus, its diminutive enough to wear around your neck!
The STK1AW32SC Intel Compute Stick was provided to Nerd Reactor for this review by Intel
On the first day of October, Joanna Rutkowska comes with news about the release and immediate availability for download of the final build of the Qubes 3.0 Linux kernel-based computer operating system.
According to the announcement, Qubes 3.0 is a major release that brings a host of unique features, under-the-hood improvements, and bugfixes, each and every in order to hold the Qubes OS distribution reliable, stable, and useful to users worldwide. The unique version is now based on HAL (Hypervisor Abstraction Layer), which lets Qubes OS developers to switch the underlying hypervisors more easily, even at installation time.
Furthermore, Qubes OS 3.0 updates the Xen open-source hypervisor software to version 4.4, a release that introduces better hardware champion and performance, optimizes the performance of the Qubes' qrexec framework for inter-VM services, adds the officially supported Debian templates, and integrates the Whonix templates for optimizing TOR workflows.
"About 5 months after the initial release of Qubes 3.0-rc1, we're now releasing the final 3.0 today," says Joanna Rutkowska. "As previously announced earlier this summer, they beget decided to dedicate this release of Qubes OS to the remembrance of Caspar Bowden. Caspar has been a supercilious user, supporter, and advocate for Qubes OS, and also a friend. I deem he would beget liked that dedication."Qubes 3.1 coming at the quit of the month
The Qubes OS developers inform us that no unique features beget been added since the release of the first RC (Release Candidate) build of Qubes 3.0, five months ago. Only faultfinding bugs beget been squashed and various core components optimized. Qubes 3.0 is dedicated to Caspar Bowden, a British privacy advocate, formerly chief privacy adviser at Microsoft.
In some happier news, the first point release of Qubes 3 is scheduled for deployment at the quit of the month, bringing more unique features, such as UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) support, a Live USB edition, as well as the expansive killer feature: pre-configuration and management stack. In the meantime, you can download Qubes 3.0 perquisite now from Softpedia.
Accurate and dependable timing and synchronization can exist an enabler of diverse unique applications in datacenters. Accurate clocks across different nodes acquire workable key functions relish consistency, event ordering, causality and the scheduling of tasks and resources with precise timing. In this article the authors select a close survey at scalable and traceable time for datacenters using GNSS and White Rabbit.
In finance and e-commerce, clock synchronization is crucial for determining transaction order: a trading platform needs to match bids and offers in the order in which they were placed, even if they entered the trading platform from different gateways. In distributed databases, accurate clock synchronization allows a database to invoke external consistency and improves the throughput and latency of the database.
NTP, the common clock synchronization protocol via internet, is cheap and effortless to deploy, but its accuracy is typically in the millisecond range. The Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) provides an accuracy of around 100 ns in a local, fully “PTP-enabled” network. If the network hardware is not fully PTP-enabled, synchronization accuracy can debase by a factor of 1,000. Both NTP and PTP execute poorly under lofty network load.
White Rabbit (WR) is a collaborative project for the progress of a unique Ethernet-based technology to ensure sub-nanosecond synchronization and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the progress of its hardware, gateware and software components. Core hardware designs and source code are publicly available.
In this article they argue the combined usage of GNSS and WR for timing and synchronization in datacenters. The topics of GNSS-to-WR phase alignment and GNSS calibration are addressed. An oversight budget is also developed to champion traceability analysis from the timing solution at the user quit node to a reference time scale such as UTC.White Rabbit and its Integration with GNSS
The WR project was initiated at CERN in 2008 to synchronize different processes in its particle accelerator network. One of the main aims of the project is to deliver such functionality while using – or extending where needed – existing standards. To achieve sub-nanosecond synchronization WR utilizes Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) for syntonization (frequency transfer), and IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) to communicate time. A two-way exchange of the PTP synchronization messages allows precise adjustment of clock phase and offset. The link retard is known precisely via accurate hardware timestamps and the calculation of retard asymmetry. WR extends PTP in a backwards-compatible passage to achieve sub-ns accuracy. WR was originally conceived for synchronization of more than 1,000 nodes via fiber or copper connections of up to 10 km, but coverage of longer distances has been already achieved.
Figure 1 shows the layout of a typical WR network. Data-wise it is a yardstick Ethernet switched network, i.e., it follows a typical Ethernet tree or ring topology where any node can talk to any other node according to IP address and network protocol mechanisms. Regarding synchronization, there is a hierarchy established by the fact that switches beget downlink and uplink ports and a master/slave relationship. A switch uses its downlink ports to connect to uplink ports of other switches and discipline their time. The uppermost WR switch in the hierarchy is usually called the “grandmaster”. The grandmaster receives its notion of time through external One Pulse Per Second (1PPS) and 10-MHz inputs. In this article they will assume that the top-level timing signals achieve from a GNSS receiver.
A reform phase alignment between GNSS and WR timing signals is essential for an unbiased and deterministic time distribution downstream. A typical GNSS receiver provides the time reference through its output 1PPS signal. The output 10-MHz frequency signal from GNSS “follows” the 1PPS coherently, i.e., the derivative of the 1PPS phase in time is consistent with the output frequency. However the phase relationship between the two signals is normally arbitrary. This is depicted in motif 2, where B represents the rising edge of the 1PPS signal (which actually determines the time), and A represents the nearest zero-crossing of the 10-MHz frequency signal. The time dissimilarity A-B is not deterministic and can change after receiver power cycles and possibly also after GNSS signal interruptions.
Furthermore, a typical WR grandmaster uses as main reference its input 10-MHz frequency and “locks” onto it continuously. The input 1PPS is only used at start-up to determine the nearest zero-crossing of the input frequency signal. Afterwards, the 1PPS is no longer used. Thus the time inception for WR is actually the initial zero-crossing of the input frequency signal, not the input 1PPS. This can result in a synchronization oversight between GNSS and WR of up to 50 ns (half the 10-MHz wavelength).
To overcome this problem, they beget developed a unique device (called “DOWR”) that integrates seamlessly a GNSS receiver and a WR grandmaster. The GNSS receiver is based on an industrial single-frequency GPS chip. The DOWR incorporates a novel system to continuously align the WR phase to the 1PPS from GNSS, using a dedicated FPGA module (shown in motif 3). In this passage the unknown phase relationship between the 1PPS and 10-MHz signals from GNSS becomes irrelevant. A diminutive residual mis-alignment between the GNSS and WR 1PPS signals remains after applying this scheme. This offset is constant after start-up, and is strictly bounded within ± 1 ns.
GNSS Timing and its Calibration
GNSS timing receivers generate a precise 1PPS timing signal aligned to GNSS system time or to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) as disseminated by GNSS. In the case of GPS, system time is called GPS Time (GPSt), and GPS’ dissemination of UTC is based on UTC(USNO), which is the UTC realization from the U.S. Naval Observatory. In a very simplified explanation, a GPS receiver estimates the instantaneous receiver clock jaundice (i.e., the clock offset versus GPSt or UTC) from its PVT solution using pseudoranges and navigation messages. The receiver then advances or delays electronically its internal clock signal accordingly in order to generate a 1PPS signal aligned to GPSt or UTC.
GNSS calibration is a well-established practice inside the metrological community. Indeed, the GNSS signal experiences a retard when traveling across the GNSS antenna, the antenna cable, and the receiver itself. The total retard of the chain, reflected in the output 1PPS, can achieve a few hundred ns, with the major contributor being normally the retard of the antenna cable. When using GNSS for time transfer between national UTC laboratories, the calibration of the “receiver chain” (antenna + cable + receiver) is an essential task to properly compare atomic clocks and time scales in different countries at the ns level.
GMV has recently collaborated with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) in a project called AKAL, to consolidate a procedure for absolute calibration of time-transfer GNSS receiver chains (see Garbin, et alia, Additional Resources). Absolute calibration consists in measuring the signal delays by means of simulated signals produced by signal generators: a GNSS simulator for the receiver, and a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) for the antenna and the antenna cable. Absolute calibration of GNSS receivers has been gaining interest inside the timing community due to the low mistrust level that can exist achieved, and also due to the necessity of having a reference calibrated receiver, especially in a multi-GNSS context including the unique Galileo and BeiDou signals. The mistrust attainable from absolute calibration is in the order of 1 ns for the all chain.
The absolute calibration of the antenna in AKAL is done in the Compact Antenna Test purview (CATR) at ESA/ESTEC, shown in motif 4, thus benefiting from a large anechoic chamber. For the emitting antenna, a yardstick Gain Horn (SGH) antenna is used. The calibration of the retard of the sole SGH is done by means of using two identical SGHs and halving the resulting delay.
Regarding the GNSS receiver itself, absolute calibration is done by means of a GNSS signal simulator, where one can liquidate each and every atmospheric effects, as well as any multipath and environmental interference, and one can generate signals synchronized with the very clock being fed to the receiver. The output signal of the GNSS simulator needs first to exist calibrated to estimate with low mistrust the retard of the incoming signal in the receiver.
The calibration of antenna cables is usually not cumbersome. Their retard can exist easily measured by means of a time interval counter, injecting a 1PPS signal at one cable end, and recording the dissimilarity with the output 1PPS from the other cable end. The attainable mistrust is well below the ns, and is only slightly less accurate than using more sophisticated gear such as a VNA.
Unlike metrological time transfer, in industrial GNSS timing applications the calibration of the receiver chain is often ignored. This can lead to timing biases of up to a few hundred ns. Unlike time-transfer receivers, industrial receivers enact not normally beget connectors for an external reference clock (frequency and 1PPS inputs), only the output 1PPS signal derived from GNSS is accessible (generated from an internal, inexpensive clock). A simplified passage to calibrate an industrial receiver chain is by measuring the time dissimilarity between its output 1PPS and the 1PPS from the reference clock of a UTC timing laboratory. In 2017, two such receiver chains were sent by GMV for calibration using this system to PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt), the German national metrology institute. Each chain is composed of an industrial single-frequency GPS receiver and an inexpensive patch antenna. The calibration was based on the measured differences between the 1PPS generated by the receivers (i.e., GPSt as determined by the receiver from pseudorange measurements) and the 1PPS of UTC(PTB), the German realization of UTC. The calibration mistrust reported by PTB is 2.5 ns, which takes into account the mistrust in the dissimilarity between UTC(PTB) and the GPSt generated by the receiver’s 1PPS, and also the errors in the GPS solution (mainly the residual ionospheric error).
UTC laboratories enact not always proffer such calibration services to the general users. An alternative is to expend an existing absolutely calibrated receiving chain as a reference for the industrial receiver, and measuring the time dissimilarity between their output 1PPS signals. The circumstantial procedure is explained in the following paragraphs. To define and test the procedure they beget used as reference an absolutely calibrated receiving chain. They therefore first calibrated a “golden” time-transfer receiver chain, following the AKAL procedure at the ESTEC laboratory, and measuring the antenna, receiver, and antenna cable delays separately. The golden chain was then installed back at GMV. As a target receiver chain they beget used one of the two chains calibrated at PTB in 2017. In this passage they can compare the results of the two independent calibration methods. They installed the golden and target antennas on GMV’s rooftop, as shown in motif 5. The circumstantial setup is sketched in motif 6. The delays of the two antenna cables involved were measured beforehand using a time interval counter.
Precise coordinates were calculated for each antenna using real-time kinematic (RTK). They configured the two GPS receivers’ PVT in an identical passage (as far as workable given that they are different models), i.e., fixed position, GPS-only using C1 code, 5-degree altitude mask, Klobuchar model, and the 1PPS aligned to GPSt. In this passage the output 1PPS signals from the two receivers should match except for a jaundice due to the different chain delays, and snappy variations due to the relative 1PPS generation mistrust (“jitter”), which are assumed to exist zero on incurious and thus not adding a calibration oversight as long as a data span of enough duration is used.
The combined retard of antenna plus receiver in the target chain is first measured (A+B in motif 6, left). The time dissimilarity measured in the counter between the 1PPS of the golden chain and the 1PPS of the target chain over one hour is shown in motif 7. Notice that, as expected, the 1PPS dissimilarity is fairly stable, with a yardstick deviation of 1.8 ns due mainly to the relative jitter of the 1PPS from the two receivers. When the delays of the two antenna cables are subtracted, the resulting combined retard of antenna and receiver in the target chain (A+B) is 90 ns. This matches very well with the value measured at PTB in 2017 (90.3 ns), considering that the two methods are totally independent.
Additionally, they can measure separately the receiver-only retard of the target chain (B in motif 6, right). In order to enact this they install the golden and target receivers on a common antenna (for instance the target one) using a splitter. From the counter, a similar plot is obtained (shown on the perquisite of motif 7). The resulting retard for the target receiver (B) is 68 ns. Since the combined retard of antenna and receiver in the target chain (A+B) is 90 ns, they can conclude also that the retard of the target antenna (A) is 22 ns. A summary of the results is shown in Table 1.
The mistrust of the proposed relative calibration system is tentatively estimated to exist around 2.0 ns, derived from the nominal mistrust in the absolute calibration of the golden chain (1.5 ns in GPS C1, from AKAL). It is principal to notice that other than the absolutely calibrated golden chain, the calibration procedure of the target chain can exist carried out by means of a counter (alternatively an oscilloscope), which is inexpensive gear in comparison to absolute calibration gear (VNA and GNSS simulator). Furthermore, once a target receiver chain has been calibrated in factory by the proposed method, it can exist used as reference to calibrate additional chains using the very relative procedure.
Testing GPS in Combination with White Rabbit
Once the receiver chain has been calibrated, they can input the total retard by configuration in the GPS receiver in order to obtain an output 1PPS signal free of delays. This feature, together with the GPS-to-WR auto-alignment described above, allows the distribution of unbiased timing signals aligned to a known reference (GPSt or UTC) throughout the datacenter. In order to test the time generation and distribution capabilities of GPS combined with WR, they beget set up a testing platform at GMV, shown in motif 8. A schema of the setup is depicted in motif 9.
In their setup, the timing signals are generated by the newly developed GPS and WR grandmaster (the DOWR), which is connected to a patch GPS antenna on GMV’s rooftop. The receiver is configured to process GPS only, using an accurate fixed position calculated beforehand, and generating a 1PPS aligned to GPSt.
The DOWR is connected in cascade to two WR switches called LENs, using a 1-km optical fiber spool in the first hop, and a 1-m optical fiber segment in the second hop. The DOWR and the LENs provide through a SMA connector the 1PPS generated from WR. The interface between the hardware units and the optical fiber is done through SFP transceivers. A counter is then used to measure the time dissimilarity between the original 1PPS from the DOWR and the final 1PPS from the second LEN. The test setup in installed in a yardstick office, and no particular scope temperature control is in place.
An instance of the results over one day can exist found in motif 10, where “WR0” and “WR2” bespeak the 1PPS from the DOWR and the 1PPS from the second LEN, respectively. As can exist seen, the results exhibit a nearly constant jaundice of 0.7 ns and an extremely low pandemonium (standard deviation of 33 ps). The leisurely long-term variation is most likely due to gear thermal stabilization and temperature variations in the office. The 0.7-ns jaundice is deterministic and depends mainly on the ilk and property of the SFPs, on the number of WR hops, and on the total length of optical fiber.
For a limited number of WR hops (<10) and a limited total length of optical fiber (<10 km), they beget observed that the total oversight in the WR time distribution never exceeds 1 ns. This allows a scalable, sub-ns distribution of timing across multiple servers in the datacenter.
In addition to the WR-derived 1PPS that is distributed downstream, the DOWR outputs through another SMA connector (“AUX”) the autochthonous 1PPS signal from GPS. This allows measuring the initial misalignment between the two signals. They beget carried out an additional experiment to study the sensitivity of the initial misalignment to power cycles. The DOWR was switched off and on 10 times, and the incurious offset between its two 1PPS signals (native from GPS and WR-derived) was measured by means of a counter. Notice that a DOWR power cycle implies a complete reacquisition of the GPS signals and a restart of the PVT algorithm. The results exhibit that the GPS-to-WR misalignment fluctuates around zero and is bounded within ± 1 ns, with a resulting yardstick deviation of 0.5 ns.
Time Traceability and oversight Budget
Metrological and legal traceability require an “unbroken chain of calibrations that relate to a reference, with each calibration having a documented measurement uncertainty” (see Matsakis, et alia, Additional Resources). In the realm of GPS timing they can deem two well-established references: GPSt and UTC. While GPSt is a real-time time scale available directly from the GPS signals, UTC should exist understood as the official UTC maintained by the BIPM, which is only available a posteriori in the Circular T. In the definition of traceability above, “calibration” should exist understood in their case as each individual contributor or oversight source in the all time generation and distribution chain (i.e., GPS and WR errors).
The resulting oversight budget is shown in Table 2 and is justified in the following paragraphs. Notice that each mistrust is evaluated at a 1-sigma (68.3%) level of confidence, and that the value generically indicates the combined stochastic (“noise”) and deterministic (“bias”) uncertainty. Constant scope temperature is assumed.
For the GPS part, the first factor to deem is whether the receiver is single-frequency (i.e., L1) or dual-frequency (i.e., L1/ L2). Although the DOWR is based on a single-frequency receiver, they develop an oversight budget for dual-frequency GPS too, for completeness. The main handicap of using dual-frequency GPS is that the ionospheric oversight in the pseudorange cancels out completely when using the well-known iono-free pseudorange combination. As a downside to this, the receiver pandemonium and multipath error, and to a lesser extent the residual calibration error, are amplified in the GPS iono-free combination.
Our GPS oversight budget is based on the well-established concept of User purview oversight (URE). The URE is the mistrust in the pseudorange and includes errors from the satellite control segment such as orbit and clock, as well as atmospheric propagation effects, multipath, and user gear noise. It is reasonable to model these errors as being uncorrelated, and the aggregate URE can exist defined as the Root-Sum-Square (RSS) of these individual components. A recent revision of global GPS URE values can exist found in the paper by Reid, et alia in Additional Resources. They beget adapted slightly these values for their analysis, which is done directly in ns instead of meters. In single-frequency GPS, the residual ionospheric oversight is the oversight remaining in the pseudorange after applying the Klobuchar ionospheric model. It is very difficult to give a sole value for this oversight since it depends very strongly on the solar activity, on the time of the day, and on the user location. They beget chosen 4 ns as a typical value, as reported by Reid et alia, but this should exist taken with caution. The tropospheric oversight is the oversight remaining in the pseudorange after applying a recognized model such as MOPS. Regarding the receiver pandemonium and multipath error, they beget decided to reduce the value given by Reid et alia (again, perceive Additional Resources) to 30 cm (i.e., 1 ns), which they believe is more representative of modern receivers, and also in order to cover the possibility of pseudorange smoothing using the carrier. In the case of dual-frequency GPS, they multiply the single-frequency pandemonium and multipath by 3, the iono-free amplification factor in GPS L1/L2.
We beget additionally included the contribution of Timing Group retard (TGD) errors. The broadcast GPS orbits and clocks are computed by the ground control system using the P1/P2 iono-free combination. If the user receiver is single-frequency, the broadcast TGD for each satellite must exist added to the broadcast satellite clock in order to align it to the P1 pseudorange. In their oversight budget they assume a TGD mistrust of 1.5 ns, which includes workable errors in the broadcast TGDs (see again Garbin, et alia) and also a workable want of scholarship about the C1-P1 satellite jaundice (which is only broadcast in the unique CNAV message of GPS).
In GPS positioning, the user position oversight is the combination of several factors, namely, the URE, the number of satellites in view, and the user-satellite geometry. The case of GPS timing is fairly different since most timing receivers allow to “fix” the antenna position to a pre-computed value, and thus a minimum of just one satellite is required to estimate the receiver clock bias. For simplicity, in their oversight budget calculation they will assume a “minimum timing scenario” with fixed position and only one GPS satellite in view, thus the URE projects directly into a time error. In this scenario there is no degradation in the time oversight due to position calculation, but there is also no improvement in the time oversight from the usage of several satellites. They assume an antenna 3D position oversight of 30 cm (1 ns) in single-frequency and 3 cm (0.1 ns) in dual-frequency. This position accuracy can exist obtained offline using for instance Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing a raw measurement batch of 1-day duration. Also, they will assume that the instantaneous oversight in the receiver clock jaundice estimation from GPS translates directly into a 1PPS error, although this could exist smoothed out using a stable receiver clock and a suitable steering algorithm.
Additional effects associated to the GPS receiver are taken into account such as a workable jitter on its output 1PPS (1.5 ns), and a residual oversight in the GPS calibration: 2.0 ns in single-frequency (C1), and 3.0 ns in dual-frequency (P1/P2). For the WR part, they include the initial misalignment between the GPS and WR 1PPS signals, and the time distribution oversight along a typical WR chain (0.5 ns and 1 ns, respectively, as explained in the previous section).
The oversight in the UTC distributed by GPS in its navigation message is considered as the final contribution, so that they can resolve separately the case when the user selects GPSt as a reference and the case when UTC is used. The UTC oversight is actually composed of two parts: the first fragment is derived from the fact that the UTC realization used by GPS, i.e., UTC(USNO), actually deviates from the official UTC published by the BIPM; the second fragment is due to the prediction oversight of UTC(USNO) relative to GPSt, as contained in the GPS navigation message. They estimate the combined UTC mistrust to exist 3 ns.
All the errors described above can exist considered as uncorrelated, so the aggregate total oversight can exist calculated as the RSS of the individual oversight sources. As a result, they obtain the total time oversight at the WR quit node, using a single-frequency or a dual-frequency GPS receiver, and using GPSt or UTC as reference (see rows N and P in Table 2).
It is also of interest to estimate the relative synchronization oversight between two WR quit nodes in the very datacenter. If a sole GPS receiver is used for the all datacenter, only the WR distribution oversight must exist considered (row Q). If different receivers are used in the datacenter, each and every URE errors, except the intrinsic receiver pandemonium and multipath, can exist considered very similar (because of the very geographical location) and cancel out between receivers, and only pandemonium and multipath, non-URE GPS errors, and WR-related errors must exist considered (row R).
Finally, they can estimate the relative synchronization oversight between two WR quit nodes in two part datacenters located anywhere in the world (row S). In this case they can deem each and every the errors described above as uncorrelated between the two sites, except the UTC error, which is common to each and every sites, since the predicted offset of UTC to GPSt is a global model transmitted by the constellation. When using UTC as reference, the UTC oversight cancels out between the two sites, thus the synchronization oversight between the two sites is the very one as when using GPSt as reference.
In each and every cases (intra-datacenter and inter-datacenter) they assume that the very ilk of receiver (single-frequency or dual-frequency) and the very time reference (GPSt or UTC) is used everywhere.
By accurately calibrating the GPS receiver chain and seamlessly integrating the GPS and White Rabbit timing signals, they are able to divide the timing from GPS via WR with a degradation of just around 1 ns over 1 km. Using single-frequency GPS, and considering each and every GPS and WR errors, they are able to timestamp (and therefore synchronize) any server inside a datacenter with a typical oversight smaller than 10 ns (at 1 sigma) versus UTC. Furthermore, given the ubiquity of GPS, the approach can exist applied to datacenters at any location in the world. Assuming uncorrelated errors between part sites, they can establish that any pair of servers in the world can exist synchronized to each other with a typical oversight also smaller than 10 ns (at 1 sigma). This is particularly enthralling to guarantee the consistency and transaction ordering of distributed databases and fiscal trading engines.
The usage of dual-frequency GPS for timing is not extremely advantageous. The ionospheric oversight cancels out completely using dual-frequency, but the receiver pandemonium and multipath oversight gets amplified by a factor of 3 in the iono-free combination. Also, the residual GPS calibration oversight is roughly doubled in the iono-free combination, depending on the calibration technique employed. In consequence, in temper solar activity the typical single-frequency timing mistrust is only slightly larger than the dual-frequency one. This conclusion should exist taken with caution since the instantaneous ionospheric oversight could exist much larger depending on the solar activity, on the time of the day, and on the user location.
The golden GNSS receiver chain absolutely calibrated is composed of a multi-frequency Septentrio PolaRx5TR time-transfer receiver, and a multi-band Leica AR20 choke-ring geodetic-type antenna.
The LEN is a WR switch and quit node developed by Seven Solutions. The DOWR is a unique GPS and WR grandmaster device developed jointly by Seven Solutions and GMV, based on the LEN platform.
The DOWR and the two receiver chains calibrated at PTB in 2017 incorporate the single-frequency (L1) LEA-M8F receiver from u-blox, connected to a single-band Tallysman TW2710 patch antenna.
The time interval counter used at GMV is a Keysight 53230A providing 20-ps resolution.
1. Garbin, E., P. Defraigne, P. Krystek, R. Píriz, B. Bertrand, P. Waller, “Absolute calibration of GNSS timing stations and its applicability to actual signals”, Metrologia, Volume 56, Number 1, 14 December 2018
2. Matsakis, D., J. Levine, M. Lombardi, “Metrological and Legal Traceability of Time Signals”, Proceedings of the 49th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications Meeting, Reston, Virginia, January 2018, pp. 59-71
3. Reid, T. G. R. , A. M. Neish, T. Walter, P.K. Enge, “Broadband LEO Constellations for Navigation”, J Inst Navig, 65: 205–220, 2018
4. Serrano, J., M. Cattin, E. Gousiou, E. van der Bij, T. Włostowski, G. Daniluk, M. Lipinski,, “The White Rabbit Project”, IBIC 2013
Ricardo Píriz is an aeronautical engineer from the Polytechnic University of Madrid. He started his career as a Flight Dynamics engineer in the Precise Orbit Determination group at ESOC, the European Space Operations focus in Darmstadt, Germany. Later on he moved to Eutelsat in Paris, as a Mission Analysis engineer in the Satellite Procurement Division. Since 2001 he has been in the GNSS industry Unit of GMV working on several projects, in particular in the GIOVE Mission (the experimental phase of Galileo), and in the Galileo Time Validation Facility (TVF). He is currently Leader of the GNSS Time & Frequency Group.
Esteban Garbin is an Electronics and Telecommunication engineer who got his Ph. D. from Politecnico di Torino in 2017. His research studies focused mainly on GNSS receivers and signal processing algorithms, particularly for interference and spoofing detection and mitigation. Since June 2017 he has been working for GMV, focusing on different aspects in the GNSS Advanced User Segment solutions division, mainly developing novel concepts on GNSS timing and receivers.
Javier Díaz received the M.S. degree in electronics engineering and the Ph. D. degree in electronics from the University of Granada, Spain, in 2002 and 2006, respectively. He is currently an Associate Professor with the Department of Computer Architecture and Technology, University of Granada. His current interests include high-performance image processing architectures, safety-critical systems, highly accurate time synchronization, and frequency distribution techniques. He is also co-founder of Seven Solutions, a leading company in White Rabbit technology based in Granada, Spain.
Pascale Defraigne is Project Leader at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. She completed her PhD in Physics at the Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium, in 1995, for studies on mantle convection and deformations of the Earth internal boundaries. She then moved to the Royal Observatory of Belgium to start research activities on GNSS time and frequency transfer. Her research activities include remote atomic clock comparisons, time scale generation, and ionospheric sounding based on GNSS measurements. She is deeply involved in the progress and upgrade of the Galileo System for each and every what concerns the Galileo System Time. Among her involvement in international bodies, she assured the Presidency of the Commission 31 “TIME” of the International Astronomical Union (2006-2009) and since 2012 assures the Chair of the CCTF Working Group on GNSS Time Transfer (CCTF being the Consultative Committee for Time and Frequency, sub-committee of the International Committee for Weights and Measurements). She also is a member of the GNSS Science Advisory Committee of the European Space Agency since 2012.
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AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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