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920-331 Communication Server 1000 Rls. 5.0 Database Administrator

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920-331 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 5.0 Database Administrator

Test Code : 920-331
Test title : Communication Server 1000 Rls. 5.0 Database Administrator
Vendor title : Nortel
: 55 real Questions

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Nortel Communication Server 1000 Rls.

Microsoft-Nortel espy Unified Communications features | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

information

Microsoft-Nortel espy Unified Communications features
  • by Kurt Mackie
  • 07/18/2007
  • A one-12 months-historical partnership between Microsoft and Nortel on unified communications know-how, accepted because the inventive Communications Alliance , is demeanor fruit. the two organizations introduced this week that they Have got offered more than 430,000 joint-solutions licenses to this point.

    The Alliance currently gained three newfangled consumers as smartly, together with Indiana school, U.okay.-based Worcestershire health suggestions and Communications expertise functions, and an IT and telephony company called 4ward.

    Microsoft and Nortel formed the imaginitive Communications Alliance in July of remaining yr with the goal of offering unified communications solutions to agencies. beneath the Alliance, the corporations initiated joint analysis and construction efforts. They furthermore created customer demonstration facilities and engaged in joint earnings and advertising.

    within the Alliance's preparatory press unencumber, Jeff Raikes, Microsoft's company Division president, stated that the joint unified communications solution would enable a "single identity across email, voice mail, voice over internet protocol (VoIP) call processing, immediate messaging and video."

    The Alliance's principal product is known as Nortel Converged office, a unified communications system that integrates Nortel's VoIP telephony gadget with Microsoft's server know-how.

    The leading components of Converged workplace encompass:

  • Microsoft office Communicator 2005 elegant customer
  • Microsoft office are live Communications Server 2005, and
  • Nortel conversation Server one thousand unlock 4.5 or higher IP PBX.
  • there's furthermore a Nortel software hub allotment that helps optional capabilities, including internet integration, interactive voice response and contact middle functions.

    Unified communications receives described in a lot of methods, but according to the IEEE, it typically encompasses "unified messaging, collaboration and interaction systems." These techniques furthermore usually permit true-time and immediate precise-time communications. furthermore, blended media (voice, e mail, fax, and many others.) may furthermore exist accessed from a separate utility, impartial of the entry device.

    competitors in the unified communications region is thick with tall names. In March of this 12 months, IBM and Cisco, announced a collaborative distress on unified messaging client expertise referred to as Unified Communications and Collaboration (UC2). UC2 is in keeping with open technologies, corresponding to Eclipse construction environment and the Open capabilities Gateway Initiative framework. Citrix systems and Nokia, among others, Have expressed back for the UC2 platform.

    below the IBM-Cisco unified communications partnership, Cisco plans to sell IBM's Lotus Sametime collaboration solution and IBM plans to sell Cisco's Unified Communications supervisor, Cisco solidarity and Cisco Unified MeetingPlace products. The all unified communications own is designed and delivered through IBM global technology functions.

    about the creator

    Kurt Mackie is senior information producer for the 1105 business Computing neighborhood.


    VoIP certification tracks - Nortel's back certifications | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    As mentioned in a faded tip, businesses are imposing IP telephony greater generally on their statistics infrastructures. The increased deployment has created a exigency for licensed IP telephony engineers to supply confirmed, most suitable-of-breed technology.

    The IP telephony certifications Nortel presently presents are divided into 4 classes: assist specialist, Design professional, champion professional, and Design skilled. This tip discusses the Nortel back tune.

    guide specialist

    The aid professional certifications are intended to exhibit an individual's means to set aside into effect, operate, and troubleshoot a Nortel Networks IP Telephony answer. The back specialist certification displays a candidate with three to six months of suffer that may address activities technical issues of a typical Nortel IP Telephony answer.

    NNCSS - VoIP Succession BCM 3.0

    This certification assessments the means to set aside into effect, function, and troubleshoot the business Communications manager 3.0. This certification covers hardware, beginning-up, facts and voice networking, purposes, and troubleshooting the BCM. To tide the certification, two tests Have to exist effectively completed: technology requirements and Protocols for IP Telephony options, and Succession BCM 3.0. The expertise necessities and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions examination is an outline of convergence technologies.

    NNCSS - CallPilot Rls. 2.0

    This certification exams the skill to set aside in force, function, and troubleshoot the VoIP CallPilot 2.0. This certification covers hardware, administration, interoperability with Meridian 1 switches, and safety of a separate web site CallPilot gadget. To pass the certification, two assessments must exist efficaciously achieved: Meridian Database and CallPilot 2.0.

    NNCSS - Symposium call middle Server or Symposium title hub Server installing and protection

    These two certifications check the capability to set aside in force, operate, and troubleshoot the Symposium call hub Server. each certifications cowl hardware, software installation, administration, and maintenance of Symposium call hub Server four.2, Symposium web customer 4.0, and Symposium express 3.0. however, the Symposium call core Server certification furthermore checks the structure, customized configuration and integration of the server. To tide both of these certifications, one examination exigency to exist efficiently achieved: Symposium call core or Symposium call core setting up and maintenance, respectively.

    NNCSS - Symposium title core TAPI/Agent or title hub TAPI/Agent installation and protection

    These two certifications test the capability to enforce, function, and troubleshoot the Symposium call core TAPI/Agent. both certifications cover hardware, application installing, administration, and maintenance of Symposium TAPI 2.3 and Symposium Agent 2.three. however, the Symposium call middle TAPI/Agent certification furthermore assessments the architecture, integration, and custom configuration of the TAPI/Agent. To pass either of these certifications, one exam must exist correctly completed: Symposium call middle TAPI/Agent or Symposium title middle TAPI/Agent Inst/leading, respectively.

    NNCSS - Symposium categorical title core or Symposium categorical title middle setting up and protection

    These certifications test the skill to set aside into effect, function, and troubleshoot the Symposium express call center. both certifications cowl hardware, software installing, administration, and renovation of Symposium categorical call hub 4.2. besides the fact that children, the Symposium express call middle certification furthermore checks the structure and integration of the call middle. To tide both of the certifications, one exam must exist efficiently achieved: Symposium specific call middle or Symposium specific call hub Inst and Maint respectively.

    NNCSS - VoIP Multimedia conversation Server (MCS) 5100 2.0

    This certification exams the capability to set aside into effect, function, and troubleshoot the VoIP Multimedia verbal exchange Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. This certification covers installation of the hardware and software, configuration, maintenance, and management of the Multimedia communique Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. To scamper the certification, two checks exigency to exist correctly achieved: know-how standards and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions, and VoIP Multimedia communication Server (MCS) 5100 2.0. The technology standards and Protocols for IP Telephony options examination is an outline of convergence technologies.

    NNCSS - VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 DB Administrator

    This certification tests the capacity to preserve and troubleshoot the VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 DB Administrator. This certification covers the structure, configuration, preservation, and management of the Meridian 1, Succession 1000 Rls. three.0, and Succession 1000M Rls. three.0 the usage of basic Alternate Route option (BARS) and network Alternate Route alternative (NARS). To tide the certification, two checks must exist correctly accomplished: know-how necessities and Protocols for IP Telephony solutions, and Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 DB Administrator.

    NNCSS - VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 installation and protection

    This certification tests the capability to set up, configure, and maintain the VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0. This certification covers the setting up, structure, configuration, maintenance, and management of the Meridian 1, Succession a thousand Rls. three.0, and Succession 1000M Rls. 3.0, internet Telephones i2xxx, and Optivity Telephony manager (OTM) 2.1. To tide the certification, three exams should exist successfully accomplished: expertise necessities and Protocols for IP Telephony options, and Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0 for Technicians, and Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. 3.0.

    guide professional

    The assist expert certifications construct on the professional's capabilities via demonstrating their skill to enforce, operate, and troubleshoot an superior Nortel Networks IP Telephony answer. The usher professional certifications mirror a candidate with six to 12 months of arms-on adventure with the means to usher or assist intermediate-degree personnel to retain complicated Nortel IP Telephony options.

    NNCSE - CallPilot 2.0 Unified Messaging options

    This certification tests the skill to set aside into effect, operate, troubleshoot and optimize the VoIP CallPilot Unified Messaging solution 2.0. This certification covers the installation, administration, interoperability, protection, upgrade techniques and feature utilization for a multi web page CallPilot device. To scamper the certification, the candidate ought to first achieve their NNCSS - CallPilot Rls. 2.0. as a result, the CallPilot 2.0 Unified Messaging options should exist efficiently completed to acquire this certification.

    NNCSE - Contact center

    This certification assessments the capacity to implement, function, troubleshoot and optimize the Contact core products. This certification covers the candidate's capabilities on the Symposium call middle Server (SCCS)/Symposium categorical call middle/Symposium net customer, Symposium TAPI provider company (TAPI SP), Symposium Agent, and the Symposium internet core Portal. To tide the certification, the candidate exigency to first acquire their NNCSS - Symposium call core Server and the NNCSS - Symposium title middle TAPI/Agent certification. as a result, the Contact core exam Have to exist correctly completed to obtain this certification.

    NNCSE - IP Convergence Succession 1000/1000M Rls. 3.0

    This certification checks the capacity to installation, configure, keep, and optimize the VoIP Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0. This certification covers the configuration, succession fork workplace (BO), far off office, operation, and Meridian 1 to Succession 1000M 3.0 migration strategies for the Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0, information superhighway Telephones i2xxx, faraway office 91xx, and Optivity Telephony manager (OTM) 2.1. To pass the certification, the candidate Have to first acquire their NNCSS - VoIP Succession CSE one thousand Rls. 2.0 or the VoIP Succession one thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 setting up & maintenance certification. subsequently, one other greater complicated version of the Succession a thousand/1000M Rls. three.0 examination ought to exist efficiently achieved to achieve this certification.

    within the IT business, certifications are a means to validate someone's capabilities within a precise area. The above Nortel IP Telephony certifications are one of the crucial outfit that may demonstrate the capabilities of an IP Telephony aid professional. These certifications could not exchange years of business event, but they accomplish supply the basis to champion and control Nortel Voice over IP solutions.

    The next tip will focus on Nortel's Design IP Telephony certification song.

    Richard Parsons (CCIE#5719) is a manager of professional services for Callisma Inc., a unconditionally owned subsidiary of SBC. He has constructed an excellent groundwork in networking ideas, superior troubleshooting, and monitoring in areas corresponding to optical, ATM, VoIP, routed, routing, and storage infrastructures. prosperous resides in Atlanta GA, and is a graduate of Clemson school. His background comprises senior and essential consulting positions at international community functions, Lucent, and Callisma.


    Microsoft and Nortel present Alliance Roadmap | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    information

    Microsoft and Nortel present Alliance Roadmap
  • through Stuart J. Johnston
  • January 18, 2007
  • Six months after epigram a telecommunications alliance, Microsoft and Nortel this week introduced some early outcomes of their efforts and outlined a roadmap for future tasks.

    the two businesses first announced their collaboration remaining summer time.

    The highway map contains three newfangled joint options “to dramatically better enterprise communications by breaking down the boundaries between voice, e mail, quick messaging, multimedia conferencing and different styles of conversation,” in line with a statement by using the two corporations.

    also included in the announcement are eleven newfangled implementation functions from Nortel and the hollow of greater than 20 joint demonstration facilities the situation shoppers can event the technology, the observation continued.

    furthermore, the two agencies mentioned they Have signed agreements with dozens of purchasers, and Have developed a “pipeline of a all lot of prospects who want to recognise the merits of unified communications.”

    From Microsoft's viewpoint, it's everyone a allotment of the business's lengthy-term play to merge every benign of communications and messaging into a separate framework. A yr ago, the enterprise announced that it become merging its exchange Server community with its real-Time Collaboration (RTC) community, and that it had begun to believe of the two technologies comprising a "platform."

    the newfangled community became named the Unified Communications community (UCG) and resides in Microsoft's company Division. The theory for the newfangled community emanated from a imaginative and prescient of adding continuity to a myriad of communications gadgets, technologies and modes -- from electronic mail and rapid messaging to Voice over internet Protocol (VoIP), audio/video and web conferencing -- in a unified manner.

    The three newfangled joint options announced with the aid of the alliance this week are named Unified Communications built-in department, Unified Messaging, and Conferencing.

    When it is available within the fourth quarter, UC built-in department will comprise Nortel and Microsoft technology on a separate piece of hardware that grants VoIP and unified communications in remote offices.

    Coming a bit of prior in the 2d quarter, Unified Messaging will purpose to simplify consumer deployments, endemic session initiation protocol (SIP) interoperability between the Nortel verbal exchange Server 1000 and Microsoft change Server 2007. The own comprises Nortel skilled functions for design, deployment and assist.

    additionally coming in the fourth quarter, Conferencing will prolong Nortel Multimedia Conferencing to Microsoft workplace Communicator 2007. It aims to deliver a separate customer suffer constant across purposes akin to voice, speedy messaging, presence, and audio- and videoconferencing.

    This year, the groups furthermore diagram to extend their present unified communications solution — a unified desktop and gentle cellphone for VoIP, email, speedy messaging and presence — to the Nortel verbal exchange Server 2100, a carrier-grade enterprise telephony product aiding up to 200,000 users on a separate device, in accordance with business statements.

    As for the highway map, the two agencies Have outfitted more than 20 joint demonstration centers in North the usa, Europe and Asia, with more than one hundred further facilities scheduled to open through midyear.

    Nortel has furthermore introduced 11 core integration capabilities to back consumers build, install and aid joint unified communications solutions, including conclusion-to-conclusion assignment administration. Nortel claims it has already expert greater than 2,200 VoIP consultants to bring these features and should add greater as deployment ramps up.

    in regards to the author

    Stuart J. Johnston has lined expertise, mainly Microsoft, due to the fact February 1988 for InfoWorld, Computerworld, counsel Week, and pc World, as well as for commercial enterprise Developer, XML & internet capabilities, and .web magazines.


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    Communication Server 1000 Rls. 5.0 Database Administrator

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    Cisco Unified Communications Manager licensing | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    By: Dennis Hartmann

    Service provider takeaway: Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CUCM) is the call routing and signaling component of the Cisco Unified Communications solution. This section of the chapter excerpt from the bespeak Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager, allotment 1 will focus on licensing procedures for CUCM.

    Download the .pdf of the chapter here.

    Licensing is implemented in CUCM nascence with Release 5.0. Administration of license management is done through CUCM GUI administration, allowing accurate tracking of active device registrations compared to the license units that Have been purchased. License enforcement occurs at the time of phone provisioning and CUCM service activation.

    The publisher is the only licensing server. The licensing server is the analytic component that keeps track of the licenses purchased and the licenses used. If the publisher fails, no newfangled phones can register, and no configuration changes will exist allowed. Existing phones will continue to operate during a publisher outage.CUCM tracks the license compliance for devices, applications, and software as follows:

  • Device units licenses: The maximum number of provisioned devices in the CUCM database will exist tracked and enforced. Route points and CTI ports are not enforced.
  • Application licenses: Application licenses are required for every call-processing server running the CallManager service. Application licenses are tied to the MAC address of the network interface card (NIC) of the server.
  • Software licenses: Software licenses are tied to the major version of the software. Software licenses are required for upgrade to CUCM 6.
  • Licenses are created and distributed in accordance with the Cisco FlexLM process. Cisco product license registration is performed at https://www.cisco.com/go/license.

    These two types of product IDs are available:

  • Cisco device license units: Cisco device license units (DLU) are for Cisco devices only.
  • Third-party device license units: Third-party DLUs can exist converted to Cisco units, but not vice versa.
  • CUCM tracks the number of units required by each device, as shown in design 1-7. Each device nature corresponds to a fixed number of units. The number of DLUs consumed per device depends on the device nature and capabilities of the phone.

    The number of units required per device can exist viewed from CUCM Administration. DLUs are perpetual and device independent. design 1-7 displays the number of DLUs consumed in CUCM 6.0 by some Popular phones.

    The main components of the license file are as follows:

  • MAC address of the license server (publisher)
  • Version (major release) of the CUCM software
  • Number of node licenses (number of CUCM servers in cluster)
  • Number of DLUs
  • License files are additive. (Multiple license files can exist loaded.) The Cisco FlexLM process is used to obtain licenses, and integrity of license files is assured by a digital signature.

    When upgrading from Cisco Unified CallManager 4.x, the number of DLUs required is calculated during the CUCM migration process, and an intermediate XML file containing these license counts is generated. The number of devices and servers that are in the database at the time of migration is the basis for the number of DLUs and node licenses in the interim license file. No additional phones may exist added until the interim license file has been replaced by a real license file.

    After upgrading to CUCM 6.0(1), consume the View File option in the License File Upload window to view the intermediate XML file. Copy and paste the intermediate license file into the CUCM License Upgrade window on Cisco.com to obtain the actual license file. Upload the actual license file to the publisher (license server).

    Existing device and node licenses from CUCM 5.x can exist used in CUCM 6.x.

    Significant fields are highlighted and described as follows:

  • INCREMENT PHONE_UNIT Cisco 6.0 indicates a phone unit license file for Cisco Unified CM 6.0. There is no expiration date for this license, as indicated by the keyword permanent.
  • This license file includes 1000 license units.
  • The MAC address of the license server is 000BCD4EE59D.
  • License File Request ProcessFigure 1-8 displays the license file request process, which includes these steps:1. The customer places an order for CUCM.2. The manufacturing database scans the Product Authorization Key (PAK) and records it against the sales order.3. The product (CD or paper pretense certificate) is physically delivered to the customer.4. The customer registers the product at https://www.cisco.com/go/license or a public web page and provides the MAC address of the publisher device that will become the license server.5. The license fulfillment infrastructure validates the PAK, and the license key generator creates a license file.6. The license file is delivered via e-mail to the customer. The e-mail furthermore contains instructions on how to install the license file.7. The customer installs the license file on the license server (publisher).

    Obtaining Additional Licenses

    The process of obtaining additional DLUs and node licenses is as follows:1. The customer places an order for the additional licenses for a license server (publisherMAC address has to exist specified).2. When the order is received, Cisco.com generates a license file with the additional weigh and sends it to the customer.3. The newfangled license file has to exist uploaded to the license server and will exist cumulative.Consider this example. A CUCM server has an existing license file that contains 100 DLUs. Another 100 DLUs are purchased. The second license file that is generated will contain only 100 DLUs. When the newfangled license file with 100 DLUs is uploaded to CUCM, the 100 DLUs from the first license file are added to the devices of the second license file, resulting in a total of 200 DLUs.

    Licensing Components

    The key licensing components of CUCM licensing are the license server and the license manager.

    License Server

    The license server service runs on the publisher in the CUCM cluster and is answerable for keeping track of the licenses purchased and consumed. The MAC address of the publisher is required to generate a license file.

    License ManagerThe license manager acts as a broker between CUCM applications that consume licensing information and the license server. The license manager receives requests from the CUCM applications and forwards the requests to the license server. The license manager then responds back to the application after the request has been processed by the license server. The license manager acts a licensing proxy server.

    An administration subsystem and tocsin subsystem complete the functional diagram. Details of these two subsystems are as follows:

  • The administration subsystem provides the following capabilities:
  • Keeps information about the license units required for each phone type. The customer can view his information using a GUI.
  • Supports a GUI implement that calculates the required number of phone unit licenses. The customer inputs phone types and the number of phones of each nature that the customer wants to purchase. The output is the total number of licenses that the customer needs for the given configuration.
  • Supports a GUI implement that displays the total license capacity and the number of licenses in consume and license file details. The implement can furthermore report the number of available licenses.
  • The tocsin subsystem generates alarms that are routed to event logs or sent to a management station as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) traps to notify the administrator of the following conditions:
  • Overdraft: Occurs when an overdraft condition exists. An overdraft condition occurs when more licenses are used than available but the amount of exceeding licenses is in an acceptable range. (5 percent overdraft is permitted.)
  • License server down: Occurs when the License Manager cannot compass the license server.
  • Insufficient licenses: Occurs when the license server detects the fact that there are not adequate licenses to fulfill the request and raises an tocsin to notify the administrator.
  • Issues with the license file occur when there is a version mismatch between the license file and the CUCM (license file version mismatch alarm), or when the number of licenses in the license file is less than the number of phones provisioned (license file insufficient licenses alarm). Another understanding of this condition is an invalid MAC address (for instance, after a NIC change).

    Figure 1-9 is a functional diagram stepping through the process of a license request, as described in the list that follows:

    1. A request for a inescapable number of DLUs is made by the admin subsystem because of an event (for example, phone registration).2. The License Manager service on a CUCM subscriber forwards the request to the publisher server running the License Server service.3. The License Server service receives the license request event and allocates the required number of DLUs required based on the nature of device. If not enough license units are available to accommodate the request, a contradict message is sent back to the license manager on the subscriber server. If resources are available, the license server grants the request and sends a vouchsafe message to the license manager on the subscriber server.4. The License Manager service on the subscriber server receives the license vouchsafe or contradict message and allows the phone to register.5. If the license request was denied, the subscriber server generates an tocsin in the tocsin subsystem. The contradict message will exist available in the CUCM syslog server by default.

    Calculating License UnitsTo calculate the number of phone licenses required, succeed these steps:

    Step 1 pick System > License > License Unit Calculator. The License UnitCalculator window displays. The number of license units consumed per device and the current number of devices array as shown in design 1-10.

    Step 2 In the Number of Devices column, enter the desired number of devices, corresponding to each node or phone.

    Step 3 Click Calculate. The total number of CUCM node license units and DLUs required for specified configuration will display.

    License Unit ReportingLicense unit reports can exist elude to verify the number of licenses consumed and available for future expansion. consume the following procedure to generate a license unit report:

    Step 1 pick System > License > License Unit Report.

    Step 2 The License Unit Report window displays as shown in design 1-11. This window displays the number of phone licenses and number of node licenses, in these categories:

  • Units Authorized
  • Units Used
  • Units Remaining
  • License files (CCMxxxxx.lic) are uploaded to the publisher (license server). To upload a license file to the publisher server, succeed these steps:

    Step 1 Ensure that the license file is downloaded to a local PC.

    Step 2 From the PC and using a supported browser, log in to CUCM Administration.

    Step 3 pick System > License > License File Upload, as shown in design 1-12. The License File Upload window displays.

    Step 4 In the window shown in design 1-13, click Upload License File.

    Step 5 Click Browse to pick the license file from the local directory.

    Step 6 Click Upload.

    Step 7 After the upload process has completed, click the Continue prompt when it appears. The content of the newly uploaded license file will display.

    Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager, allotment 1  Cisco Unified Communications Manager Architecture Introduction  CUCM Overview  CUCM Hardware, Software, and Clustering  CUCM Licensing  Summary  CUCM Review Quiz

    Reproduced from the bespeak Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager, allotment 1. Copyright 2008, Cisco Systems, Inc.. Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., 800 East 96th Street, Indianapolis, IN 46240.


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    Red Hat Linux: Networking and the Internet | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    In the world of technology computer networks Have increased the efficiency and hurry of the systems and the IP has made it feasible for computers across the globe to communicate easily. Learn how these advantages can back you and how networking and Internet are used in Red Hat Linux.

    This chapter is from the bespeak 

    IN THIS CHAPTER

    Types of Networks and How They Work

    Communicate over a Network

    Network Utilities

    Distributed Computing

    Usenet

    Tutorial: Using pine as a Newsreader

    Netnews with Mozilla

    WWW: World Wide Web

    The communications facilities linking computers are continually improving, allowing faster and more economical connections. The earliest computers were unconnected stand-alone machines. To transfer information from one system to another, you had to store it in some figure (usually magnetic tape, paper tape, or punch cards—called IBM or Hollerith cards), carry it to a compatible system, and read it back in. A notable forward occurred when computers began to exchange data over serial lines, although the transfer rate was unhurried (hundreds of bits per second). People quickly invented newfangled ways to consume odds of this computing power, such as e-mail, intelligence retrieval, and bulletin board services. With the hurry of today's networks, it is balanced for a piece of e-mail to cross the country or even travel halfway around the world in a few seconds.

    It would exist difficult to find a computer facility that does not comprise a LAN to link the systems. GNU/Linux systems are typically attached to an Ethernet (page 1466) network. Wireless networks are becoming prevalent as well. big computer facilities usually maintain several networks, often of different types, and almost certainly Have connections to larger networks (company- or campuswide and beyond).

    The Internet is a loosely administered network of networks (an internetwork) that links computers on diverse LANs around the globe. An internet (small i ) is a generic network of networks that may participate some parts in common with the public Internet. It is the Internet that makes it feasible to ship an e-mail message to a colleague thousands of miles away and receive a reply within minutes. A related term, intranet, refers to the networking infrastructure within a company or other institution. Intranets are usually private; access to them from external networks may exist limited and carefully controlled, typically using firewalls (page 358).

    Over the past decade many network services Have emerged and become standard. On GNU/Linux systems, as on UNIX computers, special processes called daemons (page 1463) champion such services by exchanging specialized messages with other systems over the network. Several software systems Have been created to allow computers to participate their filesystems with one another, making it emerge as though remote files are stored on local disks. Sharing remote filesystems allows users to participate information without knowing where the files physically reside, without making unnecessary copies, and without learning a newfangled set of utilities to manipulate them. Because the files emerge to exist stored locally, you can consume measure utilities (such as cat, vi, lpr, mv, or their graphical counterparts) to labor with them.

    Developers Have been creating newfangled tools and extending existing ones to consume odds of higher network speeds and labor within more crowded networks. The rlogin, rsh, and telnet utilities, designed long ago, Have largely been supplanted by ssh (secure shell—page 374). The ssh utility allows a user to log in on or execute commands securely on a remote computer. Users depend on such utilities as scp and ftp to transfer files from one system to another across the network. Communication utilities, including e-mail utilities, and chat programs, such as talk, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), ICQ, and AOL Instant Messenger (AIM), Have become so prevalent that many people with very Little computer suffer consume them on a daily basis to retain in paw with friends and family.

    An intranet is a network that connects computing resources at a school, company, or other organization but, unlike the Internet, typically restricts access to internal users. An intranet is very similar to a LAN but is based on Internet technology. An intranet can provide database, e-mail, and Web page access to a limited group of people, regardless of their geographic location.

    The fact that an intranet is able to connect dissimilar machines is one of its strengths. believe of everyone the machines that are on the Internet: Macs, PCs running different versions of MS Windows, various machines running UNIX and GNU/Linux, and so on. Each of these machines can communicate via IP (page 360), a common protocol. So it is with an intranet: Different machines can everyone talk to one another.

    Another key incompatibility between the Internet and an intranet is that the Internet will transmit only one protocol suite: the IP protocol suite. An intranet can exist set up to consume a number of protocols, such as IP, IPX, Appletalk, DECnet, XNS, or various other protocols developed by vendors over the years. Although these protocols cannot exist transmitted directly over the Internet, you can set up special gateway boxes at remote sites that tunnel or encapsulate these protocols into IP packets in order to consume the Internet to pass them.

    You can consume an extranet (or ally net) to better your security. A closely related term is virtual private network (VPN). These terms narrate ways to connect remote sites securely to a local site, typically by using the public Internet as a carrier and using encryption as a means of protecting data in transit.

    As with the Internet, the communications potential of intranets is boundless. You can set up a private chat between people at remote locations, access a company database, espy what is newfangled at school, or read about the newfangled university president. Companies that developed products for consume on the Internet are investing more and more time and money developing intranet software applications as the intranet market explodes. Following are some words you may want to become intimate with before you read the rest of this chapter. refer to the Appendix G on page 1453 for definitions.

    ASP

    bridge

    extranet

    firewall

    gateway

    hub

    internet

    Internet

    intranet

    ISP

    packet

    router

    sneakernet

    switch

    VPN

    Computers communicate over networks by using unique addresses assigned by system software. A computer message, called a packet, frame, or datagram, includes the address of the destination computer and the sender's revert address. The three most common types of networks are broadcast, point-to-point, and switched. Once Popular token-based networks (such as FDDI and Token Ring) are rarely seen anymore.

    Speed is captious to the proper functioning of the Internet. Newer specifications (cat 6 and cat 7) are being standardized for 1000BaseT (10 gigabits per second, called gigabit Ethernet, or GIG-E) and faster networking. Some of the networks that figure the backbone of the Internet elude at speeds up to almost 10 gigabytes per second (OC192) to accommodate the ever-increasing exact for network services. Table 9-1 lists some of the common specifications in consume today.

    Table 9-1. Specification

    DS0

    64 kilobits per second

    ISDN

    Two DS0 lines plus signaling (16 kilobits per second) or 128 kilobits per second

    T-1

    1.544 megabits per second (24 DS0 lines)

    T-3

    43.232 megabits per second (28 T-1s)

    OC3

    155 megabits per second (100 T-1s)

    OC12

    622 megabits per second (4 OC3s)

    OC48

    2.5 gigabits per seconds (4 OC12s)

    OC192

    9.6 gigabits per second (4 OC48s)

    Broadcast

    On a broadcast network, such as Ethernet, any of the many systems attached to the network cable can ship a message at any time; each system examines the address in each message and responds only to messages addressed to it. A problem occurs on a broadcast network when multiple systems ship data at the selfsame time, resulting in a concussion of the messages on the cable. When messages collide, they can become garbled. The sending system notices the garbled message and resends it after waiting a short but random amount of time. Waiting a random amount of time helps prevent those selfsame systems from resending the data at the selfsame flash and experiencing another collision. The extra traffic that results from collisions can set aside quite a load on the network; if the concussion rate gets too high, the retransmissions result in more collisions, and the network becomes unusable.

    Point-to-Point

    A point-to-point link does not look fancy much of a network at everyone because only two endpoints are involved. However, most connections to WANs are through point-to-point links, using wire cable, radio, or satellite links. The odds of a point-to-point link is that because only two systems are involved, the traffic on the link is limited and well understood. A detriment is that each system can typically exist equipped for a petite number of such links, and it is impractical and costly to establish point-to-point links that connect each computer to everyone the rest.

    Point-to-point links often consume serial lines and modems but can consume personal computer parallel ports for faster links between GNU/Linux systems. The consume of a modem with a point-to-point link allows an isolated system to connect inexpensively into a larger network.

    The most common types of point-to-point links are the ones used to connect to the Internet. When you consume DSL1 (digital subscriber line), you are using a point-to-point link to connect to the Internet. Serial lines, such as T-1, T-3, ATM links, and ISDN, are everyone point to point. Although it might look fancy a point-to-point link, a cable modem is based on broadcast technology and in that passage is similar to Ethernet.

    Switched

    A switch is a device that establishes a virtual path between source and destination hosts such that each path appears to exist a point-to-point link, much fancy a railroad roundhouse. The telephone network is a giant switched network. The switch brings up and tears down virtual paths as hosts exigency to communicate with each other. Each host thinks that it has a direct point-to-point path to the host it is talking to. Contrast this with a broadcast network, where each host furthermore sees traffic bound for other hosts. The odds of a switched network over a simple point-to-point network is that each host requires only one connection: the connection to the switch. Using simple point-to-point connections, each host must Have a connection to every other host. Scalability is provided by further linking switches.

    LAN: Local region Network

    Local region networks (LANs) are confined to a relatively petite area—a separate computer facility, building, or campus. Today most LANs elude over copper or fiberoptic cable, but other, wireless technologies, such as infrared (similar to most television remote control devices) and radio wave, are becoming more popular.

    If its destination address is not on the local network, a packet must exist passed on to another network by a router (page 357). A router may exist a general-purpose computer or a special-purpose device attached to multiple networks to act as a gateway among them.

    Ethernet

    A GNU/Linux system connected to a LAN usually connects to the network by using Ethernet. A typical Ethernet connection can champion data transfer rates from 10 megabits per second to 1 gigabit per second, with hurry enhancements planned. Owing to computer load, competing network traffic, and network overhead, file transfer rates on an Ethernet are always slower than the maximum, academic transfer rate.

    An Ethernet network transfers data by using copper or fiberoptic (glass) cable or wireless transmitters and receivers. Originally each computer was attached to a thick coaxial cable (called thicknet) at tap points spaced at six-foot intervals along the cable. The thick cable was maladroit to deal with, so other solutions, including a thinner coaxial cable known as thinnet, or 10Base2,2 were developed. Today most Ethernet connections are either wireless or made over unshielded twisted pair (referred to as UTP, Category 3 (cat 3), Category 5 (cat 5), Category 5e (cat 5e) 10BaseT, or 100BaseT) wire—similar to the nature of wire used for telephone lines and serial data communications.

    A switched Ethernet network is a special case of a broadcast network that works with a network switch, or just switch, which is a special class of hub that has intelligence. Instead of having a speechless repeater (hub) that broadcasts every packet it receives out of every port, a switch learns which devices are connected to which of its ports. A switch sorts packets so that it sends traffic to only the machine the traffic is intended for. A switch furthermore has buffers for holding and queuing packets.

    Some Ethernet switches Have enough bandwidth to communicate simultaneously, in full-duplex mode, with everyone the devices that are connected to it. A nonswitched (hub-based) broadcast network can elude in only half-duplex mode. Full-duplex Ethernet further improves things by eliminating collisions. Each host can transmit and receive simultaneously at 10/100/1000 megabits per second for an efficacious bandwidth between hosts of 20/200/2000 megabits per second, depending on the capacity of the switch.

    Wireless

    Wireless networks are becoming increasingly common. They are used in offices, homes, and public places, such as universities and airports. Wireless access points provide functionality similar to an Ethernet hub. They allow multiple users to interact, using a common radio frequency spectrum. A wireless, point-to-point connection allows you to meander about your home or office with your laptop, using an antenna to link to a LAN or to the Internet via an in-house basis station. GNU/Linux has drivers for many of the common wireless boards. A wireless access point connects a wireless network to a wired network so that no special protocol is required for a wireless connection. refer to the Linux Wireless LAN HOWTO and www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Jean_Tourrilhes/Linux.

    WAN: Wide region Network

    A wide region network (WAN) covers a big geographic area. The technologies (such as Ethernet) used for LANs were designed to labor over limited distances and for a inescapable number of host connections. A WAN may span long distances over dedicated data lines (leased from a telephone company) or radio or satellite links. WANs are often used to interconnect LANs. Major Internet service providers depend on WANs to connect to customers within a country and around the globe.

    Some networks accomplish not fitting into either the LAN or the WAN designation: A MAN (metropolitan region network) is one that is contained in a smaller geographic area, such as a city. fancy WANs, MANs are typically used to interconnect LANs.

    Internetworking through Gateways and Routers

    A LAN connects to a WAN through a gateway, a generic term for a computer or a special device with multiple network connections that passes data from one network to another. The purpose of the gateway is to transfigure the data traffic from the format used on the LAN to that used on the WAN. Data that crosses the country from one Ethernet to another over a WAN, for example, is repackaged from the Ethernet format to a different format that can exist processed by the communications outfit that makes up the WAN backbone. When it reaches the finish of its journey over the WAN, the data is converted by another gateway to the format usurp for the receiving network. For the most allotment these details are of concern only to the network administrators; the finish user does not exigency to know anything about how the data transfer is carried out.

    A router is the most common figure of a gateway. Routers play an captious role in internetworking. Just as you might study a map to diagram your route when you exigency to drive to an unfamiliar place, a computer needs to know how to deliver a message to a system attached to a removed network by passing through intermediary systems and networks along the way. You can imagine using a giant network road map to pick the route that your data should follow, but a static map of computer routes is usually a indigent option for a big data network. Computers and networks along the route you pick may exist overloaded or down, without providing a detour for your message.

    Routers communicate with one another dynamically, keeping one another informed about which routes are open for use. To extend the analogy, this would exist fancy heading out on a car trip without consulting a map to find a route to your destination; instead you head for a nearby gas station and query directions. Throughout the journey, you would continue to desist at one gas station after another, getting directions at each to find the next one. Although it would consume a while to fabricate the stops, each gas station would counsel you of harmful traffic, closed roads, alternative routes, and shortcuts.

    The stops the data makes are much quicker than those you would fabricate in your car, but each message leaves each router on a path chosen based on the most current information. believe of it as a GPS (global positioning system) setup that automatically gets updates at each intersection and tells you where to Go next, based on traffic and highway conditions.

    Figure 9-1 shows an illustration of how LANs might exist set up at three sites interconnected by a WAN (the Internet). In network diagrams such as this, Ethernet LANs are drawn as straight lines, with devices attached at prerogative angles; WANs are represented as clouds, indicating that the details Have been left out; wireless connections are drawn as zigzag lines with breaks, indicating that the connection may exist intermittent.

    09fig01.gifFigure 9-1. A slice of the Internet

    In design 9-1 a gateway or a router relays messages between each LAN and the Internet. Three of the routers in the Internet are shown (for example, the one closest to each site). Site A has a server, a workstation, a network computer, and a PC sharing a separate Ethernet LAN. Site B has an Ethernet LAN that serves a printer and four GNU/Linux workstations. A firewall permits only inescapable traffic between the Internet router and the site's local router. Site C has three LANs linked by a separate router, perhaps to reduce the traffic load that would result if they were combined or to retain workgroups or locations on divorce networks. Site C includes a wireless access point that enables wireless communication with nearby computers.

    Firewall

    A firewall in a car separates the engine compartment from the passenger compartment, protecting the driver and passengers from engine fires, noise, and fumes. Computer firewalls divorce computers from malicious and unwanted users.

    A firewall prevents inescapable types of traffic from entering or leaving a network. A firewall might prevent traffic from your IP address from leaving the network and prevent anyone except users from select domains from using ftp to retrieve data from the network. The implementations of firewalls vary widely, from GNU/Linux machines with two interfaces (page 1473) running custom software to a router (page 1490) with simple access lists to esoteric, vendor-supplied firewall appliances. Most larger installations Have at least one benign of firewall in place. A firewall is often accompanied by a proxy server/gateway (page 397) to provide an intermediate point between you and the host you are communicating with.

    In addition to those organize in multipurpose computers, firewalls are becoming increasingly common in consumer appliances. Firewalls are built into cable modems, wireless gateways, routers, and stand-alone devices.

    When your exigency for privacy is critical, you can meet with a consulting solid that will debate your security needs, devise a strategy, submit a written implementation policy, and design a firewall for you from scratch. Typically a separate GNU/Linux machine can comprise a minimal firewall. A petite group of GNU/Linux machines may Have a cheap, unhurried GNU/Linux machine with two network interfaces and packet-filtering software functioning as a dedicated firewall. One of the interfaces connects to the Internet, modems, and other outside data sources, whereas the other connects, normally through a hub or switch, to the local network's machines. refer to page 924 for information on setting up a firewall and to Appendix C for a discussion of security.

    Network Protocols

    To exchange information over a network, computers must communicate using a common language, or protocol (page 1486). The protocol determines the format of the message packets. The predominant network protocols used by GNU/Linux systems are TCP and IP, referred to as TCP/IP3 (Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol). Network services that exigency highly trustworthy connections, such as ssh and scp, tend to consume TCP/IP. Another protocol used for some system services is UDP (User Datagram Protocol). Network services that accomplish not require guaranteed delivery, such as RealAudio and RealVideo, operate satisfactorily with the simpler UDP.4

    IP: Internet Protocol

    Layering was introduced to facilitate protocol design: Layers distinguish functional differences between adjacent protocols. A grouping of layers can exist standardized into a protocol model. IP is a protocol and has a corresponding model for what distinguishes protocol layers. The IP model differs from the ISO seven-layer protocol model (also called the OSI model) often illustrated in networking textbooks. IP uses a simplified five-layer model.

  • The first layer, called the physical layer, describes the physical medium (copper, fiber, wireless) and the data encoding used to transmit signals on that medium (pulses of light, electrical waves, or radio waves, for instance).

  • The second layer, called the data link layer, covers media access by network devices and describes how to set aside data into packets, transmit the data, and check it for errors. Ethernet is at this layer, as is 802.11 wireless.

  • The third layer, called the network layer, frequently uses IP and addresses and routes packets.

  • The fourth layer, called the transport layer, is where TCP and UDP exist. This layer provides a means for applications to communicate with each other. Common functions of the transport layer comprise guaranteed delivery, delivery of packets in the order of transmission, tide control, mistake detection, and mistake correction. The transport layer is answerable for dividing data streams into packets. This layer furthermore performs port addressing, which allows it to distinguish among different services using the selfsame transport protocol. Port addressing keeps the data from multiple applications using the selfsame protocol (for illustration TCP) separate.

  • Anything above the transport layer is the domain of the application and is allotment of the fifth layer. Unlike the ISO model, the Internet model does not distinguish among application, presentation, and session layers. everyone the upper-layer characteristics, such as character encoding, encryption, GUI, and so on, are allotment of the application. Applications pick the transport characteristics they require and pick the corresponding transport layer protocol to ship and receive data.

  • TCP: Transmission Control Protocol

    TCP is most frequently elude on top of IP in a combination referred to as TCP/IP. TCP provides mistake recovery and guaranteed delivery in packet transmission order and works with multiple ports so that it can ply more than one application. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol (page 1461), furthermore known as a streams-based protocol. Once established, a TCP connection looks fancy a stream of data, not individual IP packets. The connection is assumed to remain up and exist uniquely addressable. Every piece of information you write to the connection always goes to the selfsame destination and arrives in the order it was sent. Because TCP is connection oriented and establishes what you can believe of as a virtual circuit between two machines, TCP is not suitable for one-to-many transmissions (see UDP, following). TCP has builtin mechanisms for dealing with congestion (or flow) control over busy networks and throttles back (slows the hurry of data flow) when it has to retransmit dropped packets. TCP can furthermore deal with acknowledgments, wide region links, towering retard links, and other situations.

    UDP: User Datagram Protocol

    UDP runs at layer 4 of the IP stack, just as TCP does, but is much simpler. fancy TCP, UDP works with multiple ports/multiple applications and has checksums for mistake detection but does not automatically retransmit packets that fail the checksum. UDP is a packet- (or datagram-) oriented protocol: Each packet must carry its own address and port information. Each router along the passage examines each packet to determine the destination one hop at a time. You can broadcast or multicast UDP packets to many destinations at the selfsame time by using special addresses.

    PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol

    PPP provides serial line point-to-point connections that champion IP. PPP compresses data to fabricate the most of the limited bandwidth available on serial connections. PPP, which replaces SLIP (Serial Line IP), acts as a point-to-point layer 2/3 transport that many other types of protocols can ride on. PPP is used mostly for IP-based services and connections, such as TCP or UDP.5 For more information, refer to "Internet Configuration Wizard" on page 1023.

    Xremote and LBX

    Two protocols that hurry up labor over serial lines are Xremote and LBX. Xremote compresses the X Window System protocol so that it is more efficient over slower serial lines. LBX (low-bandwidth X) is based on the Xremote technology and is a allotment of the X Window System release X11R6.

    Host Address

    Each computer interface is identified by a unique address, or host number, on its network. A system that is attached to more than one network has multiple interfaces, one for each network and each with a unique address.

    Each packet of information that is broadcast over the network has a destination address. everyone hosts on the network must process each broadcast packet to espy whether it is addressed to that host.6 If the packet is addressed to a given host, that host continues to process it. If not, the host ignores it.

    The network address of a machine is an IP address, which is represented as one number broken into four segments separated by periods (for example, 192.168.184.5). Domain names and IP addresses are assigned through a highly distributed system coordinated by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers—www.icann.org) via many registrars (see www.internic.net). ICANN is funded by the various domain title registries and registrars and IP address registries, which supply globally unique identifiers for hosts and services on the Internet. Although you may not deal with any of these agencies directly, your Internet service provider does.

    How a company uses IP addresses is determined by the system or network administrator. For example, the leftmost two sets of numbers in an IP address might represent a big network (campus- or companywide); the third set might specify a subnetwork (perhaps a department or separate floor in a building); and the rightmost number, an individual computer. The operating system uses the address in a different, lower-level form, converting it to its binary equivalent, a succession of 1s and 0s. espy the following Optional section for more information. refer to "private address space" on page 1486 in the Glossary for information about addresses you can consume on your LAN without registering them.

    Static versus Dynamic IP addresses

    A static IP address is one that remains the same. A dynamic IP address is one that can change each time you connect to your ISP. A dynamic address remains the selfsame during a separate login session. Any server (mail, Web, and so on) must Have a static address so that clients can find the machine that is the server. finish user machines usually labor well with dynamic addresses. During a given login session, they can role as a client (your Web browser, for example) because they Have a constant IP address. When you log out and log in again, it does not matter that you Have a newfangled IP address, because your computer, acting as a client, establishes a newfangled connection with a server. The odds of dynamic addressing is that it allows supine addresses to exist reused, reducing the total number of IP addresses needed. refer to "DHCP Client" on page 1028 for more information about dynamic IP addressing.

    Optional

    IP Classes

    To facilitate routing on the Internet, IP addresses are divided into classes. Classes, labeled class A through class E, allow the Internet address space to exist broken into blocks of small, medium, and big networks that are designed to exist assigned based on the number of hosts within a network.

    When you exigency to ship a message to an address outside your network, your system looks up the address block/class in its routing table and sends the message to the next router on the passage to the final destination. Every router along the passage does a similar lookup to forward the message. At the destination, local routers direct the message to the specific address. Without classes and blocks, your host would Have to know every network and subnetwork address on the Internet before it could ship a message. This would exist impractical because of the number of addresses on the Internet.

    Table 9-2. IP Classes

    All Bits (including start bits)

    Class

    Start Bits

    Address Range

    0–7

    8–15

    16–23

    24–31

    Class A

    0

    001.000.000.000-126.000.000.000

    0--netid--

    ==========hostid==========

    Class B

    10

    129.000.000.000-191.255.000.000

    10-------netid------

    ======hostid=====

    Class C

    110

    192.000.000.000-223.255.255.000

    110----------netid-------------

    =hostid==

    Class D (Multicast)

    1110

    224.000.000.000-239.255.255.000

    1110

         

    Class E (Reserved)

    11110

    240.000.000.000-255.255.255.000

    11110

         

    Each of the four numbers in the IP address is in the ambit of 0–255 because each segment of the IP address is represented by 8 bits (an octet), each bit capable of taking on two values; the total number of values is 28 = 256. When you start counting at 0, 1–256 becomes 0–255.7 Each IP address is divided into a net address (netid) portion (which is allotment of the class) and a host address (hostid) portion. espy Table 9-2.

    The first set of addresses, defining class A networks, is for extremely big corporations, such as universal Electric (3.0.0.0) and Hewlett-Packard (15.0.0.0), or for ISPs. One start bit (0) in the first position designates a class A network, 7 bits hold the network portion of the address (netid), and 24 bits hold the host portion of the address (hostid, Table 9-2). This means that GE can Have 224, or approximately 16 million hosts on its network. Unused address space and subnets (page 1495) lower this number quite a bit. The 127.0.0.0 subnet is reserved (page 368), as are 128.0.0.0 and several others.

    Two start bits (10) in the first two positions designate a class B network, 14 bits hold the network portion of the address (netid), and 16 bits hold the host portion of the address, for a potential total of 65,534 hosts.8 A class C network uses 3 start bits (100), 21 netid bits (2 million networks), and 8 hostid bits (254 hosts). Today a newfangled big customer will not receive a class A or B network but is likely to receive a class C or several (usually contiguous) class C networks, if merited.

    Several other classes of networks exist. Class D networks are reserved for multicast (page 1480) networks. When you elude netstat –nr on your GNU/Linux system, you can espy whether your machine is a member of a multicast network. A 224.0.0.0 in the Destination column that netstat displays indicates a class D, multicast address (Table 9-2). A multicast is fancy a broadcast, but only hosts that subscribe to the multicast group receive the message. To consume Web terminology, a broadcast is fancy a push. A host pushes a broadcast on the network, and every host on the network must check each packet to espy whether it contains germane data. A multicast is fancy a pull. A host will espy a multicast only if it registers itself as subscribed to a multicast group or service and pulls the usurp packets from the network.

    Table 9-3 shows some of the computations for IP address 131.204.027.027. Each address is shown in decimal, hexadecimal, and binary. Binary is the easiest to labor with for bitwise, (binary) computations. The first three lines exhibit the IP address. The next three lines exhibit the subnet mask (page 1495) in three bases. Next, the IP address and the subnet mask are ANDed together bitwise to submit the subnet number (page 1495), which is shown in three bases. The final three lines exhibit the broadcast address (page 1458), which is computed by taking the subnet number and turning the hostid bits to 1s. The subnet number is the name/number of your local network. The subnet number and the subnet mask determine what ambit the IP address of your machine must exist in. They are furthermore used by routers to segment traffic; espy network segment (page 1482). A broadcast on this network goes to everyone hosts in the ambit 131.204.27.1 through 131.204.27.254 but will exist acted on only by hosts that Have a consume for it.

    Subnets

    Each host on a network must process each broadcast to determine whether the information in the broadcast packet is useful to that host. If a lot of hosts are on a network, each host must process many packets. To maintain efficiency, most networks, particularly shared media networks, such as Ethernet, exigency to exist split into subnetworks, or subnets.9 The more hosts on a network, the more dramatically network performance is impacted. Organizations consume router and switch technology called VLANs (virtual local region network) to group similar hosts into broadcast domains (subnets) based on function. It's not uncommon to espy a switch with different ports being allotment of different subnets.

    Table 9-3. Computations for IP address 131.204.027.027  

    ---------------Class B--------------

    netid

    hostid  

    IP Address

    131

    .204

    .027

    .027

    decimal

    8C CC 1B 1B hexadecimal

    1000 1100

    1100 1100

    0001 1011

    0001 1011

    binary

    Subnet Mask

    255

    .255

    .255

    .000

    decimal

    FF FF FF 00 hexadecimal

    1111 1111

    1111 1111

    1111 1111

    0000 0000

    binary

    IP Address bitwise AND

    1000 1100

    1100 1100

    0001 1011

    0001 1011

    decimal

    Subnet Mask

    1111 1111

    1111 1111

    1111 1111

    0000 0000

    hexadecimal

    = Subnet Number

    1000 1100

    1100 1100

    0001 1011

    0000 0000

    binary

    Subnet Number

    131

    .204

    .027

    .000

    decimal

    83

    CC 1B

    00

    hexadecimal

    1000 1100

    1100 1100

    0001 1011

    0000 0000

    binary

    Broadcast Address(Set host bits to 1)

    131

    .204

    .27

    .255

    decimal

    83

    CC

    1B

    FF

    hexadecimal

    1000 0011

    1100 1100

    0001 1011

    1111 1111

    binary

    A subnet mask (or address mask) is a bit mask that identifies which parts of an IP address correspond to the network address and subnet portion of the address. This mask has 1s in positions corresponding to the network and subnet numbers and 0s in the host number positions. When you discharge a bitwise AND on an IP address and a subnet mask (Table 9-3), the result is an address that contains everything but the host address (hostid) portion.

    There are several ways to represent a subnet mask: A network could Have a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 (decimal), FFFFFF00 (hexadecimal), or /24 (the number of bits used for the subnet mask). If it were a class B network (of which 16 bits are already fixed), this yields 28 (24 total bits – 16 fixed bits = 8 bits, 28 = 256) networks10 with 28 – 2 (256 – 2 = 254) hosts11 on each network. If you accomplish consume a subnet mask, consume netconfig to let the system know about it.

    For example, when you divide the class C address 192.25.4.0 into eight subnets, you come by a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224, FFFFFFE0, or /27 (27 1s). The eight resultant networks are 192.25.4.0, 192.25.4.32, 192.25.4.64, 192.25.4.96, 192.25.4.128, 192.25.4.160, 192.25.4.192, and 192.25.4.224. You can consume a Web-based subnet mask calculator to calculate subnet masks (page 1401). To consume this calculator to determine the preceding subnet mask, consume an IP host address of 192.25.4.0. Go to www.telusplanet.net/public/sparkman/netcalc.htm for a nice subnet calculator.

    CIDR: Classless Inter-Domain Routing

    CIDR (pronounced cider) allows groups of addresses that are smaller than a class C shroud to exist assigned to an organization or ISP and further subdivided and parceled out. In addition, it helps to alleviate the potential problem of routing tables on major Internet backbone and peering devices becoming too big to manage.

    The pool of available IPv4 addresses has been depleted to the point that no one gets a class A address anymore. The trend is to reclaim these huge address blocks, if possible, and recycle them into groups of smaller addresses. Also, as more class C addresses are assigned, routing tables on the Internet are filling up and causing remembrance overflows. The solution is to aggregate12 groups of addresses into blocks and earmark them to ISPs which in swirl subdivide these blocks and earmark them to customers. The address class designations (A, B, and C) described in the previous section are used less today, although subnets are still used. When you request an address block, your ISP usually gives as many addresses as you exigency and no more. The ISP aggregates several contiguous smaller blocks and routes them to your location. This aggregation is CIDR. Without CIDR, the Internet as they know it would not function.

    For example, you might exist allocated the 192.168.5.0/22 IP address block, which could champion 210 hosts (32 – 22 = 10). Your ISP would set its routers so that any packets going to an address in that shroud would exist sent to your network. Internally, your own routers might further subdivide this shroud of 1024 potential hosts into subnets, perhaps into four networks. Four networks require an additional two bits of addressing (22 = 4). You could set up your router to Have four networks with this allocation: 192.168.5.0/24, 192.168.6.0/24, 192.168.7.0/24, and 192.168.8.0/24. Each of these networks could Have 254 hosts. CIDR lets you arbitrarily divide networks and subnetworks into ever smaller blocks along the way. Each router has enough remembrance to retain track of the addresses it needs to direct and aggregates the rest. This scheme uses remembrance and address space efficiently. You could consume 192.168.8.0/24 and further divided it into 16 networks with 14 hosts each. The 16 networks require four more bits (24 = 16), so you'd Have 192.168.8.0/28, 192.168.8.16/28, 192.168.8.32/28, and so on to the final subnet of 192.168.8.240/16, which would Have the hosts 192.168.8.241 through 192.168.8.254.

    Hostnames

    People generally find it easier to labor with symbolic names than with numbers, and GNU/Linux provides several ways to associate hostnames with IP addresses. The oldest passage is to consult a list of names and addresses that are stored in the /etc/hosts file:

    $ cat /etc/hosts 127.0.0.1 localhost 130.128.52.1 gw–tcorp.tcorp.com gw–tcorp 130.128.52.2 bravo.tcorp.com bravo 130.128.52.3 hurrah.tcorp.com hurrah 130.128.52.4 kudos.tcorp.com kudos

    The address 127.0.0.1 is reserved for the special hostname localhost, which serves as a hook for the system's networking software to operate on the local machine without going out onto a physical network. The names of the other systems are shown in two forms: in a fully qualified domain (FQDN) format that is meant to exist unique and as a nickname that is unique locally but usually not unique over everyone the systems attached to the Internet.

    As more hosts joined networks, storing these name-to-address mappings in a regular text file proved to exist inefficient and inconvenient. The file grew ever larger and impossible to retain up-to-date. GNU/Linux supports NIS (Network Information Service, page 390) and NIS+, which were developed for consume on Sun computers. Each of these network services stores information in a database. These solutions fabricate it easier to find a specific address but are useful only for host information within a separate administrative domain. Hosts outside the domain cannot access the information.

    The solution is DNS (Domain title Service, page 388). DNS effectively addresses the efficiency and update issues by arranging the entire network naming space as a hierarchy. Each domain in the DNS manages its own title space (addressing and title resolution), and each domain can easily query for any host or IP address by following the tree up or down the title space until the usurp domain is found. By providing a hierarchical naming structure, DNS distributes title administration across the entire Internet.

    IPv6

    The explosive growth of the Internet has uncovered deficiencies in the design of the current address plan, most notably exigency of addresses. Over the next few years, a revised protocol, named IPng (IP Next Generation), or IPv6 (IP version 6),13 will exist phased in (it may consume longer; the phase-in is going quite slowly). This newfangled scheme is designed to overcome the major limitations of the current approach and can exist phased in gradually because it is compatible with the existing address usage. IPv6 makes it feasible to allot many more unique Internet addresses (2128, or 340 undecillion [1036]) and offers champion for security and performance control features.

    IPv6

  • Enables autoconfiguration. With IPv4 autoconfiguration is available via optional DHCP. With IPv6 autoconfiguration is mandatory, making it smooth for hosts to configure their IP addresses automatically.

  • Reserves 24 bits in the header for advanced services, such as resource reservation protocols, better backbone routing, and improved traffic engineering.

  • Makes multicast protocols mandatory and uses them extensively. In IPv4 multicast, which improves scalability, is optional.

  • Aggregates address blocks more efficiently because of the huge address space. This aggregation obsoletes NAT (page 1481), which decreased scalability and introduced protocol issues.

  • Provides a simplified packet header that allows hardware accelerators to labor better.

  • A sample IPv6 address is fe80::a00:20ff:feff:5be2/10. Each group of four hexadecimal digits is equivalent to a number between 0 and 65536 (164). A pair of adjacent colons indicates a hex value of 0x0000, and leading 0s exigency not exist shown. With eight sets of hexadecimal groupings, you Have 65,5368 = 2128 feasible addresses. In an IPv6 address on a host with the default autoconfiguration, the first characters in the address are always fe80. The final 64 bits hold an interface ID designation which is often the MAC address (page 1478) of the Ethernet controller on the system.



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