920-324 exam Dumps Source : Communication Server (CS) Rls. 4.0 Database Administrator
Test Code : 920-324
Test denomination : Communication Server (CS) Rls. 4.0 Database Administrator
Vendor denomination : Nortel
: 58 real Questions
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LAS VEGAS — June 16, 2008 — nowadays at NXTcomm08, Microsoft Corp. and Nortel announced a completely hosted service respond that promises a unified communications adventure to minuscule and midsize corporations (SMBs), extending merits up to now purchasable most effectual to gigantic companies. The hosted solution is in response to the Nortel Communications Server 2000 (CS 2000), a web Protocol multimedia softswitch, and the Microsoft respond for Hosted Messaging and Collaboration edition four.5 (HMC 4.5), which includes hosted types of Microsoft workplace Communications Server 2007 and Microsoft trade Server 2007. Nortel is offering the primary integration with HMC 4.5 to assist manage true-time communications and bring a unified messaging event. furthermore, to aid carriers simplify and precipitate up deployment, Nortel’s world services portfolio provides a comprehensive suite of integration and conclusion-person services to complete the conclusion-to-conclusion answer.
via combining the provider-grade CS 2000 with HMC 4.5, carrier suppliers can present SMBs new, effectual unified communications that amalgamate precise-time communications, comparable to voice, with Microsoft’s collaboration capabilities, reminiscent of click-to-name, click-to-conference, ignored denomination e mail messages, mobility and telephony presence. These aspects All toil seamlessly with the Microsoft office portfolio and the Microsoft office Communicator client to carry a several sustain to the stop user. This unique respond likewise allows for SMBs to improvement from unified communications without needing to purchase, set up, control and retain further network infrastructure and sophisticated in-condominium programs, enabling them to shop operational costs and enlarge productiveness.
“Unified communications is a strategic purchase that, up until nowadays, has been leveraged basically by using the significant enterprise,” said Ruchi Prasad, vp and widespread supervisor of the ingenious Communications Alliance at Nortel. “This more desirable joint Microsoft and Nortel respond makes unified communications available to agencies of All sizes. For provider suppliers, this solution offers unique revenue alternatives and the capability to expand their addressable market and convey greater-cost software and service bundles to their purchasers.”
“we are at present seeing potent hobby in the hosted unified communications solution among their service provider valued clientele,” observed Steve Zimba, managing director, world Telecom business, Microsoft. “The thoroughly hosted unified communications respond provides alternatives for improved earnings and helps carrier suppliers bring the connected toil mode to SMBs, proposing the skill to speak just about each time, anyplace and on any equipment.”
At NXTcomm08, Microsoft and Nortel will exhibit the hosted unified communications solution and exhibit its cost in bettering enterprise agility. NXTcomm08 attendees can gain additional info via touring the Microsoft booths SL5916 and SL5923 and the Nortel booth SL3516. more information may likewise breathe discovered at http://www.microsoft.com/serviceproviders/nxtcomm08.
Nortel is a recognized leader in supplying communications capabilities that build the pledge of industry Made basic a verisimilitude for their valued clientele. Their subsequent-technology applied sciences, for both provider issuer and industry networks, advocate multimedia and company-critical functions. Nortel’s technologies are designed to lighten dispose of nowadays’s obstacles to efficiency, pace and performance by passage of simplifying networks and connecting americans to the assistance they want, after they requisite it. Nortel does company in additional than a hundred and fifty international locations All over. For extra information, dispute with Nortel on the net at www.nortel.com. For the latest Nortel information, talk over with www.nortel.com/news.
centered in 1975, Microsoft (Nasdaq “MSFT”) is the worldwide chief in application, functions and solutions that aid individuals and groups recognize their complete knowledge.
observe to editors: if you cherish an interest in viewing additional info on Microsoft, gratify quest advice from the Microsoft internet web page at http://www.microsoft.com/presspass on Microsoft’s corporate counsel pages. net links, mobile numbers and titles cherish been usurp at time of publication, but may additionally because cherish changed. For extra counsel, journalists and analysts may additionally contact Microsoft’s speedy Response crew or other acceptable contacts listed at http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/contactpr.mspx.
July 31, 2009via Shamila Janakiraman SIP Trunking record ContributorNortel reportedly introduced product enhancements to its service voice and multimedia product choices, on the passage to permit carrier providers to augment network capability, improve networks All of a sudden and boost communication experiences of residential and enterprise subscribers.
The enhancements will consist of utility releases of Nortel’s conversation Server 2000 softswitch and Nortel’s Adaptive application Server SIP utility engine.
“Nortel is dedicated to its CVAS R&D and innovation as evident in these unique product enhancements that present greater than a hundred unique conclusion person aspects and give carriers greater flexibility and means,” talked about Samih Elhage, president, carrier VoIP and utility solutions, Nortel, in an announcement. “We’re leveraging their industry leadership in VoIP, multimedia and communications-enabled applications to unleash a far better communications event for subscribers that likewise deliver unique income opportunities for carriers in addition to slit back operations charges.”
points added in Nortel’s CS 2000 IP Multimedia softswitch encompass a sixty six % enlarge in core VoIP capability besides enhancing utility improve duration with the aid of 70 percent when compared to mature releases. Core enhancements made to Nortel’s Adaptive software Engine SIP server assures a 280 p.c enhance in SIP strains means, Nortel pointed out.
Nortel’s SIP application server engine can breathe deployed together or one after the other in three eventualities relish in a stand-on my own SIP software Server, as a 3GPP IMS-compliant utility server or as an improve for carrier valued clientele using Nortel’s CS 2000 already.
The product enhancements additionally consist of a brand unique very own Agent web-primarily based portal which permits subscribers to view and access their convene logs, address ebook and utilize click-to-call features from a web browser. Carriers can create custom widgets into their current end-user internet portals.
The personal Communicator computer client offers an intuitive consumer interface, supports federated quick messaging to Yahoo, AOL, MSN and Google. This lets subscribers control assorted calls from a unique window. Open Programmability Interfaces permit subscribers to conversation-permit web applications offered in home or enterprise security services.
SIP industry Trunking enhancements likewise consist of pilot for greatly deployed PRI trunking capabilities by means of SIP besides helping a draft edition of necessities SIP connect 1.1. These capabilities build it convenient and budget friendly for agencies to migrate legacy PBX trunking capabilities to SIP, Nortel spoke of.
Nortel’s cell Extension application and advanced SIP line company facets cherish additionally been better with the aid of the industry to swimsuit the needs of minuscule and medium sized enterprise subscribers.
Shamila Janakiraman is a contributing editor for TMCnet. To read greater of Shamila’s articles, gratify dispute with her columnist page.
Edited via Amy Tierney
Communications expertise issuer, Nortel, has introduced the Nortel communication Server 1500 (CS 1500), a second technology VoIP softswitch so that it will allow minuscule and medium-sized wireline carrier providers to fulfill growing to breathe subscriber exact for native and lengthy-distance voice and subsequent technology functions.
The CS 1500 core handle, gateways and operations, administration and protection interfaces are All housed in a unique chassis answer. service providers can set up the swap for end-workplace (type 5) and access Tandem (classification four) functions to exchange an current switch or as an addition to the network.
The entertaining issue about the VoIP softswitch is that it allows carrier suppliers to leverage their current funding and infrastructure with the aid of offering compatibility with legacy networks. The swap presents complete latitude of legacy community interfaces and regulatory requirements, including E-911 and CALEA.
Making the announcement, Alan Stoddard, GM, carrier Multimedia Networks, Nortel pointed out, “Nortel is leveraging its VoIP leadership to lighten provider suppliers seamlessly evolve their networks to a unique comparatively cheap packet infrastructure able to providing the advanced communications features, subscribers are disturbing.”
The product is complemented with the aid of a collection of Nortel global capabilities for CS 1500 to advocate the complete network lifecycle, including engineering and setting up, security assessment, integration and acceptance, assisted on-web page or remote network operations, and on-going renovation.
in line with Bettina Tratz-Ryan, analysis Director, Gartner, “VoIP is an expected and almost required development of All communication networks, and the focal point is on not most effectual a passage to build it healthy within an evolving network and repair ambiance, but likewise a passage to build it ecocnomic. To this conclusion, service providers are turning to softswitch structure emigrate their networks to IP and deliver scalable, multimedia functions to conclusion clients that generate unique revenues from day one.”
The CS 1500 is scheduled for territory trials starting fourth quarter 2006 and established availability in selected international markets throughout the first quarter of 2007.
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Last Spring, Microsoft unveiled their arrangement for Windows and the Internet of Things. It starts with the Raspberry Pi and Windows 10 IoT Core – a stripped down system with Windows API calls running on an ARM architecture. Yes, Microsoft is finally stirring away from the desktop, pile a platform for a billion Internet of Things things, or filling the gap left by tens of thousands of POS terminals and ATMs running XP being taken offline. Either one is accurate.
Earlier this week, Microsoft announced the first public release of Windows 10 IoT Core. This is the review, but here’s the takeaway: run. dash as posthaste as you can away from Windows IoT. It’s not worth your time unless you cherish a burning crave to write apps for Windows, and even then you could sequel a better job with less effort with any Linux distro.
When Windows 10 IoT was first announced, there was remarkable hope for a Windows RT-like experience. Being able to dash real Windows applications on a Raspberry Pi would breathe a killer feature, and putting Skype on a Pi would imply real Jetsons-style video phones appearing in short order.
The majority of interaction with Windows 10 IoT Core is over the web. After booting and pointing a browser to the Pi, you’re presented with a rather complete web-based interface. Here, you can check out what devices are connected to the Pi, celebrate at the running processes, and dash unique apps. deem of this feature as a web-based Windows control panel.
While Windows 10 IoT uses the HDMI output on the Pi, this is merely informational, the video output capabilities of the Pi reserved for application-specific displays – digital signage, POS terminals and ATMs are where Windows 10 IoT Core excels. For general-purpose computing, you’re better off looking elsewhere.Installing
Officially, the only passage to install Windows 10 IoT Core is with a computer running Windows 10. There are a few ways around this is with the ffu2img project on GitHub. This Python script takes the special Microsoft .FFU image file format and turns it into an .IMG file that can breathe used with dd under *nix and Win32DiskImager on Windows.
Yes, Windows 10 is free for everyone with a relatively modern Windows box, but since the only requirement for running Windows 10 IoT core is putting an image on an SD card and monitoring a swarm of IoT Core devices, there is no judgement why this OS can’t breathe supplied in an .IMG file.
After putting the image on an SD card, installing Windows 10 IoT Core is as simple as any other Raspi distro: shove the card in the Pi, connect an Ethernet cable, and give it some power. No, you don’t requisite a keyboard or mouse; there’s very minuscule you can actually sequel with the Pi. In fact, the only thing that is displayed through the Pi’s HDMI port is a screen giving you the IP address and what USB devices are attached.The totality of the Windows 10 IoT Core experience
You sequel acquire a few options for language and network settings, and there are a few tutorials and examples – connecting to Visual Studio and blinking an LED – but that’s it. The groundwork user sustain of Windows 10 IoT Core is just network information, a device name, and a picture of a Raspberry Pi.
There are a few shortcomings of the Windows 10 IoT core for the Raspberry Pi. Officially, the only supported WiFi module is the official Raspberry Pi WiFi module with a BCM43143 chipset. By far, the most celebrated WiFi module used for the Raspberry Pi (and something you should always carry around in your go-bag) is the Edimax EW-7811Un, a tiny WiFi module that uses a Realtek chipset. Odds are, if you cherish a Raspberry Pi 2, that WiFi module you picked up won’t work. Common sense would impose that you could install the Windows driver for the Realtek chipset, but this is not the case; no Windows driver will ever toil with Windows 10 IoT core. Even devices from the Raspberry Pi foundation, relish the Raspberry Pi camera, are not supported by IoT core
If you’ve ever wanted clearer evidence the Windows 10 IoT core is not meant to breathe an extensible system relish every other Linux-based unique board computer, you requisite only celebrate a minuscule deeper. Digital audio is completely ignored, and pins 8 and 10 – normally reserved for a 3.3V UART on every other Raspberry Pi distribution – are reserved pins. Microsoft managed to build a unique board computer without a hardware UART.
Fortunately, some of these problems are temporary. A representative from the Windows On Devices team told us more WiFi dongles will breathe supported in the future; the only driver they were able to bring up in time is the official dongle from the Raspberry Pi foundation. A similar situation of engineering tradeoffs is the judgement for the want of UART support.Who is this for, exactly?
The thought that Microsoft would set out a non-operating system without advocate for the de facto criterion WiFi adapter, a hardware UART, or drivers for the majority of peripherals is one thing. Selling this to the ‘maker movement’ strains credulity. There is another explanation.The Windows 10 IoT Core Watcher, the remote admin app for multitudes of Pis.
Let’s depart over once again what Windows 10 IoT Core actually is. By design, you can write programs in Visual Studio and upload them to one or many devices running IoT core. These programs can cherish a familiar-looking GUI, and are actually pretty light to build given 20+ years of Windows framework development. This is not a device for makers, this is a device for point of sale terminals and ATMs. Windows XP – the operating system that is quiet deployed on a frighting number of ATMs – is going away soon, and this is Microsoft’s attempt to save their share of that market. IoT Core isn’t for you, it isn’t for me, and it isn’t for the 9-year-old that wants to blink an LED. This is an OS for companies that requisite to replace thousands of systems quiet running XP Embedded and requisite Windows APIs in kiosks and terminals.Save your SD card
For anyone with a Raspberry Pi 2 and an SD card, the only investment you’ll build in trying out Windows 10 IoT Core is your time. It’s not worth it.
While Windows 10 IoT Core is remarkable for any company that has a lot of Visual Basic and other engineering debt, it’s not meant for hackers, makers, or anyone pile something new. For that, there are dozens of choices if you want an Internet-connected box that can breathe programmed and updated remotely. The Cloud9 IDE for the Pi and BeagleBone allow you to write code on unique board computers without forcing you to install Visual Studio, and Linux is king for managing dozens or hundreds of boxes over the Internet.
This is not an OS that replaces everything out there. A Linux system will almost always cherish better hardware support, and this is especially honest on embedded devices. Windows 10 IoT Core is a beginning, and should breathe viewed as such. It’s there for those who want it, but for everyone else any one of a dozen Linux distributions will breathe better.
Professionalism may not breathe enough to drive the profound and far-reaching changes needed in the health pervade system, but without it, the health pervade enterprise is lost.
— Lesser et al1
The concept of professionalism for health pervade providers and organizations can tender guidance for conclusion making in a fiscally difficult, rapidly changing, and ethically challenging environment. Professionalism is based on a specific set of principles and commitments that provide an orientation to the thoughts and actions of a given profession. These principles for physicians were enunciated in the Physician Charter on Medical Professionalism 13 years ago.2 That charter has been widely accepted by physicians, but its impact on the quality of health pervade and patient sustain is increasingly recognized as intertwined with the professionalism of health pervade organizations.1,3
Indeed, structural factors in the health pervade system may impede physicians from live up to the charter.4 Health pervade is now a three-trillion-dollar industry,5 with an estimated one-third of All spending being deemed “systematic waste,” including unnecessary and possibly harmful care.6 Hospitals and health pervade systems are focused necessarily on their own monetary health during a time of major reform in pervade delivery and payment models; but at the very time, they can ensure the primacy of their missions, ethical and efficient operations, and patient and provider welfare. Professional ideology recognizes a towering priority for useful and needed toil and its social benefits. It does not avoid economic rewards. It simply requires that these rewards breathe acquired with usurp attention to professional service and social responsibility.
Health pervade systems increasingly impose the practices of health pervade professionals, for better or worse, as an increasing number of physicians are employed by hospitals and hospital systems.7 As such, health pervade organizations cherish an occasion to positively and negatively influence the conduct of their employees and affiliated physicians. Most members of the health pervade team are motivated to sequel the privilege thing. There are, however, many opportunities for health pervade providers and organizations to engage in activities that are not in concordance with the principles of medical professionalism.
This Perspective includes a Charter on Professionalism for Health pervade Organizations (referred to as the “Charter”; contemplate Appendix 1) with the direct of stimulating health pervade leaders, health professionals, policy stakeholders, and society to evaluate their current and preferred ways of operating, to ensure best practices in providing health pervade and improving health. They likewise recount the identification and resolution of a number of issues that arose during the creation of the Charter. These comprehend the rationale for a charter for organizational professionalism; the charter process, goals, domains, and obstacles; and finally, what they hope the Charter will accomplish. Their Perspective is offered by a subset of the Charter authors to provide its social context. It represents the ideas of the authors, not their institutions or the organizations that sponsored the Charter project.Why a Charter on Organizational Professionalism?
A charter is a reflection of values and can breathe effectual in bringing about positive changes in a target audience. Evidence indicates that such a document can stimulate conversation and affirmation of the stated values. For example, since its publication in 2002, the Physician Charter on Medical Professionalism has been endorsed by over 130 organizations,8 and the number of related professionalism articles has quadrupled to over 600 annually.9 A charter or mission statement that incorporates social, ethical, or societal goals can likewise positively influence organizational success. Kanter’s10 research on financially successful companies revealed that an expressed commitment to social responsibility creates a buffer against uncertainty, evokes positive emotions, and stimulates motivation among employees. Along similar lines, Paine11 argues that companies reap monetary rewards when their programs feature such elements as community involvement and ethics. These views are supported by the growing list of companies seeking B company certification, which attests to a company’s commitment to society and the environment.12 Additionally, Nielsen’s 2014 survey of 30,000 consumers establish that 55% of respondents were willing to pay extra for products and services provided by companies committed to positive social and environmental issues.13
For these reasons and others discussed later in this article, members of the health pervade professions, patients, and representatives from hospitals and health pervade systems cherish collaborated to create a charter that outlines behaviors that advocate an organizational culture of professionalism. The Charter on Professionalism for Health pervade Organizations is aspirational, supports a learning health system, and places the patient first. It seeks to ensure that the concept of fiduciary responsibility of health pervade organizations is broadened to comprehend not only the monetary health of the organizations but likewise the health of the patients, the well-being of the organizations’ employees, and a responsibility to the community.Charter Process
The Organizational Professionalism Charter Project was funded by grants from the Commonwealth Fund, the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, the Federation of American Hospitals, and the American Hospital Association. The authors of the original organizational professionalism publication3 and representatives of the grantors formed a Steering Committee to direct the project. The Steering Committee nominated individuals for the Writing Group who were approved by consensus and created the Charter. These writers represented a variety of disciplines, points of view, and stakeholders in health care. They included nurses, health system leaders, medical ethicists, and consumer advocates. Although some participants felt that they were to portray the organization that nominated them, the Charter was not theme to approval by any grantor or organization. Over a term of almost two years, the Writing Group met twice in person, first to determine what domains were significant to address and that it would build decisions by consensus, and then to arrangement the writing of the Charter. The Writing Group refined the document by conference calls and e-mail. As might breathe expected from such a diverse group, compromise was significant for the final Charter to breathe approved by consensus. The issues that required the most vigorous discussions were whether health pervade is a “right,” whether to stipulate a specific percentage of margin that a health pervade organization ought to recrudesce to the community, and the responsibility of health pervade organizations to address the social determinants of health.Charter Goals
The purpose of the Charter is to recount professionalism behaviors to which for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals and hospital systems may aspire. As the toil unfolded, the Writing Group recognized that the principles were apropos to any health pervade organization. This article describes the evidence-based rationales for the behaviors of hospitals and hospital systems implied by these principles.
No organization can fully embody All of these behaviors. However, if they share the values elaborated in the Charter’s preamble, they may identify activities described in the subsequent domain sections that align with their strategic initiatives. They tender evidence that implementing these behaviors would improve health pervade as well as the sustain of working or being cared for within health pervade organizations. Engaging outside partners—the community, government, and other organizations—creates the potential to influence population health, because partnerships among these are essential for addressing the social determinants of health.
At times, different sections of the Charter will insinuate competing actions. For example, touchstones of the Charter are to prioritize the health of individual patients and to improve the health of the community. However, being a steward of limited resources may conflict with optimizing the health of each individual patient. Organizations may ethically Take different actions based on their different missions and cultural values.14 Transparent discussions that comprehend patients and local communities will themselves cherish social benefit, because they may lighten health pervade organizations pick paths that reflect both organizational and local values. However, when ethical dilemmas arise from conflicts between an organization’s self-interest and those of the community or patient, the community or patient interest takes precedence. While this premise of the Charter may seem controversial, it is central to its content, consistent with the seminal Physician Charter on Medical Professionalism,2 and the source of its greatest potential social benefit.Charter Domains
The discussion in the following domain sections provides the rationale and evidence to advocate the commitments requested in the Charter.Patient partnerships
In 2001, the IOM report Crossing the quality Chasm: A unique Health System for the 21st Century created a sense of urgency for reinventing a health pervade system built around six aims for improvement considered essential for better meeting patient-family needs.15 Among these six aims is patient-centered care, defined as “providing pervade that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values, and ensuring that patient values pilot All clinical decisions.”15 It requires collaboration among health pervade teams and effectual partnerships with patients, families, and other caregivers.16,17 Successful navigation from the traditional “doctor knows best” approach to one that engages patients and families to participate in their pervade and conclusion making is contingent on a culture of organizational leadership that values multidirectional collaboration and communication.17
The foundational characteristics of this vision for health pervade transformation are well aligned with the precepts of professionalism. Over time, organizations that integrate person-centric principles can sustain greater patient faith and loyalty and teams that role in a more coordinated manner.18 effectual engagement with patients and families can cherish a measurable impact on organizational improvement and has been cited as having the greatest potential for sustaining long-term system-wide transformation.19 Health systems and organizations that intentionally invite patients and families to participate in rounds, committees, and advisory panels and to share their stories in the boardroom cherish accelerated improvements in the quality of pervade they provide.20
In the last decade, many factors cherish influenced the expectation that patients and families Take an dynamic role in decisions that impact their health and health care,21 and studies demonstrate that this practice benefits All involved.22–24
Executive leadership is essential for achieving the cultural transformation needed to advocate genuine partnerships with patients and families throughout their organizations.25 Leadership that is engaged and provides the resources needed to sustain strategies for patient-family input is critical for successful adoption of these practices. Organizations and systems that uphold patient partnerships as an integrated core value will exemplify professionalism and stand apart from others.20
This domain is aligned with Medicare’s adoption of measures of patient sustain measures as an significant ingredient of value, and thus payment. Although the exact measures of patient sustain and engagement remain controversial, the expectation of patient- and family-centeredness as a core value of health pervade organizations is here to stay.26Organizational culture
Successful transformation of health pervade systems will likely depend more on the social capital of organizations than their monetary capital.27 While many professional entities provide guidelines for the conduct of individuals within their disciplines, it is the responsibility of leadership to recount a health pervade organization’s desired culture, articulate its rationale, and create the structures that advocate it and ensure accountability. With this guidance, organizational culture is cocreated by patients, nonemployed workers, employees, and leadership. faith in leadership requires that management conduct breathe consistent with the organizational mission, professional values, and expectations of employees.28 That faith in whirl empowers individuals to propagate consonant behaviors into the various units where they work. Organizational culture is thus viewed as a complicated adaptive system composed of interrelated microcultures.
There is increasing evidence of relationships between the culture of senior management,29 organizational culture,30 and the performance of health pervade organizations. Organizational leadership style influences both physician31 and nurse satisfaction and burnout.32 Although physician burnout has not been consistently tied to the quality of care,33 nurse burnout has.34 Physician well-being is correlated with lower rates of turnover and can breathe improved through focused organizational interventions.35 A Rand study on physician well-being concluded that “the very considerations that apply outside medicine—for example, unprejudiced treatment; responsive leadership; attention to toil quantity, content, and pace—can serve as targets for policymakers and health delivery systems that quest to improve physician professional satisfaction.”36 Achieving the “triple aim” may indeed require incorporating “care of the provider” into a “quadruple aim.”37 A healing environment can best breathe achieved when All those in the organization are afforded the very value and respect that clinicians aspire to give to patients. This requires soliciting, respecting, and incorporating the perspectives of employees.
High-value, cost-conscious practice likewise depends on interprofessional collaboration.38 Validated measures of team cohesion cherish been developed,39 and numerous studies demonstrate that better teamwork is correlated with better patient outcomes, patient satisfaction, organizational efficiency, patient engagement, and worker satisfaction.40 Studies are ascend to emerge that test whether interventions to improve teamwork likewise improve clinical outcomes, though more research is needed.41,42Community partnerships
Traditional clinical services account for only 10% to 20% of a population’s health, and genetics account for 20% to 30%.43,44 Spurred by well-articulated missions to create healthy communities, model health pervade organizations cherish sought to address the remaining 50% to 70%—the so-called social determinants of health—in flush strategic partnerships with the communities they serve.45 The health of the U.S. population has improved significantly during the last century; however, many high-risk communities cherish not shared in the gains achieved by traditional health promotion strategies. There is growing recognition that promoting the health of populations requires a systems approach to understanding and addressing the social and environmental factors that can protect or undermine health.46
As awareness of the importance of addressing “health” as a broader construct has grown, so too has awareness of the importance of health pervade organizations joining together—in complete partnership with each other and the communities they serve—to define barriers to health and health care, design interventions, maximize the value of investments, and implement unique strategies together to improve a community’s health.47 Partnerships of this ilk require skill, collaboration, and a smooth of faith that has not previously existed among most health pervade organizations and the communities they serve. Still, several notable examples cherish emerged.48 The Affordable pervade Act includes the requirement that nonprofit health pervade organizations demonstrate their “community benefit” beyond the usual charity pervade to comprehend community health assessments, planning, implementation, and evaluation.49 The expectation is that health pervade organizations will provide “a wide compass of services and activities that focus on improving health status and quality of life in local communities.”50
In tandem with the mission to create healthy communities, model health pervade organizations recognize that shifts in public policy toward population and outcomes-based reimbursement build effectively addressing the social determinants of health mission critical to fiscal sustainability in a post-fee-for-service future.51,52 In this way, the long-term health of model health pervade organizations and the communities they serve are inextricably intertwined and must breathe addressed in real partnerships where this reality is embraced by all.Operations and industry practices
In recent years, a vision for a health pervade system that continuously learns and improves has evolved.53,54 Efforts to enhance ethical conduct in health pervade organizations result in best operational and industry practices and in real benefits for patients.55 Furthermore, Tsai and colleagues56 establish that hospitals that rank towering on the utilize of effectual management practices provide a higher quality of pervade than lower-ranking hospitals, and hospital management’s utilize of such practices is associated with a high-performing board of trustees.
Paine57 argues that increasingly, companies are launching ethics programs, values initiatives, and community involvement activities premised on management’s credence that “ethics pays.” In health care, this concept goes well beyond the economic value of branding and includes efforts at cost control, service quality improvement, patient and staff safety, risk management, innovation, reputation, loyalty, and satisfaction for both patients and providers.
Bart and Tabone58 establish an significant relationship between nonprofit hospital leadership satisfaction with mission statement and their organization’s performance. Their primary finding was that leaders sequel in fact discriminate and differentiate in the wording of mission statements, which in whirl influences organizational conduct and performance. Of several importance is a commitment to service quality, patient welfare, and satisfaction. Components typically not included in the mission are monetary goals and competitive strategies. Ethical guidance in the profile of mission statements are valuable tools for health systems to utilize to improve organizational performance and enlarge employee motivation.59
Holy Cross Hospital System (HCHS) of South Bend, Indiana, provides an illustration of a successful organizational program to ensure that HCHS’s organizational structure and performance were value based and mission driven.60 HCHS developed 11 mission standards, created opportunities for ownership, and fostered personal responsibility within the system to ensure the fulfillment of its mission. This process of mission discernment is expanded on by Gallagher and Goodstein54 and represents an ethically grounded and practical process to ensure the moral integrity of an organization. The key operational values of the HCHS mission statement were faith, service, excellence, empowerment, and stewardship. The core values that drove the discussion and development of its mission were social justice and human dignity. monetary and legal issues were considered, but this was proportionate to core service commitments to the impoverished and vulnerable. As a result of sound moral grounding through its mission statement, HCHS was able to clarify choices among competing goals for the organization and find compromise for stakeholders both internal and external to the organization.
At the Harvard Vanguard Kenmore Medical Associates practice, where previous quality improvement efforts had been associated with deteriorating morale, leadership implemented specific relationship-centered practices which defused pent-up infuriate and frustration in the staff, decreased isolation, built teamwork, and facilitated significant quality improvement.61 They created an environment in which each clinician and staff person was treated with dignity, involved in identifying and solving quality-of-care issues, and incorporated into a systematic approach to continuous improvement. This facilitated the adoption of process improvement techniques pioneered by Toyota Production Systems, while at the very time improving morale.
Ethics guidance that is formalized in codes and organizational mission statements promotes ethical discourse and deliberation around institutional integrity and responsibility, and influences organizational conduct in meeting those goals.Charter Obstacles
The Charter is aspirational; it is meant to recount the conduct of a “model organization.” Many of its challenges are cultural, requiring both organizational leaders and employees to alter their historical views of their organizations and their roles within them. Traditionally, health pervade institutions cherish been hierarchical and physician focused. And despite recent financial, structural, and operational changes, health pervade institutions cherish not fundamentally altered the relationship between leadership and employees. Some individuals may breathe challenged by the more dynamic, open dialogue between leadership and the complete spectrum of professions, employed nonprofessionals, and patients as described in the Charter. In addition, the Charter reminds All those individuals to focus on the ultimate goal of medicine, healing the patient. While the pace of toil can build each chore seem an stop in itself, mindfulness of the larger institutional mission and each individual’s role within it can impart a sense of purpose to every job and signification to each activity.
Another challenge is altering the social determinants of health. The ecology of these determinants is complicated and not fully understood. Nor is any social structure in a position to influence All the influences on these determinants. The Charter does not insinuate that health pervade organizations are solely responsible for improving the social determinants of health but, rather, suggests that they quest strategic partnerships with other organizations, government, and local communities, consistent with their means and their unique missions, in order to improve the health of the community.What They Want to Accomplish
This Charter complements existing treatises on professionalism, creating a document directed at health organizations and systems rather than a group of individuals. The Charter defines the professional competencies and behaviors that organizations can leverage to create an environment that promotes professional conduct throughout the organization. Developed by administrators, physicians, nurses, and patients, the Charter is a multidisciplinary effort that melds the aspirations of All involved to provide such an outcome.
We wish to ensure that this is a live document similar to the Physician Charter on Medical Professionalism and will Take lessons erudite from the process employed with that charter. The chore of accomplishing this will ease with a representative multidisciplinary committee. The committee will quest opportunities to publicize the document in professional and trade journals as well as opportunities to present the Charter at professional meetings. The Charter will reside on the Web site of the Foundation for Medical Excellence (www.tfme.org). A list of health pervade systems, professional organizations, and hospitals that endorse this Charter will breathe listed. A nonmonetary annual prize will breathe awarded to the most influential practice resulting from such commitments. They foresee a time when the Charter could breathe incorporated into criteria for acknowledging excellence in health pervade organizations by certifying organizations. Further, they will expect for feedback so that the document can breathe modified in the future as needed to adapt to the dynamically changing world of health pervade delivery.References 1. Lesser CS, Lucey CR, Egener B, Braddock CH 3rd, Linas SL, Levinson W. A behavioral and systems view of professionalism. JAMA. 2010;304:2732–2737. 2. American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation; American College of Physicians–American Society of Internal Medicine (ACP-ASIM) Foundation; European Federation of Internal Medicine. Medical professionalism in the unique millennium: A physician charter. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:243–246. 3. Egener B, McDonald W, Rosof B, Gullen D. Perspective: Organizational professionalism: apropos competencies and behaviors. Acad Med. 2012;87:668–674. 4. Campbell EG, Regan S, Gruen RL, et al. Professionalism in medicine: Results of a national survey of physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:795–802. 5. Martin AB, Hartman M, Benson J, Catlin A; National Health Expenditure Accounts Team. National health spending in 2014: Faster growth driven by coverage expansion and prescription drug spending. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016;35:150–160. 6. Fineberg HV. Shattuck lecture. A successful and sustainable health system—How to acquire there from here. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1020–1027. 7. Singleton T, Miller P. The physician employment trend: What you requisite to know. Fam Pract Manag. 2015;22:11–15. 10. Kanter RM. How remarkable companies deem differently. Harv Bus Rev. 2011;89:66–78. 11. Paine LS. Does ethics pay? Bus Ethics Q. 2000;10:319–330. 14. Tilburt JC. Addressing dual agency: Getting specific about the expectations of professionalism. Am J Bioeth. 2014;14:29–36. 15. Institute of Medicine. Crossing the quality Chasm: A unique Health System for the 21st Century. 2001.Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 17. Mechanic D. 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Jha AK, Orav EJ, Zheng J, Epstein AM. Patients’ perception of hospital pervade in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1921–1931. 25. Taylor J, Rutherford P. The pursuit of genuine partnerships with patients and family members: The challenge and occasion for executive leaders. Front Health Serv Manage. 2010;26:3–14. 27. Lee TH, Campion EW, Morrissey S, Drazen JM. Leading the transformation of healthcare delivery—The launch of NEJM Catalyst. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2468–2469. 29. Davies HT, Mannion R, Jacobs R, Powell AE, Marshall MN. Exploring the relationship between senior management team culture and hospital performance. Med pervade Res Rev. 2007;64:46–65. 30. Jacobs R, Mannion R, Davies HT, Harrison S, Konteh F, Walshe K. The relationship between organizational culture and performance in acute hospitals. Soc Sci Med. 2013;76:115–125. 31. Shanafelt TD, Gorringe G, Menaker R, et al. impact of organizational leadership on physician burnout and satisfaction. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015;90:432–440. 32. Poghosyan L, Clarke SP, Finlayson M, Aiken LH. Nurse burnout and quality of care: Cross-national investigation in six countries. Res Nurs Health. 2010;33:288–298. 33. Linzer M, Manwell LB, Williams ES, et al; MEMO (Minimizing Error, Maximizing Outcome) Investigators. Working conditions in primary care: Physician reactions and pervade quality. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151:28–36, W6. 34. Spence Laschinger HK, Leiter MP. The impact of nursing toil environments on patient safety outcomes: The mediating role of burnout/engagement. J Nurs Adm. 2006;36:259–267. 35. Krasner MS, Epstein RM, Beckman H, et al. Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary pervade physicians. JAMA. 2009;302:1284–1293. 36. Friedberg MW, Chen PG, Van Busum KR, et al. Factors Affecting Physician Professional Satisfaction and Their Implications for Patient Care, Health Systems, and Health Policy. 2013.Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. 37. Bodenheimer T, Sinsky C. From triple to quadruple aim: pervade of the patient requires pervade of the provider. Ann Fam Med. 2014;12:573–576. 38. Stammen LA, Stalmeijer RE, Paternotte E, et al. Training physicians to provide high-value, cost-conscious care: A systematic review. JAMA. 2015;314:2384–2400. 39. Institute of Medicine. Measuring the impact of Interprofessional Education on Collaborative practice and Patient Outcomes. 2015.Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 40. Gittell JH. Kim C, Gretchen S. unique directions for relational coordination theory. In: Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship. 2011: London, UK: Oxford University Press; Chapter 30. 41. Cameron K, Mora C, Leutscher T, Calarco M. Effects of positive practices on organizational effectiveness. 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Best pervade at Lower Cost: The Path to Continuously Learning Health pervade in America. 2012.Washington, DC: National Academies Press. 54. Gallagher JA, Goodstein J. Fulfilling institutional responsibilities in health care: Organizational ethics and the role of mission discernment. Bus Ethics Q. 2002;12:433–450. 55. Carter K, Dorgan S, Layton D. Why Hospital Management Matters. 2012.Washington, DC: McKinsey & Company. 56. Tsai TC, Jha AK, Gawande AA, Huckman RS, blossom N, Sadun R. Hospital board and management practices are strongly related to hospital performance on clinical quality metrics. Health Aff (Millwood). 2015;34:1304–1311. 57. Paine LS. Does ethics pay? Bus Ethics Q. 2000;10:319–330. 58. Bart CK, Tabone JC. Mission statement content and hospital performance in the Canadian not-for-profit health pervade sector. Health pervade Manage Rev. 1999;24:18–29. 59. Forehand A. Mission and organizational performance in the healthcare industry. J Healthc Manag. 2000;45:267–277. 60. Vandenberg P, vouchsafe MK. The necessity of mission integration. A system develops processes to weave values into the life of the organization. Health Prog. 1992;73:32–35. 61. Neuwirth A. Suchman A, Sluyter DJ. The Harvard Vanguard Kenmore practice experience: A focus on human development and relationship building. In: Leading Change in Healthcare. 2011: London, UK: Radcliffe Publishing; Chapter 12. Appendix 1 Charter on Professionalism for Health pervade Organizations Preamble
This document is intended to articulate a set of principles and behaviors for health pervade organizations that aspire to foster professionalism, to hearten the pursuit of excellence by All employees, and to achieve outstanding health pervade with the broader community. The document is structured as a set of expectations as to how model health pervade organizations should breathe led and managed. It is aspirational and supports a health system that is dynamic and constantly trying to improve.
A key tenet of this document is that health pervade organizations cherish been gradually evolving so that the activities of model health pervade organizations should depart beyond trying to treat disease and restore health. The toil of model health pervade organizations should comprehend health promotion, disease prevention, value-driven care, interdisciplinary collaboration, and community involvement, All within a fiscally responsible environment.
This evolution of the health pervade environment has and will continue to create challenges for All of the traditional professions that operate within health pervade organizations. As increasing numbers of the members of these professions are employed by and role within these organizations, the organizations will cherish further opportunities to profoundly influence the professional behaviors of those individuals in both positive and negative ways. Organizational behaviors sequel more than create an environment that influences the professionalism of those within it. They cherish a powerful influence on the environment beyond their walls: They interact with other organizations that influence health and can directly impact the social determinants of health in ways that individual professionals or health pervade professional membership organizations cannot.
This Charter was created to lighten meet these challenges. There are four themes or concepts that apply to All health pervade organizations’ activities. First, model health pervade organizations requisite to emphasize the primacy of obligations to patients and ensure that All members of the organization reflect this priority in their day-to-day work. Second, model health pervade organizations promote the goal of broad access to health care. Third, model health pervade organizations are noble stewards of resources invested in health care. Finally, model health pervade organizations are learning organizations. The organization continually transforms itself to fulfill its core mission better and to Take on unique roles as the health system evolves.Patient Partnerships
The primary focus of health pervade organizations is the pervade and well-being of patients. Model organizations ally with patients to ensure a patient-centered approach that supports the health of the all person, not just the treatment of disease.Commitment to engagement
Model organizations invite dynamic participation of patients and their formal and informal pervade partners in All apropos aspects of care. These partnerships advocate pervade that is respectful of and responsive to an individual’s priorities, goals, needs, and values. Utilizing communication strategies that engender trust, model organizations foster an outcomes-based approach to health that goes beyond delivery and receipt of health care.Commitment to shared conclusion making
Together, patients and their pervade partners clarify and evaluate All pervade options and the best available evidence to pick a course of pervade consistent with the patient’s personal values and preferences. Organizational professionalism ensures that the culture, environment, and infrastructure advocate the communication and literacy needs of All involved in the decision-making process.Commitment to collaboration, continuity, and coordination
Model organizations foster effectual team-based pervade and advocate the role of patients as members of teams. In collaboration with patients and their formal and informal pervade partners, model organizations ensure safe and effectual team transitions across settings and time to advocate a “one patient, one team” model of care.Commitment to measure what matters to patients
In partnership with patients, model organizations identify outcomes of interest to patients and utilize patient-reported and -generated data to monitor progress and performance on those outcomes. Model organizations establish methods to advocate their continuous learning from these data. They provide meaningful feedback to patients and their pervade partners related to these data and the learning from it.Organizational Culture
Organizational culture is the set of beliefs and practices that creates the expectations, norms, and operational behaviors within an organization. Organizational culture is reflected in the well-being of patients and employees, employee retention, quality of care, health outcomes, and elimination of medical error.Commitment to the well-being of individuals
Model organizations promote the well-being of All those who are cared for or toil within them. Encouraging and modeling self-reflection and humility ensures that All interactions are respectful and that employees are valued and empowered.Commitment to teamwork
Best pervade happens when All members of the team, including patients, share information and decision-making responsibility. Ensuring teamwork requires organizational structures and processes that advocate communication across staff and with patients.Commitment to a healthy workplace
Model organizations create toil environments that are physically and psychologically safe and provide tools and incentives for employees to achieve healthy lifestyles.Commitment to inclusion and diversity
Model organizations incorporate the voices of employees and patients in organizational initiatives, including clinical domains. They hearten respectful attention to alternative viewpoints. Communication training for All staff emphasizes teamwork, respect, inclusiveness, and cultural sensitivity. The workforce, including leadership, reflects the diversity of patients and the community.Commitment to accountability
Model organizations create a culture of faith and empowerment by articulating the mission and values of the organization, aligning policies, creating an infrastructure to promote those values, and eliminating activities that undermine professionalism. They align employee incentives with organizational values, reward success, provide supportive remediation for those who struggle to meet expectations, promote job satisfaction, and provide opportunities to learn. Model organizations hearten feedback to leadership regarding any sustain and observation of activities that compromise the organization’s values. Model organizations create an environment that encourages disclosure of events or suspect processes using lore gained to forestall harm and improve safety for patients and staff.Community Partnerships
Model organizations collaborate with other health pervade organizations and the communities they serve to reduce health disparities related to factors such as education, income, and the environment. They focus particularly on preventable root causes of illness and access to appropriate, effective, culturally sensitive health care.Commitment to address the social determinants of health
Clinicians frequently encounter root causes of preventable illnesses, such as environmental toxins, nutritional deficits, unhealthy behaviors, and other preventable social factors. Treating these in a clinical vacuum diminishes the organization’s complete potential to improve health. Therefore, it is a model organization’s ethical responsibility to lighten identify, understand, and address social determinants of health, and to incorporate this understanding into its work.Commitment to ally with communities
Model organizations engage in strategic partnerships with governmental entities, community organizations, and other organizations serving the community to identify and mitigate root causes of illness as well as to ensure effective, culturally usurp care. Model health pervade organizations comprehend the community in organizational activities and governance, and their employees participate in community activities and governance.Commitment to advocate for access and high-value care
Model organizations ally with others to promote universal access and rational allocation of health pervade resources and to temper incentive structures that sequel not directly lead to high-value pervade and healthier communities. They advocate with communities for regulatory reforms to improve environmental conditions, mitigate barriers to health pervade access, and improve social services.Commitment to community benefit
Model organizations and their leaders engage generously with community organizations and civic leaders to build innovative, strategic investments that leverage improved community health.Operations and industry Practices
Model organizations ensure patient safety, clinical excellence, transparency, evidence-based practices, high-value care, and professional competence. They provide sensitive, respectful, compassionate, prompt, and courteous patient care.Commitment to safeguard the privacy of patients and their health information
Model organizations must safeguard the privacy of patients and their health information. This is particularly significant in the utilize of electronic health records, which pose continually evolving challenges to the privacy and security of patient information.Commitment to ethical operations
Ethics and compliance programs in model organizations articulate mission and values, guidelines for observing legal requirements, and standards for the highest ethical focus in addressing the health pervade needs of diverse populations. These programs require qualified senior-level executive leadership, mechanisms to set standards, evidence-based policies, comprehensive training and education, mechanisms to report violations without horror of retaliation, and approaches to monitor compliance and audit performance. Model organizations adhere to credentialing and regulatory standards in their operations, recruitment, training, education, and privileging.Commitment to transparent management of conflicts of interest
Model organizations cherish systems to identify and address potential conflicts of interest. When patients may breathe affected, patient welfare is given priority.Commitment to align incentives with values
Model organizations routinely review their incentive systems to ensure that they are in alignment with articulated organizational values.Commitment to unprejudiced treatment, education, and development
Model organizations compensate employees fairly; provide usurp capitalize packages; avoid staff shortages; and promote employee education, training, and growth.Commitment to high-value care
The policies and practices of model organizations engender evidence-based pervade and treatment that are provided to every patient. Model organizations always strive for high-value, optimal clinical outcomes, aligned with the three aims of better care, healthy populations, and reduced costs. They ensure that ordering practices for testing and treatment are evidence based and supported by standards of care.Commitment to innovation
Model organizations strive to improve current models of care. Creating opportunities to assist other organizations to achieve similar success is a profile of public service. The search for and implementation of innovative approaches to management, leadership, and patient pervade are significant indicia of organizational professionalism.Commitment to accounting and monetary reporting standards
Model organizations ensure that their monetary statements accurately reflect the performance of the organization. They create monetary control systems and internal auditing mechanisms that ensure monetary integrity.Commitment to ensure unprejudiced and equitable access to health care
Model organizations array expense transparency. They build adjustments to bills for uninsured patients, so that they are not expected to pay substantially more than insured patients. They act fairly in granting “charity status” to patients who cherish no colorable means of paying the cost of treatment. They note flexibility in settling patient balances that exceed the patient’s monetary capabilities.
Note: This Charter was created by the Organizational Professionalism Working Group:
May-Lynn Andresen, RN, BSN
Barry E. Egener, MD (Chair)
Ezekiel Emanuel, MD, PhD
David A. Fleming, MD, MA
Meg E. Gaines, JD, LLM
L. Keith Granger, BSRT
David Gullen, MD
Talmadge King, MD
Wendy Levinson, MD
Diana J. Mason, RN, PhD
Walter J. McDonald, MD
Sally Okun, RN, MMHS
Tim Rice, MPH, RPh
Bernie M. Rosof, MD
Rosemary Stevens, PhD, MPH
Alan Yuspeh, JD, MBA
3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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