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920-271 Nortel WLAN 2300 Rls.7.0 implementation(R) and Management

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920-271 exam Dumps Source : Nortel WLAN 2300 Rls.7.0 implementation(R) and Management

Test Code : 920-271
Test designation : Nortel WLAN 2300 Rls.7.0 implementation(R) and Management
Vendor designation : Nortel
: 48 true Questions

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Nortel Nortel WLAN 2300 Rls.7.0

continual access for Greenville, N.C. mobile worker's | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Nortel this week introduced two customer agreements and wireless mesh product enhancements designed to deliver solutions for cellular workers.

Nortel's solution, which contains instant mesh and WLAN technologies, offers on-the-go clients perpetual access to censorious personnel and assistance from both indoor and outside areas, which helps to reduce operational expenses, boost worker productiveness, and enrich client delight through quicker response times. The solution additionally helps SIP-based mostly multimedia and collaborative purposes such as video conferencing, rapidly messaging and file sharing.

Nortel's instant Mesh network solution uses instant links to combine access points installed interior or outside to give at ease, seamless access to wireless broadband capabilities. It makes it viable for businesses such as universities to installation WLANs in areas the situation it's knotty or charge-prohibitive to dash cables.

The city of Greenville, N.C. has bought Nortel's WLAN 2300, which helps indoor Wi-Fi facts, voice and multimedia services. Greeneville will employ Nortel's expertise to deliver its workforce with comfy cell entry to the city's database and the skill to respond to constituent and group wants from any district inside the municipality.

Nortel's WLAN 2300 sequence is designed to abet birth of superb voice, records and multimedia applications. Its scalability permits the mobility solution to grow as consumers grow, increasing to encompass new clients and functions whereas protecting the preparatory investment.

"Responsive executive is Greenville's exact precedence, and the faculty to linger in contact is a essential component in making inevitable they meet the needs of their community," talked about Rex Wilder, director of assistance expertise, metropolis of Greenville. "Mobility in communications helps accomplish positive personnel can respond prerogative now to ingredients, even when they are out of the office and enables us to maximise taxpayer bucks by means of making inevitable employees are as productive as viable, despite region."

"true mobility has spin into a profitable asset in latest guidance society as americans more and more forecast their laptop capabilities to breathe purchasable to them anyplace they roam," referred to Malcolm Collins, president, traffic Networks, Nortel. "Nortel's cellular employee respond helps to replicate the workplace environment and enhance productiveness by allowing clients to engage with their key contacts in precise time and entry their corporate networks from any area."


Nortel, Trapeze combine on WLAN technology | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Nortel is teaming up with Trapeze Networks to birth reselling the business's wireless LAN gadget by means of midyear and later co-boost products with embedded Trapeze technology, the companies introduced Wednesday.

Nortel is teaming up with Trapeze Networks  to delivery reselling the enterprise's instant LAN equipment by using midyear and later co-boost products with embedded Trapeze know-how, the groups introduced Wednesday.

Nortel had been sourcing a line of WLAN gadget from Airespace, which agreed in January to breathe obtained by using Nortel vie Cisco. Nortel will continue to guide the Airespace-based mostly items, talked about Kyle Klassen, Nortel's director of WLAN product management.

the brand new Nortel WLAN 2300 collection, in line with the MX string of WLAN switches from Trapeze, will start delivery in might too or June, in line with Klassen. Nortel will thoroughly verify the items for interoperability with Nortel's network, voice and safety gear, he noted. Trapeze brings a broader line of items to Nortel than did Airespace, which potential a better fitting for purchasers starting from tiny and midsize businesses to colossal organizations, Klassen referred to.

beyond a product stopgap following the Airespace acquisition, the partnership will generate new innovation, each groups noted. With Trapeze's know-how, Nortel plans to abet firms and repair providers tender secure wired or instant network entry via a solitary authentication and protection infrastructure, said Jim Vogt, president and CEO of Trapeze.

The technology could even breathe extended to cellular and different sorts of networks and used in managed features offered by means of carriers, airports and edifice owners, he pointed out. Trapeze, of Pleasanton, Calif., already presents this technology in its personal WLAN gear, which makes it viable for enterprises to accomplish the most of an current device, reminiscent of a RADIUS server, to wield user entry to the network, Vogt talked about.

"you might breathe translating bar nonexistent these dollars you could Have spent on the wired facet to these new users who are wireless," he said.

The corporations way to embed Trapeze know-how in Nortel switches in an application to Have bar nonexistent of the capabilities of each wired and instant switches, in accordance with each Vogt and Klassen. these products likely will spin into obtainable next yr, Klassen mentioned.

Cisco's acquisition of Airespace turned into a ample raise for the switch-based fashion to WLANs taken by way of startups akin to Trapeze, Airespace and Aruba, observed Forrester research analyst Ellen Daley. these startups assume some intelligence out of wireless entry features and reclaim it in a really wonderful switch. other vendors, together with Cisco, initially based mostly their concepts on standalone "fats" entry elements connected to a traditional wired LAN.

corporations want extra sophisticated, swap-primarily based WLAN programs as they adopt new wireless functions such as VoIP calls that require bigger fine of carrier, Daley pointed out. They too are looking to dispose of replica programs used nowadays for user authentication and security in wired and instant networks, she referred to. Nortel's deal with Trapeze should propel it alongside that course, Daley noted. however, Trapeze is not the most effective video game on the town. Aruba, which has a partnership with Alcatel, too is mighty in these areas, she observed.

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Nortel extends WLAN providing | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Nortel extends WLAN offering

NetworkingNortel launches security and placement answersNortel unveiled wireless LAN (WLAN) capabilities and options that allow company to accomplish employ of their present WLAN network to deploy superior enterprise purposes reminiscent of vicinity tracking, superior security options and voice over the WLAN community.

The voice capabilities on the Nortel instant LAN 2300 sequence will accomplish positive that voice excellent is maintained within the presence of other instant site visitors and will enable shoppers to optimize the efficiency of mobile instruments so that you can even breathe adopting the ordinary. This includes the Nortel WLAN Handset 6100 collection, planned for availability in 2Q07. These premise-based WLAN handsets are planned to combine with Nortel’s traffic VoIP and WLAN systems and provide the flexibility of 802.11 a/b/g assist.

Nortel’s Asset monitoring and administration solution allows organizations to employ their WLAN community to deliver true-time region and tracking of up to 10,000 individual assets or people with a situation accuracy of one to 3 meters. The respond combines the Nortel WLAN 2300 collection with Ekahau real-time location system, enabling the employ of RF tags that verify their district by using interacting with Nortel WLAN 2300 string access points.

Nortel’s instant Intrusion Detection and Prevention (WIPS) respond gives customers an optional advanced WIPS security upgrade. The respond makes employ of WIPS expertise from AirDefense to permit Nortel WLAN purchasers to spin WLAN 2300 collection access elements into safety sensors that can identify and give protection to the traffic community in opposition t over 230 various kinds of threats that can goal the wireless network. The respond too gives safety coverage administration and enforcement, and scales from a solitary office to lots of of areas.

The finished options can breathe organize now through Nortel and Nortel’s cost-added resellers and integrators.

Agilent introduces in-circuit vectoreless keep at various strategies

Agilent applied sciences Inc. brought Agilent Medalist VTEP v2.0, a suite of vectorless verify concepts that contains the community Parameter measurement expertise.

Agilent’s VTEP v2.0 is designed to aid manufacturers keep the vital defects, which might atomize out detection bar nonexistent through purposeful keep at various and product cargo.

additionally with VTEP v2.0, users Get the improvement of the usual VTEP know-how, which has bigger sensitivities and enhanced noise discount, as well as iVTEP, which is centered at integrated circuit applications with minimal frames. iVTEP additionally works for instruments with heat-spreaders and even these with attached warmth-sinks.

Agilent is additionally introducing the Medalist i3070 in-circuit keep at various system for printed circuit board meeting. For more on the Medalist i3070, contemplate www.agilent.com/about/newsroom/presrel/2007/20feb-em07014.html.

For greater advice, delight visit www.agilent.com/see/vtep.

Agilent VTEP v2.0 is obtainable at no extra permeate on bar nonexistent Agilent Medalist i3070 techniques, that will start shipping March 2007, and is too attainable free-of-can permeate to current Agilent ICT shoppers on software help contract.

information ManagementEMC expands information infrastructure portfolioEMC Corp. introduced the availability of the EMC Documentum system Suite, a enterprise system management (BPM) solution for analyzing, modeling, orchestrating and optimizing traffic procedures involving individuals, systems, content material and statistics.

The software too offers conclusion-to-conclusion process lifecycle administration, with capabilities to optimize manner performance at each stage in the process lifecycle, from design and evaluation via execution and monitoring.

The EMC Documentum manner Suite gives:

  • manner analysis, simulation and actual-time efficiency monitoring
  • A scalable process execution engine that orchestrates strategies involving human, techniques and SOA-primarily based integration actions for each excessive-extent transactional and sophisticated collaborative functions
  • Integration with EMC’s finished set of capabilities for dealing with information-wealthy procedures, including: entrance-end input and entrap of paper-primarily based content; e-kinds for data enter; in-system management of each structured facts and unstructured content; handicap collaboration environments; and returned-conclusion statistics management, archiving and storage.
  • EMC Documentum system Suite is accessible immediately. For greater counsel on EMC Documentum BPM options, search counsel from www.software.emc.com/bpm.

    NetSupport DNA 2.7 discovers, manages and tracks IT belongings

    With the release of NetSupport DNA 2.7, Dynamic network Administration software, IT professionals at such groups can maintain IT costs in investigate.

    besides the present home windows and Linux guide, the edition of NetSupport DNA additionally aspects replete windows Vista guide and the introduction of optimized start gadget within the utility Distribution part. On the reporting front, the customized question and Reporting implement encompasses an automatic Scheduler and the altenative to apportion custom information views to selected operators, additionally protected is the faculty to automatically apportion restrictions on software employ with the aid of department and an information Cache controller for networks with towering records volumes.

    NetSupport DNA 2.7 includes hardware and utility inventory, software distribution, software and web metering, query-primarily based reporting, alerting, an internet-based assist desk piece and remote wield performance.

    StorageHP introduces StorageWorks D2D Backup SystemHP added a disk-based mostly backup and restoration device.

    The HP StorageWorks D2D Backup device automates and centralizes backup to give facts protection for up to four servers in a solitary machine.

    HP D2D Backup device aspects an iSCSI interface that plugs into a common Ethernet network and a setup wizard that permits customers to configure the machine.

    Consolidating backups onto a solitary disk-based mostly gadget eliminates the need for assorted direct-connected backup contraptions and the linked management overhead. moreover, browser-based mostly management allows for valued clientele to monitor their HP D2D Backup materiel from anyplace on the community, at any time.

    The HP D2D Backup materiel is too purchasable as a discounted bundle that comprises the HP facts Protector specific application equipment. The bundle offers valued clientele with an entire information protection solution that helps thoroughly automatic each day backup of 4 servers.

    The HP StorageWorks D2D Backup materiel is attainable now and should breathe bought essentially via HP’s extensive network of more than one hundred forty five,000 channel resellers worldwide.

    extra tips about the HP StorageWorks D2D Backup gadget is purchasable at www.hp.com/go/d2d-backup, or view a video presentation.

    more counsel about the choices within the HP StorageWorks portfolio is available at www.hp.com/go/storageworks.


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    Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions in support of Calls | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Autor(en): A. Farrel, D. Papadimitriou

    In inevitable networking topologies, it may breathe advantageous to maintain associations between endpoints and key transit points to support an instance of a service. Such associations are known as Calls. A summon does not provide the actual connectivity for...

    Network Working Group D. Papadimitriou Request for Comments: 4974 Alcatel Updates: 3473 A. Farrel Category: Standards Track traditional Dog Consulting August 2007 Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions in support of Calls Status of This Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. delight advert to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The IETF dependence (2007). Abstract In inevitable networking topologies, it may breathe advantageous to maintain associations between endpoints and key transit points to support an instance of a service. Such associations are known as Calls. A summon does not provide the actual connectivity for transmitting user traffic, but only builds a relationship by which subsequent Connections may breathe made. In Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) such Connections are known as Label Switched Paths (LSPs). This document specifies how GMPLS Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) signaling may breathe used and extended to support Calls. These mechanisms provide replete and logical Call/Connection separation. The mechanisms proposed in this document are applicable to any environment (including multi-area), and for any ilk of interface: packet, layer-2, time-division multiplexed, lambda, or fiber switching. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 Table of Contents 1. Introduction ....................................................3 1.1. Applicability to ASON ......................................4 2. Conventions Used in This document ...............................4 3. Requirements ....................................................4 3.1. Basic summon office ........................................4 3.2. Call/Connection Separation .................................5 3.3. summon Segments ..............................................5 4. Concepts and Terms ..............................................5 4.1. What Is a Call? ............................................5 4.2. A Hierarchy of Calls, Connections, Tunnels, and LSPs .......6 4.3. Exchanging Access Link Capabilities ........................6 4.3.1. Network-Initiated Calls .............................7 4.3.2. User-Initiated Calls ................................7 4.3.3. Utilizing summon Setup ................................8 5. Protocol Extensions for Calls and Connections ...................8 5.1. summon Setup and Teardown ....................................8 5.2. summon Identification ........................................9 5.2.1. Long shape summon Identification .......................9 5.2.2. Short shape summon Identification ......................9 5.2.3. Short shape summon ID Encoding ........................10 5.3. LINK_CAPABILITY remonstrate ....................................11 5.4. Revised Message Formats ...................................12 5.4.1. Notify Message .....................................12 5.5. ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate .......................................13 6. Procedures in support of Calls and Connections .................14 6.1. Call/Connection Setup Procedures ..........................14 6.2. summon Setup ................................................14 6.2.1. Accepting summon Setup ...............................16 6.2.2. summon Setup Failure and Rejection ...................16 6.3. Adding a Connections to a summon ............................17 6.3.1. Adding a reverse Direction LSP to a summon ...........18 6.4. Call-Free Connection Setup ................................18 6.5. summon impact ............................................18 6.6. Call/Connection Teardown ..................................19 6.6.1. Removal of a Connection from a summon ................20 6.6.2. Removal of the ultimate Connection from a summon .........20 6.6.3. Teardown of an "Empty" summon ........................20 6.6.4. Attempted Teardown of a summon with Existing Connections ........................................20 6.6.5. Teardown of a summon from the Egress .................21 6.7. Control Plane Survivability ...............................21 7. Applicability of summon and Connection Procedures ................22 7.1. Network-Initiated Calls ...................................22 7.2. User-Initiated Calls ......................................23 7.3. External summon Managers ....................................23 7.3.1. summon Segments ......................................23 Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 8. Non-Support of summon ID .........................................24 8.1. Non-Support by External summon Managers .....................24 8.2. Non-Support by Transit Node ...............................24 8.3. Non-Support by Egress Node ................................25 9. Security Considerations ........................................25 9.1. summon and Connection Security Considerations ...............25 10. IANA Considerations ...........................................26 10.1. RSVP Objects .............................................26 10.2. RSVP mistake Codes and mistake Values ........................27 10.3. RSVP ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate Bits ............................27 11. Acknowledgements ..............................................27 12. References ....................................................28 12.1. Normative References .....................................28 12.2. Informative References ...................................29 1. Introduction This document defines protocol procedures and extensions to support Calls within Generalized MPLS (GMPLS). A summon is an association between endpoints and possibly between key transit points (such as network boundaries) in support of an instance of a service. The end-to-end association is termed a "Call", and the association between two transit points or between an endpoint and a transit point is termed a "Call Segment". An entity that processes a summon or summon Segment is called a "Call Manager". A summon does not provide the actual connectivity for transmitting user traffic, but only builds a relationship by which subsequent Connections may breathe made. In GMPLS, such Connections are known as Label Switched Paths (LSPs). This document does not modify Connection setup procedures defined in [RFC3473], [RFC4208], and [STITCH]. Connections set up as piece of a summon follow the rules defined in these documents. A summon may breathe associated with zero, one, or more than one Connection, and a Connection may breathe associated with zero or one Call. Thus, full and rational Call/Connection separation is needed. An case of the requirements for Calls can breathe organize in the ITU-T's Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON) architecture [G.8080] and specific requirements for support of Calls in this context can be organize in [RFC4139]. Note, however, that while the mechanisms described in this document meet the requirements stated in [RFC4139], they Have wider applicability. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 The mechanisms defined in this document are equally applicable to any packet (PSC) interface, layer-2 interfaces (L2SC), TDM capable interfaces, LSC interfaces, or FSC interfaces. The mechanisms and protocol extensions are backward compatible, and can breathe used for Call management where only the summon Managers need to breathe aware of the protocol extensions. 1.1. Applicability to ASON [RFC4139] details the requirements on GMPLS signaling to answer the ASON architecture described in [G.8080]. The mechanisms described in this document meet the requirements for Calls as described in Sections 4.2 and 4.3 of [RFC4139] and the additional Call-related requirements in Sections 4.4, 4.7, 5, and 6 of [RFC4139]. [ASON-APPL] describes the applicability of GMPLS protocols to the ASON architecture. 2. Conventions Used in This document The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to breathe interpreted as described in [RFC 2119]. In addition, the reader is assumed to breathe confidential with the terminology used in [RFC3471], [RFC3473], [RFC3477], and [RFC3945]. 3. Requirements 3.1. Basic summon Function The summon concept is used to deliver the following capabilities: - Verification and identification of the summon initiator (prior to LSP setup). - support of virtual concatenation with diverse path component LSPs. - Association of multiple LSPs with a solitary summon (note aspects related to recovery are minute in [RFC4426] and [GMPLS-E2E]). - Facilitation of control plane operations by allowing an operational status change of the associated LSP. Procedures and protocol extensions to support summon setup, and the association of Calls with Connections are described in Section 5 and onwards of this document. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 3.2. Call/Connection Separation replete and rational summon and Connection separation is required. That is: - It MUST breathe viable to establish a Connection without dependence on a Call. - It MUST breathe viable to establish a summon without any associated Connections. - It MUST breathe viable to associate more than one Connection with a Call. - Removal of the ultimate Connection associated with a summon SHOULD NOT result in the automatic removal of the summon except as a matter of local policy at the ingress of the Call. - Signaling of a Connection associated with a summon MUST NOT require the distribution or retention of Call-related information (state) within the network. 3.3. summon Segments summon Segment capabilities MUST breathe supported. Procedures and (GMPLS) RSVP-TE signaling protocol extensions to support summon Segments are described in Section 7.3.1 of this document. 4. Concepts and Terms The concept of a summon and a Connection are too discussed in the ASON architecture [G.8080] and [RFC4139]. This section is not intended as a substitute for those documents, but is a brief summary of the key terms and concepts. 4.1. What Is a Call? A summon is an agreement between endpoints possibly in cooperation with the nodes that provide access to the network. summon setup may include capability exchange, policy, authorization, and security. A summon is used to facilitate and manage a set of Connections that provide end-to-end data services. While Connections require status to breathe maintained at nodes along the data path within the network, Calls conclude not involve the participation of transit nodes except to forward the summon management requests as transparent messages. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 A summon may breathe established and maintained independently of the Connections that it supports. 4.2. A Hierarchy of Calls, Connections, Tunnels, and LSPs Clearly, there is a hierarchical relationship between Calls and Connections. One or more Connections may breathe associated with a Call. A Connection may not breathe piece of more than one Call. A Connection may, however, exist without a Call. In GMPLS RSVP-TE [RFC3473], a Connection is identified with a GMPLS TE Tunnel. Commonly, a Tunnel is identified with a solitary LSP, but it should breathe famous that for protection, load balancing, and many other functions, a Tunnel may breathe supported by multiple parallel LSPs. The following identification reproduces this hierarchy. - summon IDs are unique within the context of the pair of addresses that are the source and destination of the Call. - Tunnel IDs are unique within the context of the Session (that is the destination of the Tunnel). Applications may too find it convenient to reserve the Tunnel ID unique within the context of a Call. - LSP IDs are unique within the context of a Tunnel. Note that the Call_ID value of zero is reserved and MUST NOT breathe used during LSP-independent summon establishment. Throughout the remainder of this document, the terms LSP and Tunnel are used interchangeably with the term Connection. The case of a Tunnel that is supported by more than one LSP is covered implicitly. 4.3. Exchanging Access Link Capabilities In an overlay model, it is useful for the ingress node of an LSP to know the link capabilities of the link between the network and the remote overlay network. In the language of [RFC4208], the ingress node can accomplish employ of information about the link between the egress core node (CN) and the remote edge node (EN). They summon this link the egress network link. This information may allow the ingress node to tailor its LSP request to fitting those capabilities and to better utilize network resources with admiration to those capabilities. For example, this might breathe used in transparent optical networks to supply information on lambda availability on egress network links, or, where the egress CN is capable of signal regeneration, it might provide a mechanism for negotiating signal attribute attributes (such Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 as bit mistake rate). Similarly, in multi-domain routing environments, it could breathe used to provide end-to-end selection of component links (i.e., spatial attribute negotiation) where TE links Have been bundled based on technology specific attributes. In some circumstances, the Traffic Engineering Database (TED) may hold sufficient information for decisions to breathe made about which egress network link to use. In other circumstances, the TED might not hold this information and summon setup may provide a suitable mechanism to exchange information for this purpose. The Call- responder may employ the summon parameters to select a subset of the available egress network links between the egress CN and the remote EN, and may report these links and their capabilities on the Call response so that the Call-initiator may select a suitable link. The sections that follow bespeak the cases where the TED may be used, and those where summon parameter exchange may breathe appropriate. 4.3.1. Network-Initiated Calls Network-initiated Calls arise when the ingress (and correspondingly the egress) fib within the network and there may breathe no need to dispense additional link capability information over and above the information distributed by the TE and GMPLS extensions to the IGP. Further, it is viable that future extensions to these IGPs will allow the distribution of more minute information including optical impairments. 4.3.2. User-Initiated Calls User-initiated Calls arise when the ingress (and correspondingly the egress) fib outside the network. Edge link information may not be visible within the core network, nor (and specifically) at other edge nodes. This may avert an ingress from requesting suitable LSP characteristics to ensure successful LSP setup. Various solutions to this problem exist, including the definition of static TE links (that is, not advertised by a routing protocol) between the CNs and ENs. Nevertheless, special procedures may be necessary to advertise to the edge nodes outside of the network information about egress network links without too advertising the information specific to the contents of the network. In the future, when the requirements on the information that needs to breathe supported are better understood, TE extensions to EGPs may be defined to provide this function, and new rules for leaking TE information between routing instances may breathe used. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 4.3.3. Utilizing summon Setup When IGP and EGP solutions are not available at the User-to-Network Interface (UNI), there is soundless a requirement to Have the knowledge of the remote edge link capabilities at the local edge nodes. The summon setup procedure provides an chance to learn edge link capabilities of remote edge nodes before LSP setup is attempted. - The Call-responder can recrudesce information on one or more egress network links. The Call-responder could recrudesce a replete list of the available links with information about the link capabilities, or it could filter the list to recrudesce information about only those links that might breathe commandeer to support the Connections needed by the Call. To conclude this second option, the Call-responder must determine such commandeer links from information carried in the summon request including destination of the Call, and the flush of service (bandwidth, protection, etc.) required. - On receiving a summon response, the Call-initiator must determine paths for the Connections (LSPs) that it will set up. The way that it does this is out of scope for this document since it is an implementation-specific, algorithmic process. However, it can assume as input the information about the available egress network links as supplied in the summon response. The LINK_CAPABILITY remonstrate is defined to allow this information to be exchanged. The information that is included in this remonstrate is similar to that distributed by GMPLS-capable IGPs (see [RFC 4202]). 5. Protocol Extensions for Calls and Connections This section describes the protocol extensions needed in support of summon identification and management of Calls and Connections. Procedures for the employ of these protocol extensions are described in Section 6. 5.1. summon Setup and Teardown Calls are established independently of Connections through the employ of the Notify message. The Notify message is a targeted message and does not need to follow the path of LSPs through the network. Simultaneous summon and Connection establishment (sometimes referred to as piggybacking) is not supported. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 5.2. summon Identification As soon as the concept of a summon is introduced, it is necessary to support some means of identifying the Call. This becomes particularly Important when Calls and Connections are separated and Connections must hold some reference to the Call. A summon may breathe identified by a sequence of bytes that may have considerable (but not arbitrary) length. A summon ID of 40 bytes would not breathe unreasonable. It is not the situation of this document to supply rules for encoding or parsing summon IDs, but it must provide a suitable means to communicate summon IDs within the protocol. The full summon identification is referred to as the long summon ID. The Call_ID is only relevant at the sender and receiver nodes. Maintenance of this information in the signaling status is not mandated at any intermediate node. Thus, no change in [RFC3473] transit implementations is required and there are no backward compatibility issues. Forward compatibility is maintained by using the existing default values to bespeak that no summon processing is required. Further, the long summon ID is not required as piece of the Connection (LSP) status even at the sender and receiver nodes so long as some shape of correlation is available. This correlation is provided through the short summon ID. 5.2.1. Long shape summon Identification The long summon ID is only required on the Notify message used to establish the Call. It is carried in the "Session Name" province of the SESSION_ATTRIBUTE remonstrate on the Notify message. A unique value per summon is inserted in the "Session Name" province by the initiator of the Call. Subsequent core nodes MAY inspect this remonstrate and MUST forward this remonstrate transparently across network interfaces until reaching the egress node. Note that the structure of this province MAY breathe the remonstrate of further formatting depending on the naming convention(s). However, [RFC 3209] defines the "Session Name" province as a Null padded pomp string, so any formatting conventions for the summon ID must breathe limited to this scope. 5.2.2. Short shape summon Identification The Connections (LSPs) associated with a summon need to carry a reference to the summon - the short summon ID. A new province is added to the signaling protocol to identify an individual LSP with the summon to which it belongs. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 The new province is a 16-bit identifier (unique within the context of the address pairing provided by the Tunnel_End_Point_Address and the Sender_Address of the SENDER_TEMPLATE object) that MUST breathe exchanged on the Notify message during summon initialization and is used on all subsequent LSP messages that are associated with the Call. This identifier is known as the short summon ID and is encoded as described in Section 5.2.3. The summon ID MUST NOT breathe used as piece of the processing to determine the session to which an RSVP signaling message applies. This does not generate any backward compatibility issue since the reserved province of the SESSION remonstrate defined in [RFC 3209] MUST NOT breathe examined on receipt. In the unlikely case of short Call_ID exhaustion, local node policy decides upon specific actions to breathe taken, but might embrace the use of second Sender_Address. Local policy details are outside of the scope of this document. 5.2.3. Short shape summon ID Encoding The short summon ID is carried in a 16-bit province in the SESSION object carried on the Notify message used during summon setup, and on all messages during LSP setup and management. The province used was previously reserved (MUST breathe set to zero on transmission and ignored on receipt). This ensures backward compatibility with nodes that do not utilize Calls. The device below shows the new version of the object. Class = SESSION, Class-Num = 1, C-Type = 7(IPv4)/8(IPv6) 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ~ IPv4/IPv6 Tunnel stop Point Address ~ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Call_ID | Tunnel ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Extended Tunnel ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ IPv4/IPv6 Tunnel stop Point Address: 32 bits/128 bits (see [RFC 3209]) Call_ID: 16 bits A 16-bit identifier used in the SESSION remonstrate that remains constant over the life of the Call. The Call_ID value MUST breathe set to zero when there is no corresponding Call. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 10] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 Tunnel ID: 16 bits (see [RFC 3209]) Extended Tunnel ID: 32 bits/128 bits (see [RFC 3209]) 5.3. LINK_CAPABILITY Object The LINK_CAPABILITY remonstrate is introduced to support link capability exchange during summon setup and MAY breathe included in a Notify message used for summon setup. This optional remonstrate includes the link-local capabilities of a link joining the Call-initiating node (or Call- terminating node) to the network. The specific node is indicated by the source address of the Notify message. The link reported can breathe a solitary link or can breathe a bundled link [RFC4201]. The Class Number is selected so that the nodes that conclude not recognize this remonstrate drop it silently. That is, the top bit is set and the next bit is clear. This remonstrate has the following format: Class-Num = 133 (form 10bbbbbb), C_Type = 1 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | // (Subobjects) // | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ The contents of the LINK_CAPABILITY remonstrate is defined as a string of variable-length data items called subobjects. The subobject format is defined in [RFC 3209]. The following subobjects are currently defined. - ilk 1: the link local IPv4 address of a link or a numbered bundle using the format defined in [RFC 3209]. - ilk 2: the link local IPv6 address of a link or a numbered bundle using the format defined in [RFC 3209]. - ilk 4: the link local identifier of an unnumbered link or bundle using the format defined in [RFC3477]. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 11] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 - ilk 64: the Maximum Reservable Bandwidth corresponding to this link or bundle (see [RFC4201]). - ilk 65: the interface switching capability descriptor (see [RFC 4202]) corresponding to this link or bundle (see also [RFC4201]). Note: future revisions of this document may extend the above list. A solitary instance of this remonstrate MAY breathe used to exchange capability information relating to more than one link or bundled link. In this case, the following ordering MUST breathe used: - each link MUST breathe identified by an identifier subobject (Type 1, 2, or 4) - capability subobjects (Type 64 or 65, and future subobjects) MUST breathe placed after the identifier subobject for the link or bundle to which they refer. Multiple instances of the LINK_CAPABILITY remonstrate within the same Notify message are not supported by this specification. In the event that a Notify message contains multiple LINK_CAPABILITY objects, the receiver SHOULD process the first one as unvarying and SHOULD ignore subsequent instances of the object. 5.4. Revised Message Formats The Notify message is enhanced to support summon establishment and teardown of Calls. contemplate Section 6 for a description of the procedures. 5.4.1. Notify Message The Notify message is modified in support of summon establishment by the optional addition of the LINK_CAPABILITY object. Further, the SESSION_ATTRIBUTE remonstrate is added to the <notify session> sequence to carry the long summon ID. The presence of the SESSION_ATTRIBUTE object MAY breathe used to distinguish a Notify message used for summon management, but contemplate Section 5.5 for another mechanism. The <notify session list> MAY breathe used to simultaneously set up multiple Calls. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 12] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 The format of the Notify Message is as follows: <Notify message> ::= <Common Header> [ <INTEGRITY> ] [[ <MESSAGE_ID_ACK> | <MESSAGE_ID_NACK>]...] [ <MESSAGE_ID> ] <ERROR_SPEC> <notify session list> <notify session list> ::= [ <notify session list> ] <notify session> <notify session> ::= <SESSION> [ <ADMIN_STATUS> ] [ <POLICY_DATA>...] [ <LINK_CAPABILITY> ] [ <SESSION_ATTRIBUTE> ] [ <sender descriptor> | <flow descriptor> ] <sender descriptor> ::= contemplate [RFC3473] <flow descriptor> ::= contemplate [RFC3473] 5.5. ADMIN_STATUS Object Notify messages exchanged for summon control and management purposes carry a specific new bit (the summon Management or C bit) in the ADMIN_STATUS object. [RFC3473] indicates that the format and contents of the ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate are as defined in [RFC3471]. The new "C" bit is added for summon control as shown below. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |R| Reserved |C|T|A|D| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Reflect (R): 1 bit - contemplate [RFC3471] Testing (T): 1 bit - contemplate [RFC3471] Administratively down (A): 1 bit - contemplate [RFC3471] Deletion in progress (D): 1 bit - contemplate [RFC3471] summon Management (C): 1 bit This bit is set when the message is being used to control and manage a Call. The procedures for the employ of the C bit are described in Section 6. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 13] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 6. Procedures in support of Calls and Connections 6.1. Call/Connection Setup Procedures This section describes the processing steps for summon and Connection setup. There are three cases considered: - A summon is set up without any associated Connection. It is assumed that Connections will breathe added to the summon at a later time, but this is neither a requirement nor a constraint. - A Connection may breathe added to an existing Call. This may befall if the summon was set up without any associated Connections, or if another Connection is added to a summon that already has one or more associated Connections. - A Connection may breathe established without any reference to a Call (see Section 6.4). This encompasses the previous LSP setup procedure. Note that a summon MUST NOT breathe imposed upon a Connection that is already established. To conclude so would require changing the short Call ID in the SESSION remonstrate of the existing LSPs and this would constitute a change in the Session Identifier. This is not allowed by existing protocol specifications. summon and Connection teardown procedures are described later in Section 6.6. 6.2. summon Setup A summon is set up before, and independent of, LSP (i.e., Connection) setup. summon setup MAY necessitate verification of the link status and link capability negotiation between the summon ingress node and the Call egress node. The procedure described below is applied only once for a summon and hence only once for the set of LSPs associated with a Call. The Notify message (see [RFC3473]) is used to signal the summon setup request and response. The new summon Management (C) bit in the ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate is used to bespeak that this Notify is managing a Call. The Notify message is sent with source and destination IPv4/IPv6 addresses set to any of the routable ingress/egress node addresses respectively. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 14] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 At least one session MUST breathe listed in the <notify session list> of the Notify message. In order to allow for long identification of the Call, the SESSION_ATTRIBUTE remonstrate is added as piece of the <notify session list>. Note that the ERROR_SPEC remonstrate is not relevant in summon setup and MUST carry the mistake Code zero ("Confirmation") to bespeak that there is no error. During summon setup, the ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate is sent with the following bits set. Bits not listed MUST breathe set to zero. R - to cause the egress to respond C - to bespeak that the Notify message is managing a Call. The SESSION, SESSION_ATTRIBUTE, SENDER_TEMPLATE, SENDER_TSPEC objects included in the <notify session> of the Notify message are built as follows. - The SESSION remonstrate includes as Tunnel_End_Point_Address any of the Call-terminating (egress) node's IPv4/IPv6 routable addresses. The Call_ID is set to a non-zero value unique within the context of the address pairing provided by the Tunnel_End_Point_Address and the Sender_Address from the SENDER_TEMPLATE remonstrate (see below). This value will breathe used as the short summon ID carried on bar nonexistent messages for LSPs associated with this Call. Note that the Call_ID value of zero is reserved and MUST NOT be used since it will breathe present in SESSION objects of LSPs that are not associated with Calls. The Tunnel_ID of the SESSION remonstrate is not relevant for this procedure and SHOULD breathe set to zero. The Extended_Tunnel_ID of the SESSION remonstrate is not relevant for this procedure and MAY breathe set to zero or to an address of the ingress node. - The SESSION_ATTRIBUTE remonstrate contains priority flags. Currently no employ of these flags is envisioned, however, future labor may identify value in assigning priorities to Calls; accordingly the Priority fields MAY breathe set to non-zero values. nonexistent of the Flags in the SESSION_ATTRIBUTE remonstrate is relevant to this process and this province SHOULD breathe set to zero. The Session designation province is used to carry the long summon Id as described in Section 5. - The SENDER_TEMPLATE remonstrate includes as Sender Address any of the Call-initiating (ingress) node's IPv4/IPv6 routable addresses. The LSP_ID is not relevant and SHOULD breathe set to zero. - The bandwidth value inserted in the SENDER_TSPEC and FLOWSPEC objects MUST breathe ignored upon receipt and SHOULD breathe set to zero when sent. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 15] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 Additionally, ingress/egress nodes that need to communicate their respective link local capabilities may embrace a LINK_CAPABILITY remonstrate in the Notify message. The receiver of a Notify message may identify whether it is piece of summon management or reporting an mistake by the presence or absence of the SESSION_ATTRIBUTE remonstrate in the <notify session list>. Full clarity, however, may breathe achieved by inspection of the new Call Management (C) bit in the ADMIN_STATUS object. Note that the POLICY_DATA remonstrate may breathe included in the <notify session list> and MAY breathe used to identify requestor credentials, account numbers, limits, quotas, etc. This remonstrate is opaque to RSVP, which simply passes it to policy control when required. Message IDs MUST breathe used during summon setup. 6.2.1. Accepting summon Setup A node that receives a Notify message carrying the ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate with the R and C bits set is being requested to set up a Call. The receiver MAY execute authorization and policy according to local requirements. If the summon is acceptable, the receiver responds with a Notify message reflecting the information from the summon request with two exceptions. - The responder removes any LINK_CAPABLITY remonstrate that was received and MAY insert a LINK_CAPABILITY remonstrate that describes its own access link. - The ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate is sent with only the C bit set. All other bits MUST breathe set to zero. The responder MUST employ the Message ID remonstrate to ensure reliable delivery of the response. If no Message ID Acknowledgement is received after the configured number of retries, the responder SHOULD continue to assume that the summon was successfully established. Call liveliness procedures are covered in Section 6.7. 6.2.2. summon Setup Failure and Rejection summon setup may fail or breathe rejected. If the Notify message can not breathe delivered, no Message ID acknowledgement will breathe received by the sender. In the event that the sender has retransmitted the Notify message a configurable number Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 16] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 of times without receiving a Message ID Acknowledgement (as described in [RFC 2961]), the initiator SHOULD declare the summon failed and SHOULD route a summon teardown request (see Section 6.6). It is too viable that a Message ID Acknowledgement is received but no summon response Notify message is received. In this case, the initiator MAY re-send the summon setup request a configurable number of times (see Section 6.7) before declaring that the summon has failed. At this point, the initiator MUST route a summon teardown request (see Section 6.6). If the Notify message cannot breathe parsed or is in error, it MAY be responded to with a Notify message carrying the mistake code 13 ("Unknown remonstrate class") or 14 ("Unknown remonstrate C-Type") if commandeer to the mistake detected. The summon setup MAY breathe rejected by the receiver because of security, authorization, or policy reasons. Suitable mistake codes already exist [RFC 2205] and can breathe used in the ERROR_SPEC remonstrate included in the Notify message sent in response. mistake response Notify messages SHOULD too employ the Message ID object to achieve reliable delivery. No action should breathe taken on the failure to receive a Message ID Acknowledgement after the configured number of retries. 6.3. Adding a Connections to a Call Once a summon has been established, LSPs can breathe added to the Call. Since the short summon ID is piece of the SESSION object, any LSP that has the selfsame summon ID value in the SESSION remonstrate belongs to the same Call, and the Notify message used to establish the summon carried the selfsame summon ID in its SESSION object. There will breathe no confusion between LSPs that are associated with a summon and those which are not, since the summon ID value MUST breathe equal to zero for LSPs that are not associated with a Call, and MUST NOT be equal to zero for a telling summon ID. LSPs for different Calls can breathe distinguished because the summon ID is unique within the context of the source address (in the SENDER_TEMPLATE object) and the destination address (in the SESSION object). Ingress and egress nodes MAY group together LSPs associated with the selfsame summon and process them as a group according to implementation requirements. Transit nodes need not breathe aware of the association of multiple LSPs with the selfsame Call. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 17] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 The ingress node MAY select to set the "Session Name" of an LSP to match the long summon ID of the associated Call. The C bit of the ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate MUST NOT breathe set on LSP messages including on Notify messages that pertain to the LSP and MUST be ignored. 6.3.1. Adding a reverse Direction LSP to a Call Note that once a summon has been established, it is symmetric. That is, either stop of the summon may add LSPs to the Call. Special permeate is needed when managing LSPs in the reverse direction since the addresses in the SESSION and SENDER_TEMPLATE are reversed. However, since the short summon ID is unique in the context of a given ingress-egress address pair, it may safely breathe used to associate the LSP with the Call. Note that since Calls are defined here to breathe symmetrical, the issue of potential summon ID impact arises. This is discussed in Section 6.5. 6.4. Call-Free Connection Setup It continues to breathe viable to set up LSPs as per [RFC3473] without associating them with a Call. If the short summon ID in the SESSION remonstrate is set to zero, there is no associated summon and the Session designation province in the SESSION_ATTRIBUTE remonstrate MUST breathe interpreted simply as the designation of the session (see [RFC 3209]). The C bit of the ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate MUST NOT breathe set on messages for LSP control, including on Notify messages that pertain to LSPs, and MUST breathe ignored when received on such messages. 6.5. summon Collision Since Calls are symmetrical, it is viable that both ends of a Call will attempt to establish Calls with the selfsame long summon IDs at the selfsame time. This is only an issue if the source and destination address pairs match. This situation can breathe avoided by applying some rules to the contents of the long summon ID, but such mechanisms are outside the scope of this document. If a node that has sent a summon setup request and has not yet received a response itself receives a summon setup request with the selfsame long summon ID and matching source/destination addresses, it SHOULD process as follows: Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 18] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 - If its source address is numerically greater than the remote source address, it MUST discard the received message and continue to wait for a response to its setup request. - If its source address is numerically smaller than the remote source address, it MUST discard status associated with the Call setup that it initiated, and MUST respond to the received Call setup. If a node receives a summon setup request carrying an address pair and long summon ID that match an existing Call, the node MUST recrudesce an mistake message (Notify message) with the new mistake Code "Call Management" and the new mistake Value "Duplicate Call" in response to the new summon request, and MUST NOT accomplish any changes to the existing Call. A further possibility for contention arises when short summon IDs are assigned by a pair of nodes for two discrete Calls that are set up simultaneously using different long summon IDs. In this event, a node receives a summon setup request carrying a short summon ID that matches one that it previously sent for the selfsame address pair. The following processing MUST breathe followed: - If the receiver's source address is numerically greater than the remote source address, the receiver returns an mistake (Notify message) with the new mistake Code "Call Management" and the new mistake Value "Call ID Contention". - If the receiver's source address is numerically less than the remote source address, the receiver accepts and processes the Call request. It will receive an mistake message sent as described above, and at that point, it selects a new short summon ID and re- sends the summon setup request. 6.6. Call/Connection Teardown As with Call/Connection setup, there are several cases to consider. - Removal of a Connection from a Call - Removal of the ultimate Connection from a Call - Teardown of an "empty" Call The case of tearing down an LSP that is not associated with a Call does not need to breathe examined as it follows exactly the procedures described in [RFC3473]. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 19] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 6.6.1. Removal of a Connection from a Call An LSP that is associated with a summon may breathe deleted using the gauge procedures described in [RFC3473]. No special procedures are required. Note that it is not viable to remove an LSP from a summon without deleting the LSP. It is not telling to change the short summon ID from non-zero to zero since this involves a change to the SESSION object, which is not allowed. 6.6.2. Removal of the ultimate Connection from a Call When the ultimate LSP associated with a summon is deleted, the question arises as to what happens to the Call. Since a summon may exist independently of Connections, it is not always acceptable to vow that the removal of the ultimate LSP from a summon removes the Call. The removal of the ultimate LSP does not remove the summon and the procedures described in the next Section MUST breathe used to delete the Call. 6.6.3. Teardown of an "Empty" Call When bar nonexistent LSPs Have been removed from a Call, the summon may breathe torn down or left for employ by future LSPs. Deletion of Calls is achieved by sending a Notify message just as for summon setup, but the ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate carries the R, D, and C bits on the teardown request and the D and C bits on the teardown response. Other bits MUST breathe set to zero. When a Notify message is sent for deleting a summon and the initiator does not receive the corresponding reflected Notify message (or possibly even the Message ID Ack), the initiator MAY retry the deletion request using the selfsame retry procedures as used during Call establishment. If no response is received after replete retry, the node deleting the summon MAY declare the summon deleted, but under such circumstances the node SHOULD avoid re-using the long or short Call IDs for at least five times the Notify refresh period. 6.6.4. Attempted Teardown of a summon with Existing Connections If a Notify request with the D bit of the ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate set is received for a summon for which LSPs soundless exist, the request MUST be rejected with the mistake Code "Call Management" and mistake Value "Connections soundless Exist". The status of the summon MUST NOT be changed. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 20] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 6.6.5. Teardown of a summon from the Egress Since Calls are symmetric, they may breathe torn down from the ingress or egress. When the summon is "empty" (has no associated LSPs), it may breathe deleted by the egress sending a Notify message just as described above. Note that there is a possibility that both ends of a summon initiate summon deletion at the selfsame time. In this case, the Notify message acting as teardown request MAY breathe interpreted by its recipient as a teardown response. But since the Notify messages acting as teardown requests carry the R bit in the ADMIN_STATUS object, they MUST be responded to anyway. If a teardown request Notify message is received for an unknown summon ID, it is, nevertheless, responded to in the affirmative. 6.7. Control Plane Survivability Delivery of Notify messages is secured using Message ID Acknowledgements as described in previous sections. Notify messages provide end-to-end communication that does not rely on constant paths through the network. Notify messages are routed according to IGP routing information. No consideration is, therefore, required for network resilience (for example, make- before-break, protection, rapidly re-route), although end-to-end resilience is of interest for node restart and completely disjoint networks. fitful Notify messages SHOULD breathe sent by the initiator and terminator of the summon to reserve the summon alive and to wield ingress or egress node restart. The time period for these retransmissions is a local matter, but it is RECOMMENDED that this period should be twice the shortest refresh period of any LSP associated with the Call. When there are no LSPs associated with a Call, an LSR is RECOMMENDED to employ a refresh period of no less than one minute. The Notify messages are identical to those sent as if establishing the summon for the first time, except for the LINK_CAPABILITY object, which may Have changed since the summon was first established, due to, e.g., the establishment of Connections, link failures, or the addition of new component links. The current link information is useful for the establishment of subsequent Connections. A node that receives a refresh Notify message carrying the R bit in the ADMIN_STATUS object MUST respond with a Notify response. A node that receives a refresh Notify message (response or request) MAY reset its timer - thus, in unvarying processing, Notify refreshes involve a solitary exchange once per time period. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 21] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 A node (sender or receiver) that is unsure of the status of a Call MAY immediately route a Notify message as if establishing the summon for the first time. Failure to receive a refresh Notify request has no specific meaning. A node that fails to receive a refresh Notify request MAY route its own refresh Notify request to establish the status of the Call. If a node receives no response to a refresh Notify request (including no Message ID Acknowledgement), a node MAY assume that the remote node is unreachable or unavailable. It is a local policy matter whether this causes the local node to teardown associated LSPs and delete the Call. In the event that an edge node restarts without preserved state, it MAY relearn LSP status from adjacent nodes and summon status from remote nodes. If a Path or Resv message is received with a non-zero summon ID but without the C bit in the ADMIN_STATUS, and for a summon ID that is not recognized, the receiver is RECOMMENDED to assume that the Call establishment is delayed and ignore the received message. If the summon setup never materializes, the failure by the restarting node to refresh status will cause the LSPs to breathe torn down. Optionally, the receiver of such an LSP message for an unknown summon ID may recrudesce an mistake (PathErr or ResvErr message) with the mistake code "Call Management" and mistake Value "Unknown summon ID". 7. Applicability of summon and Connection Procedures This section considers the applicability of the different Call establishment procedures at the NNI and UNI reference points. This section is informative and is not intended to prescribe or prevent other options. 7.1. Network-Initiated Calls Since the link properties and other traffic-engineering attributes are likely known through the IGP, the LINK_CAPABILITY remonstrate is not usually required. In multi-domain networks, it is viable that access link properties and other traffic-engineering attributes are not known since the domains conclude not participate this sort of information. In this case, the summon setup mechanism may embrace the LINK_CAPABILITY object. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 22] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 7.2. User-Initiated Calls It is viable that the access link properties and other traffic- engineering attributes are not shared across the core network. In this case, the summon setup mechanism may embrace the LINK_CAPABILITY object. Further, the first node within the network may breathe answerable for managing the Call. In this case, the Notify message that is used to set up the summon is addressed by the user network edge node to the first node of the core network. Moreover, neither the long summon ID nor the short summon ID is supplied (the Session designation Length is set to zero and the summon ID value is set to zero). The Notify message is passed to the first core node, which is answerable for generating the long and short summon IDs before dispatching the message to the remote summon stop point (which is known from the SESSION object). Further, when used in an overlay context, the first core node is allowed (see [RFC4208]) to supplant the Session designation assigned by the ingress node and passed in the Path message. In the case of Call management, the first core node: 1) MAY insert a long summon ID in the Session designation of a Path message. 2) MUST supplant the Session designation with that originally issued by the user edge node when it returns the Resv message to the ingress node. 7.3. External summon Managers Third party summon management agents may breathe used to apply policy and authorization at a point that is neither the initiator nor terminator of the Call. The previous case is a particular case of this, but the process and procedures are identical. 7.3.1. summon Segments summon Segments exist between a set of default and configured External summon Managers along a path between the ingress and egress nodes, and employ the protocols described in this document. The techniques that are used by a given service provider to identify which External summon Managers within its network should process a given summon are beyond the scope of this document. An External summon Manager uses unvarying IP routing to route the Notify message to the next External summon Manager. Notify messages (requests Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 23] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 and responses) are therefore encapsulated in IP packets that identify the sending and receiving External summon Managers, but the addresses used to identify the summon (the Sender Address in the SENDER_TEMPLATE remonstrate and the Tunnel Endpoint Address in the SESSION object) continue to identify the endpoints of the Call. 8. Non-Support of summon ID It is Important that the procedures described above operate as seamlessly as viable with legacy nodes that conclude not support the extensions described. Clearly, there is no need to account the case where the Call initiator does not support summon setup initiation. 8.1. Non-Support by External summon Managers It is unlikely that a summon initiator will breathe configured to route Call establishment Notify requests to an external summon manager, including the first core node, if that node does not support summon setup. A node that receives an unexpected summon setup request will drop into one of the following categories. - Node does not support RSVP. The message will fail to breathe delivered or responded to. No Message ID Acknowledgement will breathe sent. The initiator will retry and then give up. - Node supports RSVP or RSVP-TE but not GMPLS. The message will be delivered but not understood. It will breathe discarded. No Message ID Acknowledgement will breathe sent. The initiator will retry and then give up. - Node supports GMPLS but not summon management. The message will be delivered, but parsing will fail because of the presence of the SESSION_ATTRIBUTE object. A Message ID Acknowledgement may be sent before the parse fails. When the parse fails, the Notify message may breathe discarded in which case the initiator will retry and then give up; alternatively, a parse mistake may breathe generated and returned in a Notify message which will bespeak to the initiator that summon management is not supported. 8.2. Non-Support by Transit Node Transit nodes SHOULD NOT examine Notify messages that are not addressed to them. However, they will contemplate short summon IDs in all messages for bar nonexistent LSPs associated with Calls. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 24] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 Previous specifications status that these fields SHOULD breathe ignored on receipt and MUST breathe transmitted as zero. This might breathe interpreted by some implementations as signification that the fields should breathe zeroed before the objects are forwarded. If this happens, LSP setup will not breathe possible. If either of the fields is zeroed either on the Path or the Resv message, the Resv message will attain the initiator with the province set to zero - this is an indication to the initiator that some node in the network is preventing summon management. employ of express Routes may abet to mitigate this issue by avoiding such nodes. Ultimately, however, it may breathe necessary to upgrade the offending nodes to wield these protocol extensions. 8.3. Non-Support by Egress Node It is unlikely that an attempt will breathe made to set up a summon to a remote node that does not support Calls. If the egress node does not support summon management through the Notify message, it will react (as described in Section 8.1) in the selfsame way as an External summon Manager. 9. Security Considerations delight advert to each of the documents referenced in the following sections for a description of the security considerations applicable to the features that they provide. 9.1. summon and Connection Security Considerations summon setup is vulnerable to attacks both of spoofing and denial of service. Since summon setup uses Notify messages, the process can be protected by the employ of the INTEGRITY remonstrate to secure those messages as described in [RFC 2205] and [RFC3473]. Deployments where security is a concern SHOULD employ this mechanism. Implementations and deployments MAY additionally protect the Call setup exchange using end-to-end security mechanisms such as those provided by IPsec (see [RFC-4302] and [RFC-4303]), or using RSVP security [RFC 2747]. Note, additionally, that it would breathe desirable to employ the process of independent summon establishment, where the summon is set up separately from the LSPs, to apply an extra flush of authentication and policy for the end-to-end LSPs above that which is available with Call-less, hop-by-hop LSP setup. However doing so will require additional work to set up security associations between the peer and the summon manager that meet the requirements of [RFC 4107]. The mechanism described in this document is expected to meet this employ case when combined with Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 25] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 this additional work. Application of this mechanism to the authentication and policy employ case prior to standardization of a security solution is inappropriate and outside the current applicability of the mechanism. The frequency of summon establishment is application contingent and hard to generalize. Key exchange for Call-related message exchanges is therefore something that should breathe configured or arranged dynamically in different deployments according to the counsel in [RFC 4107]. Note that the remote RSVP-TE signaling relationship between summon endpoints is no different from the signaling relationship between LSRs that establish an LSP. That is, the LSRs are not necessarily IP-adjacent in the control plane in either case. Thus, key exchange should be regarded as a remote procedure, not a solitary hop procedure. There are several procedures for automatic remote exchange of keys, and IKEv2 [RFC4306] is particularly suggested in [RFC3473]. 10. IANA Considerations 10.1. RSVP Objects A new RSVP remonstrate is introduced. IANA has made an assignment from the "RSVP Parameters" registry using the sub-registry "Class Names, Class Numbers, and Class Types". o LINK_CAPABILITY object Class-Num = 133 (form 10bbbbbb) The Class Number is selected so that nodes not recognizing this remonstrate drop it silently. That is, the top bit is set and the next bit is cleared. C-Type = 1 (TE Link Capabilities) The LINK_CAPABILITY remonstrate is only defined for inclusion on Notify messages. advert to Section 5.3 of this document. IANA maintains a list of subobjects that may breathe carried in this object. This list is maintained in the registry entry for the LINK_CAPABILITY remonstrate as is common drill for the subobjects of other RSVP objects. For each subobject, IANA lists: - subobject ilk number - subobject name - reference indicating where subobject is defined. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 26] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 The initial list of subobjects is provided in Section 5.3 of this document. 10.2. RSVP mistake Codes and mistake Values A new RSVP mistake Code and new mistake Values are introduced. IANA has made assignments from the "RSVP Parameters" registry using the sub- registry "Error Codes and Globally-Defined mistake Value Sub-Codes". o mistake Codes: - summon Management (value 32) o mistake Values: - summon Management/Call ID Contention (value 1) - summon Management/Connections soundless Exist (value 2) - summon Management/Unknown summon ID (value 3) - summon Management/Duplicate summon (value 4) 10.3. RSVP ADMIN_STATUS remonstrate Bits [GMPLS-E2E] requested that IANA manage the bits of the RSVP ADMIN_STATUS object. A new "Administrative Status Information Flags" sub-registry of the "GMPLS Signaling Parameters" registry was created. This document defines one new bit, the C bit, to breathe tracked in that sub-registry. Bit number 28 has been assigned. contemplate Section 5.5 of this document. 11. Acknowledgements The authors would dote to thank George Swallow, Yakov Rekhter, Lou Berger, Jerry Ash, and Kireeti Kompella for their very useful input to, and comments on, an earlier revision of this document. Thanks to Lyndon Ong and Ben Mack-Crane for lengthy discussions during and after working group ultimate call, and to Deborah Brungard for a final, minute review. Thanks to Suresh Krishnan for the GenArt review, and to Magnus Nystrom for discussions about security. Useful comments were received during IESG review from Brian Carpenter, Lars Eggert, Ted Hardie, Sam Hartman, and Russ Housley. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 27] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 12. References 12.1. Normative References [GMPLS-E2E] Lang, J., Ed., Rekhter, Y., Ed., and D. Papadimitriou, Ed., "RSVP-TE Extensions in support of End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Recovery", RFC 4872, May 2007. [RFC 2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for employ in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC 2205] Braden, R., Ed., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S. Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1 Functional Specification", RFC 2205, September 1997. [RFC 2747] Baker, F., Lindell, B., and M. Talwar, "RSVP Cryptographic Authentication", RFC 2747, January 2000. [RFC 2961] Berger, L., Gan, D., Swallow, G., Pan, P., Tommasi, F., and S. Molendini, "RSVP Refresh Overhead Reduction Extensions", RFC 2961, April 2001. [RFC 3209] Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan, V., and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels", RFC 3209, December 2001. [RFC3471] Berger, L., Ed., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description", RFC 3471, January 2003. [RFC3473] Berger, L., Ed., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions", RFC 3473, January 2003. [RFC3477] Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "Signalling Unnumbered Links in Resource ReSerVation Protocol - Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE)", RFC3477, January 2003. [RFC3945] Mannie, E., Ed., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Architecture", RFC3945, October 2004. [RFC4201] Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., and L. Berger, "Link Bundling in MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE)", RFC4201, October 2005. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 28] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 [RFC 4202] Kompella, K., Ed., and Y. Rekhter, Ed., "Routing Extensions in support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)", RFC 4202, October 2005. [RFC4208] Swallow, G., Drake, J., Ishimatsu, H., and Y. Rekhter, "Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) User- Network Interface (UNI): Resource ReserVation Protocol- Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) support for the Overlay Model", RFC4208, October 2005. [RFC-4302] Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC-4302, December 2005. [RFC-4303] Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC 4303, December 2005. [RFC4306] Kaufman, C., Ed., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol", RFC4306, December 2005. [RFC4426] Lang, J., Ed., Rajagopalan, B., Ed., and D. Papadimitriou, Ed., "Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Recovery Functional Specification", RFC 4426, March 2006. 12.2. Informative References [ASON-APPL] Drake, J., Papadimitriou, D., Farrel, A., Brungard, D., Ali, Z., Ayyangar, A., Ould-Brahim, H., and D. Fedyk, "Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) RSVP-TE Signalling in support of Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON), labor in Progress, July 2005. [RFC 4107] Bellovin, S. and R. Housley, "Guidelines for Cryptographic Key Management", BCP 107, RFC 4107, June 2005. [RFC4139] Papadimitriou, D., Drake, J., Ash, J., Farrel, A., and L. Ong, "Requirements for Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Signaling Usage and Extensions for Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON)", RFC4139, July 2005. [STITCH] Ayyangar, A., Kompella, K., Vasseur, JP., and A. Farrel, "Label Switched Path Stitching with Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering (GMPLS TE)", labor in Progress, April 2007. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 29] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 For information on the availability of the following document, please contemplate http://www.itu.int. [G.8080] ITU-T, "Architecture for the Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON)," Recommendation G.8080/ Y.1304, November 2001 (and Revision, January 2003). Authors' Addresses John Drake Boeing Satellite Systems 2300 East Imperial Highway El Segundo, CA 90245 EMail: John.E.Drake2@boeing.com Deborah Brungard (AT&T) Rm. D1-3C22 - 200 S. Laurel Ave. Middletown, NJ 07748, USA EMail: dbrungard@att.com Zafar Ali (Cisco) 100 South Main St. #200 Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA EMail: zali@cisco.com Arthi Ayyangar (Nuova Systems) 2600 San Tomas Expressway Santa Clara, CA 95051 EMail: arthi@nuovasystems.com Don Fedyk (Nortel Networks) 600 Technology Park Drive Billerica, MA, 01821, USA EMail: dwfedyk@nortel.com Contact Addresses Dimitri Papadimitriou Alcatel-Lucent, Fr. Wellesplein 1, B-2018 Antwerpen, Belgium Phone: +32 3 240-8491 EMail: dimitri.papadimitriou@alcatel-lucent.be Adrian Farrel traditional Dog Consulting Phone: +44 (0) 1978 860944 EMail: adrian@olddog.co.uk Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 30] RFC 4974 GMPLS RSVP-TE Signaling Extensions August 2007 Full Copyright Statement Copyright (C) The IETF dependence (2007). This document is topic to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors retain bar nonexistent their rights. This document and the information contained herein are provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF dependence AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING task coerce DISCLAIM bar nonexistent WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE employ OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Intellectual Property The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might breathe claimed to pertain to the implementation or employ of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not breathe available; nor does it limn that it has made any independent application to identify any such rights. Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be organize in BCP 78 and BCP 79. Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any assurances of licenses to breathe made available, or the result of an attempt made to obtain a universal license or authorization for the employ of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this specification can breathe obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at http://www.ietf.org/ipr. The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary rights that may cover technology that may breathe required to implement this standard. delight address the information to the IETF at ietf-ipr@ietf.org. Acknowledgement Funding for the RFC Editor office is currently provided by the Internet Society. Papadimitriou & Farrel Standards Track [Page 31]


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