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310-302 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Network Administrator for Solaris 10 OS
Test Code : 310-302
Test denomination : Sun Certified Network Administrator for Solaris 10 OS
Vendor denomination : SUN
: 317 existent Questions
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Computime's Ian Attard is the primary fully licensed Maltese trainer in solar Solaris, the established operating gadget for servers. Most gaming and telecommunication providers in Malta expend Solaris, for this understanding the require for Solaris practicing comes potent from these corporations.
This changed into the ultimate step for Computime to provide the entire sweep of coaching on Solaris on a autochthonous degree. The enterprise first became an authorized sun education centre, and consequently started on the Java path. once the company has relative and familiarised itself with solar's practicing strategies, it became simplest herbal to movement on to the Solaris courses.
"competencies discovered prerogative through the lessons encompass primary to superior working materiel strategies, spanning from basic configurations comparable to disk formatting and chopping, network configurations and troubleshooting suggestions to working materiel returned-up and recovery strategies," Mr Attard instructed i-Tech . "All of those talents might exist used during training lessons as the route may exist very hands-on and lets students event these first hand. The atmosphere become very conducive to researching with plenty of advice purchasable from sun to create my process as painless as viable."
Solaris working device certifications are wreck up into three components.
The solar certified Solaris Administrator half 1 course starts from the very basics and tackles the basic and intermediate administrative projects that a Solaris administrator will deserve to exist alert of. This path additionally builds the foundation for other greater advanced concepts and is a prerequisite to the solar certified Solaris Administrator half 2 route.
The 2nd course builds on the ideas coated by way of the fragment 1 path and introduces other more advanced administrative projects akin to extra superior installing strategies and working gadget troubleshooting and prognosis. After this course the scholar is eligible to enact the examination and develop into a solar licensed programs administrator.
The third path, the sun certified community Administrator, specializes in the networking points current in the Solaris operating gadget and tackles subjects corresponding to IP routing, particularly redundant networking configurations and cargo-balancing thoughts on the operating system degree. After this route the scholar is eligible to enact the examination and revolve into a sun certified network administrator.
Mr Attard reassures that it is not complicated to find out how to expend and exploit Solaris.
"lots of the Solaris ideas are very akin to the ideas organize in different Unix-primarily based operating systems, hence prior competencies in other working programs equivalent to Linux will prove to exist very beneficial in the transition to Solaris. even so, Solaris isn't a difficult operating gadget to exist trained to expend from scratch."
particulars on Solaris courses are available from Computime.
licensed Solaris device administrators are information expertise (IT) experts who deploy and retain network servers operating one of the vital Solaris operating system at the flash obtainable during the Oracle enterprise. they are continually employed with the aid of corporations and other groups with computing device networks that expend the business's open source software products. As techniques directors, they can besides also boos other IT workforce and respond to questions and preservation requests from workplace worker's.training Bachelor's degree in tips know-how or desktop science informed Job expertise Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, verbal exchange salary sweep (2019)* $61,390 to $a hundred forty five,437 with solar licensed gadget Administrator credentials Job increase (2016-2026)** 6% for community and laptop systems administrators
source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor statisticsRequired education
Most systems directors Have accomplished a Bachelor of Science in information technology, desktop Science or a connected container. Core coursework typically comprises topics in programming languages and approaches, networking and programs design. Solaris certifications can exist organize in the course of the Oracle employer in network, security and techniques administration. requirements encompass a passing score on an examination, which candidates can prepare for by means of enrolling in courses on the Oracle Academy or an authorized training middle, reviewing seminar packages and taking commemorate checks.potential Required
systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are in a position to troubleshoot issues for giant agencies of network system clients. stressful situations require clear, speedy thinking, and may contain working long hours except the problem is mounted. The potential to multitask can exist advantageous when managing multiple undertaking at a time. communication competencies are key when working with nontechnical group of workers participants.career and revenue Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS) estimated that jobs for gadget directors in chummy will boost by using a regular pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. licensed device administrators will fetch delectation from remarkable job prospects, as agencies more and more matter on full-time authorities to retain their computer working programs. in line with Payscale.com, licensed programs directors for Solaris working methods earned between $sixty one,390 and $one hundred forty five,437 in April 2019.
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Peter Gregory discusses user account configuration files; adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool and shell commands; user shells; and user account commands in Solaris 8.
This sample chapter is excerpted from Sun Certified System Administrator for Solaris 8 Study Guide, by Peter Gregory.This chapter is from the bespeak
After completing this chapter, you'll exist able to
Identify the following login procedures: log into a system, log out of a system, and change login passwords.
State the command used to identify which users are currently logged into the system.
State the steps required to create user accounts on the local system using the admintool utility.
State the command syntax to add, modify, or delete user/group accounts on the local system with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.
Given a user's login shell, list the shell initialization files used to set up a user's labor environment at login.
To fulfill these objectives, this chapter discusses:
User account configuration files;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with Admintool;
Adding, modifying, and deleting user accounts with shell commands;
User shells; and
User account commands.
Three principal files define the identity of a user account: the password file, the shadow file, and the group file.The Password File
The password file contains the basic identifying information for each user allowed to access a system. The system location of the password file is /etc/passwd. The format of the password file is:username:password:uid:gid:gcos-field:home-dir:login-shell
These fields are:
username—the denomination that identifies the user account.
password—in Solaris 8 an "x" in this territory signifies that the corresponding shadow file contains the encrypted password string.
uid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the account. The maximum value for UID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to expend values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with All of the tools that are used to manage accounts or array information that includes usernames.
gid—the primary (default) numerical group ID assigned to the account. affection the UID field, the maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but a maximum of 60,000 is preferable.
gcos-field—this is the user's existent denomination (the term "gcos-field" is the historical term for this field).
home-dir—the directory where the user is placed after logging in; this usually contains the user's own files and directories.
login-shell—the initial shell that is started on behalf of the user upon logging in. If this territory is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.
The password file can exist read by anyone on the system. There is no information that must exist kept underhand in this file. A sample password file looks affection this:root:x:0:1:Super-User:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:3:3::/: adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls: pete:x:100:4:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh nobody:x:60001:60001:Nobody:/:
Fields in the password file are delimited by colons (":"), and blank fields are signified by two adjacent colons ("::"). For instance, note that the account denomination territory for daemon is blank—just two colons. Also, daemon has no shell entry, so the final character for daemon is the colon delimiter.
The colon delimiter is besides used in the shadow and group files, which are discussed in a later section.
It is viable and permissible to create more than one username in the password file with the selfsame UID. Each username will Have its own unique password. However, tools such as ls and ps, when used with options displaying username, will array the first username organize in the password file matching the UID.
When a new account is added, changed, or removed with the useradd, usermod, or userdel commands (which are discussed later in this chapter), the system creates a backup copy of the password file, called /etc/opasswd.The Shadow File
The shadow file contains each user account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password aging." The system location of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:username:password:lastchg:min:max:warn:inactive:expire:flag
These fields are:
username—this is the selfsame username organize in the password file.
password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this territory contains a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.
lastchg—date of final password change (literally the number of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password was final changed).
min—minimum number of days allowed before the password can exist changed.
max—maximum number of days allowed before the password expires.
warn—the number of days prior to expiration that the user is warned.
inactive—the number of days of inactivity allowed for the account before the account is automatically locked.
expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.
flag—a territory reserved for future use.
The shadow file is restricted so that only the system administrator can read it. This is because an intruder could fulfill a "dictionary attack," using guessable passwords in an attempt to determine the passwords for one or more accounts. Programs that "crack" account passwords are available for this purpose; thus, the shadow file is not publicly readable.
A sample shadow file looks affection this:root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: listen:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: nobody:NP:6445::::::
Note that some of the accounts in the sample shadow file Have "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are just two ways of signifying that the accounts are locked against login. There is nothing really magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are just one way of easily showing that these accounts are locked and going to stay that way. You could keep other text in the password territory to suit your needs; for instance, a helpdesk ticket number or a date.
When a user changes his or her password, the system creates a backup copy of the shadow file, called /etc/oshadow. This besides occurs if root changes a user's password.
Think About It . . .
Why are encrypted passwords organize in /etc/shadow and not in /etc/passwd?
For many commands (ps, ls, etc.) to labor properly, /etc/passwd must exist world readable. Prior to the expend of /etc/shadow, All users' encrypted password strings were besides publicly readable. This gave people with "password cracking" programs an chance to determine other users' passwords. By pitiable the encrypted password strings to /etc/shadow (which can exist read only by root), the capacity to access encrypted passwords is eliminated.
First, a bit of history. Older versions of UNIX did not Have a shadow file; instead, the encrypted password string was organize in the password file, in the second territory that is usually filled with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris still supports the encrypted password appearing in the password file, although this is not advisable, since the password file is publicly readable.
Older versions of UNIX with no shadow file besides had no password-aging capability.
The Network Information System (NIS) subsystem was designed around the musty shadow-less architecture; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it back password aging.The Group File
The group file contains a listing of All of the groups on the system, along with each group's numeric groupid and a list of each of the usernames that are secondary members of each group. The location of the group file is /etc/group. The format of the group file is:groupname:password:gid:user-list
These fields are:
groupname—this is the denomination of the group.
password—this is an optional password for the group.
gid—the unique numerical ID assigned to the group. The maximum value for GID is 2147483647, but administrators are urged to expend values less than 60,000 to ensure compatibility with All of the tools that are used to manage accounts or array information that includes group names.
user-list—a comma-separated list of users allowed in the group. These groups are users' secondary group IDs.
A sample group file follows.root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::3:root,bin,sys,adm adm::4:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::8:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp staff:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: nobody::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:
Note the password territory in the group "staff." Groups can exist password protected by putting a password string into the password field. Note, though, that this is a completely manual process; there are no tools provided to keep the group password in for you.
Hint: You can bewitch a password string from the shadow file and expend the vi editor to splice it into the group file. The group password will exist the selfsame as the account password from the shadow entry where you took the password string.
When a group is password protected, anyone who is not a member of the group will exist challenged for the group's password when they Have entered the newgrp command.Primary and Secondary Groupids
Each user account has one primary groupid—this is the group defined in the password file. When a user logs on, this is his or her associated groupid.
Each user account besides has zero or more secondary groupids. A user's secondary groups are those group entries that embrace the username in their lists of members.
There are some useful limitations of groupids. For example, each user account can exist in no more than 16 groups, and a line in the group file cannot exceed 512 characters (including the newline character).
What happens if you necessity to add so many members to a group that you exceed the 512-character entry limit? You simply create another duplicate group entry—same denomination and group number—and list the additional members there.
The primary and secondary groupids directly impact file system access permissions, which is explored fully in Chapter 10.
Think About It . . .
What would exist the outcome if a username were added to a group file entry when that group was the user's primary group?
The additional entry would Have no effect, since the user is already configured for the primary group membership in the /etc/passwd file.The Root Account
The root account has special privileges on a system: Root is permitted to read and write every file on a system, regardless of the file's ownership and authorization settings. System administrators log in with the root account so that they can fulfill administrative tasks.
The root account gets its power and privilege from the value of its user number: Root is user number zero, defined in the password file.
Think About It . . .
What would exist the effects of changing an ordinary user's user number to zero? What odds might there exist of putting root's entry at the conclude of the passwd file (instead of the beginning)?
Changing an ordinary user's user number to zero gives the user root privileges.
One odds of putting root at the conclude of the password file is that if an intruder is able to modify the password file to give another user root privilege (see the first question here), then output from commands such as ls and ps would note that other user as the owner of root processes and files.
Certified Solaris system administrators are information technology (IT) professionals who install and maintain network servers running one of the Solaris operating system currently available through the Oracle Corporation. They are usually employed by businesses and other organizations with computer networks that expend the company's open source software products. As systems administrators, they may besides boos other IT staff and respond to questions and maintenance requests from office workers.Education Bachelor's degree in information technology or computer science recommended Job Skills Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communication Salary sweep (2019)* $61,390 to $145,437 with Sun Certified System Administrator credentials Job Growth (2016-2026)** 6% for network and computer systems administrators
Source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor StatisticsRequired Education
Most systems administrators Have completed a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field. Core coursework typically includes topics in programming languages and procedures, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle Corporation in network, security and systems administration. Requirements embrace a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an approved training center, reviewing seminar packages and taking practice exams.Skills Required
Systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are able to troubleshoot issues for big groups of network system users. Stressful situations require clear, expeditiously thinking, and can involve working long hours until the problem is fixed. The capacity to multitask can exist helpful when managing more than one project at a time. Communication skills are key when working with nontechnical staff members.Career and Salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that jobs for system administrators in universal will increase by an medium pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. Certified system administrators will luxuriate in excellent job prospects, as businesses increasingly reckon on full-time professionals to maintain their computer operating systems. According to Payscale.com, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating systems earned between $61,390 and $145,437 in April 2019.
Seldom is a data hub asked to enact less. More often, it's asked to enact more with less—fewer computers and less power consumption. One significant industry discussion for the past few years has been regarding a reduction in the number of physical servers and an increase in the application-to-server ratio to maximize server utilization. Often, this increase is done via virtualization.
At Texas Instruments (TI), they Have numerous data centers and design environments that thrive on the expend of Linux and Solaris. Typically, each OS is installed on individual systems stacked tall and aligned in rows throughout the data center. Linux applications flee on Linux; Solaris applications flee on Solaris.
Recently, a new virtualization solution has emerged that enables IT professionals to combine Linux and Solaris together within one physical environment. This solution reduces the number of physical systems in the computer environment and increases server labor with greater efficiency.
One of the Solaris virtualization environments is called Solaris-Zones (also known as Solaris-Containers). Through the progress of Open-Solaris, Solaris-Zones has been expanded to back zone branding. Solaris-Zones now enables the creation of “lx” branded zones. The lx branded zone supports the installation and execution of the Linux OS and its applications. When lx branded zones are used in conjunction with the ZFS (Zeta-byte File System), Linux environments are able to enact more, faster.
Linux always has been about technical developers and enthusiasts doing whatever moves them. The security of Solaris-Zones combined with the power of Linux opens a huge new frontier of progress freedom—from the enterprise environment to the sole desktop. With Solaris-Zones, it's light to define, create, install and execute Linux (lx) branded zones.
This article introduces lx branded zones and presents the necessary tools for each step of the zone management process. Readers should Have some understanding of a chroot environment and the basic concepts of virtual machines (VMs) and the features they provide. scholarship of these concepts is not required, but it will attend in conveying what a zone is and create a better platform for understanding.
So, what is a zone? A zone provides security and virtualization in a unique way. The Solaris-Zone has its own filesystem with a root directory, system files and so on, affection that of the primary environment of the physical system. The private root filesystem, one per zone, gives it the capacity to exist fully configurable and flexible. A zone provides nearly the selfsame suffer as the main OS. In this regard, it is affection a VM without the VM hardware emulation layer.
The zone is provided with an operating environment but without a private dedicated kernel. The want of a dedicated kernel is a huge performance enhancement—when you suffer the boot process, you will survey how expeditiously it is compared to a established boot. User and administrator suffer within the zone is very similar to that of a full VM in flexibility, but affection a chroot environment, it sheds the overhead of a full VM.
It is well-known to understand that a zone is not a full virtual machine in the sense that you would survey with Xen or VMware or VirtualBox. A zone is an emulation layer, more akin to Wine perhaps, but at a more fundamental level. This, for example, means that an lx branded zone does not contain its own Linux kernel; rather, the kernel calls are redirected by the zone's emulation layer to the underlying Solaris kernel.
The zone provides security through isolation. Each zone has its own root account and password. The superuser within a zone has no special privileges to gain access to objects outside the zone. No account has rights to exit the zone or examine processes and files outside the zone. Advanced resource management is enabled when control of remembrance and CPU resources by zone is important. Resource management keeps zones from being harmed by others, including but not limited to CPU and remembrance starvation.
Note: the primary Solaris OS and the physical platform on which it executes are besides known as a zone. It is defined as the global zone and continues to inspect and feel as it always has. All other zones are created from the global zone. Created zones are called sub or non-global zones. Non-global zones cannot create zones within themselves. pattern 1 illustrates the relationship between the global zone, non-global zones and viable VMs.
Figure 1. Relationships between Zones and VMs
Solaris-Zones became available with the release of Solaris 10 (later Open-Solaris). With these early releases, only a “native” Solaris zone could exist defined, installed and executed. With the August 2007 release, Solaris-Zones includes back for zone branding to allow Linux installation and execution. By default, a zone is defined as native, unless it's defined explicitly as a Linux (lx) branded zone. Once a zone is branded lx, only Linux can exist installed into that zone.
The zone suffer is defined by a simple command set. Each command is used to manage one of the logical divisions of the zone maintenance process. The primary divisions of zone administration are define, install and execute. The zone suffer is very simple; it involves only a few commands. Two of the commands provide back for the definition, installation and setup of zones, and the other two are used for a running zone:
zonecfg: define a zone (metadata only).
zoneadm: install/uninstall, boot and query.
zlogin: log in to a zone or connect to its console.
zonename: prints the denomination of the zone executed within.
Define a Zone
Use the zonecfg command to define a zone. Although it is viable to define a zone without networking, All examples presented here define zones with networking. Listing 1 shows how to define a network interface for expend by an lx branded zone. With zonecfg, you can create a minimal zone definition, set the zone's name, set its installation path and kind and embrace a network interface. A minimum definition requires only the branding, zone denomination and the installation path. The zonecfg command must exist executed as the superuser. In the examples here, the shell prompt is used to illustrate from which zone a command is run. The initial sample below indicates the shell is within the global zone and ready to “define” a non-global zone by the expend of the zonecfg command.
Note: ZFS (denoted or hinted at by path names) is used for performance; however, it is not required. Feel free to expend any preempt directory path to build one or more zones.
Listing 1. Defining an lx Zone# List the denomination of the current zone g-zone# zonename global # Start the zone definition action and define it as "lx" # SUNWlx is the Sun provided "lx" zone template. g-zone# zonecfg -z red-zone red-zone: No such zone configured Use 'create' to commence a new zone configuration. zonecfg:red-zone> create -t SUNWlx zonecfg:red-zone> set zonepath=/zpool01/zones/red-zone zonecfg:red-zone> add net zonecfg:red-zone:net> set address=192.168.1.10 zonecfg:red-zone:net> set physical=e1000g0 zonecfg:red-zone:net> end zonecfg:red-zone> entrust # (redundant) zonecfg:red-zone> exit # List defined(configured) and running zones g-zone# zoneadm list -cv ID denomination STATUS PATH BRAND IP 0 global running / autochthonous shared - red-zone configured /zpool01/zones/red-zone lx shared
Adjust the paths accordingly to match your local environment. Items to consider are zonepath and network values. Change these to match available storage, local network requirements and available network interface. The first command shows that execution is in the global zone. The zonecfg command defines the denomination of the zone, the installation path and network attributes. The final command lists All configured and running zones. Once a zone is defined, expend the zonecfg command to update or delete a zone configuration.
Note that not All properties can exist updated or added after a zone has been installed. Generally, properties with this restriction are ones related to autochthonous zone definitions, not lx branded zones. For properties that can exist changed after a zone is installed, the zone should exist in a halted condition or rebooted to create the change active.
The first sample shows the red-zone as configured. This means it is defined only (metadata created and saved). Two properties in the sample can exist used to illustrate updating properties of an already-defined zone: zonepath and the network attributes. Each of them can exist changed while the zone is halted (not running). If a zone has been installed and the zonepath is changed, the operator is required to dawdle the physical location of the musty zonepath to the location of the new zonepath manually. In the next sample (Listing 2), the directory red-zone needs to exist renamed to red-zone-x under the /zpool01/zones directory to complete the property update.
Listing 2. Changing Properties of a Defined Zone# They determined the network address is incorrect and that it # needs to exist updated and they want a different storage location g-zone# zonecfg -z red-zone zonecfg:red-zone> set zonepath=/zpool01/zone/red-zone-x zonecfg:red-zone> select net address=192.168.1.10 zonecfg:red-zone:net> set address=192.168.2.10 zonecfg:red-zone:net> end zonecfg:red-zone> exit # expend zonecfg's "info" sub-command to list the zone's definition g-zone# zonecfg -z red-zone info zonename: red-zone zonepath: /zpool01/zone/red-zone-x brand: lx autoboot: false bootargs: pool: limitpriv: scheduling-class: ip-type: shared net: address: 192.168.2.10 physical: e1000g0 # The zone definition can exist deleted g-zone# zoncfg -z red-zone delete -F
Install a Defined Zone
We now Have a defined zone. expend the zoneadm command to complete the OS installation into the zone named red-zone. The sub functions of zoneadm are related to the execution status of a zone. The install process of an lx branded zone requires Linux media. The media can exist provided in a physical contour and loaded into the system's CD-ROM drive, or you can expend the “green” manner and provide the image as one or more ISO files.
Listing 3. Install a Zone# List the zone definition (from Listing 1) g-zone# zonecfg -z red-zone info zonename: red-zone zonepath: /zpool01/zones/red-zone brand: lx autoboot: false bootargs: pool: limitpriv: scheduling-class: ip-type: shared net: address: 192.168.1.10 physical: e1000g0 # The ISO files: g-zone# ls /zpool01/rh-media/rhel30-AS-U6/ rhel-3-u6-i386-as-disc1.iso rhel-3-u6-i386-as-disc3.iso rhel-3-u6-i386-as-disc2.iso rhel-3-u6-i386-as-disc4.iso # Install linux "desktop" distribution g-zone# zoneadm -z red-zone install -d ↪/zpool01/rh-media/rhel30-AS-U6 desktop Installing distribution 'Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 6'... Installing cluster 'desktop' Installing miniroot for zone 'red-zone'. Attempting to locate 30 packages... Installing 1 miniroot package... Attempting to locate 29 packages... Installing 29 miniroot packages... ... Installation of zone 'red-zone' completed successfully. Details saved to log file: "/zpool01/zones/red-zone/root/var/log/red-zone.install.1119.log" # Query the zones status (changed to installed) g-zone# zoneadm list -cv ID denomination STATUS PATH BRAND IP 0 global running / autochthonous shared - red-zone installed /zpool01/zones/red-zone lx shared
Boot the Zone
Once the zone installation is complete, it's time to boot it. Create two shells, and flee the commands shown in Listing 4. Connect to the zone console first, then boot the zone in the second shell to fetch the full console suffer (it's very fast, you'll not want to miss it). The sample zlogin connects to the zone's console device and configures the evade (exit the zlogin) as the “#.” (pound token then period) key sequence. This key sequence should exist unique and avoid issues that the default sequence of “~.” (tilde then period) can antecedent when connectivity to the global zone is remote.
Listing 4. Boot a Zone# Connect to the red-zone console and watch it boot g-zone(1)# zlogin C -e '#' red-zone # Boot the red-zone in a second window g-zone(2)# zoneadm -z red-zone boot # **** sample console output from first window **** [Connected to zone 'red-zone' console] [NOTICE: Zone booting up] INIT: version 2.85 booting Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS Press 'I' to enter interactive startup. Configuring kernel parameters: [ OK ] Setting clock : Mon Sep 29 20:20:56 EDT 2008 [ OK ] Setting hostname red-zone: [ OK ] ... Starting atd: [ OK ] Starting firstboot: [ OK ] Rotating KDC list [ OK ] Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS release 3 (Taroon Update 6) Kernel 2.4.21 on an i686 red-zone login:
A non-global zone has nearly the selfsame abilities as the global zone to provide services: login connections are not limited to text or console logins. The expend of zlogin with no options (only the zone name) connects to the zone without a console, which creates a tty and invokes login. Any active zone service besides can exist used, such as XDM, SSH and FTP, to allow other forms of login.
Listing 5. Log In to a Zone# Connect to zone's console g-zone# zlogin -C -e '#' red-zone # Login without a console (must always exist root) g-zone# zlogin red-zone ... r-zone# zonename red-zone
We now Have a zone defined, installed and running. The examples presented here illustrate some of the administrative tasks associated with zones: reboot, shutdown, halt and deletion of an lx branded zone. Pay near attention to the shell prompts to identify the zone in which each command is run.
Listing 6. Zone Administration# By default a zone will *not* auto boot when the system boots g-zone# zonecfg -z red-zone set autoboot=true # Reboot/stop a zone gracefully g-zone# zlogin -C -e '#' red-zone # Login, then expend a established Linux command (examples) r-zone# reboot r-zone# shutdown -r now r-zone# telinit 6 r-zone# telinit 0 (once halted boot it from global zone) # Bring down a zone hard (stop All execution now!) g-zone# zoneadm -z red-zone halt # selfsame as halt and boot (hard discontinue then boot) g-zone# zoneadm -z red-zone reboot # Uninstall the OS from a zone (still defined) g-zone# zoneadm -z red-zone halt g-zone# zoneadm -z red-zone uninstall [ -F ] # Clone an installed zone's OS into another defined zone # (when the source is on ZFS the clone takes seconds to # install the new zone, otherwise may bewitch many minutes!) g-zone# zonecfg -z red-eye create -t red-zone g-zone# zonecfg -z red-eye set zonepath=/zpool01/zones/red-eye g-zone# zonecfg -z red-eye zonecfg:red-eye> select net address=192.168.1.10 zonecfg:red-eye:net> set address=192.168.1.11 zonecfg:red-eye:net> end zonecfg:red-eye> exit g-zone# zoneadm list -cv ID denomination STATUS PATH BRAND IP 0 global running / autochthonous shared - red-zone installed /zpool01/zones/red-zone lx shared - red-eye configured /zpool01/zones/red-eye lx shared g-zone# zoneadm -z red-eye clone red-zone Cloning zonepath /zpool01/zones/red-zone... g-zone# zoneadm list -cv ID denomination STATUS PATH BRAND IP 0 global running / autochthonous shared - red-zone installed /zpool01/zones/red-zone lx shared - red-eye installed /zpool01/zones/red-eye lx shared # Remove a zone (No undo) g-zone# zoneadm -z red-eye halt g-zone# zoneadm -z red-eye uninstall -F g-zone# zonecfg -z red-eye delete -F
Automated Zone Creation (zonetool.pl)
The zone creation steps are straightforward and simple. The process may bewitch only a few steps, but they are manual and error-prone. The zonetool.pl utility (see Resources) automates the zone creation process and includes minute POD documentation. flee zonetool.pl without arguments or with the --help option to array usage details. Listing 7 shows an sample of using zonetool.pl.
Listing 7. Zone Definition Using zonetool.pl$ sudo zonetool.pl \ [ --debug ] \ --create \ --zonename green-zone \ --brand SUNWlx[,server ] \ --zonepath /zpool01/zones \ [ --autoboot ( existent | counterfeit ) ] \ [ --clone red-zone | --media /path/to/ISOs ] \ --network 'e1000g0=192.168.1.10'
Closing Thoughts and Ideas
With relatively minuscule amounts of disk and remembrance resources, a sole physical server can host hundreds of zones. Each zone is usable by any number of users, and a single-user zone provides extreme flexibility. A sole user can create more than one zone to test both server and client environments, and the applications will believe they are on unique physical hosts. A zone user may Have expend of the zone's unique root password or unfettered sudo access within that zone without concern for security and stability of the global zone and other non-global zones.
The lx branded zone does Have its limitations. Much of the zone's power comes from securely shared resources with the global zone. The zone shares a kernel with the global zone and, therefore, places limits on kernel modules and drivers. Because zones are not full VMs, the Linux distributions that can exist installed in an lx branded zone are limited. back for other Linux releases is possible, and further interest in this technology will inspire continued progress and back for additional Linux distributions. Review the Resources section of this article for more information on this and related topics.
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