310-202 exam Dumps Source : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, piece ll
Test Code : 310-202
Test cognomen : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, piece ll
Vendor cognomen : SUN
: 558 existent Questions
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licensed Solaris device directors are suggestions expertise (IT) gurus who installation and hold community servers operating one of the crucial Solaris working system, currently obtainable through the Oracle organisation. they're constantly employed by organizations and different corporations with computer networks that employ the business's open supply utility items. As programs directors, they might besides also oversee different IT cadaver of workers and reply to questions and protection requests from office laborers.schooling Bachelor's diploma in counsel know-how or desktop science counseled Job abilities Troubleshooting, analytical considering, multitasking, conversation profits orbit (2016)* $87,400 to $104,762 with sun licensed device Administrator credentials Job expand (2014-2024)** eight% for community and computer methods administrators
supply: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor recordsRequired training
Most techniques administrators luxuriate in accomplished a Bachelor of Science in information technology, computer Science or a linked field. Core coursework typically includes subject matters in programming languages and techniques, networking and methods design. Solaris certifications can exist establish in the course of the Oracle enterprise in network, safety and methods administration. necessities embrace a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for through enrolling in classes on the Oracle Academy or an permitted working towards center, reviewing seminar programs and taking apply tests.potential Required
systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are capable of troubleshoot considerations for tremendous corporations of community gadget users. stressful instances require clear, quick thinking, and can involve working long hours until the difficulty is fastened. The ability to multitask will besides exist advantageous when managing a brace of project at a time. communication capabilities are key when working with nontechnical team of workers contributors.career and profits Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor information (BLS) envisioned that jobs for gear administrators in regular will boost by means of a timehonored pace, eight% from 2014 to 2024. licensed device directors will treasure miraculous job prospects, as organizations increasingly rely on full-time experts to sustain their desktop working systems. in line with Payscale.com, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating methods earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in can besides 2016.
KYOTO, Japan, Feb. 6, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- instant instruments fitted with the brand new foreign instant conversation specification Wi-sun FAN (box area network) for the information superhighway of things developed jointly by using the analysis neighborhood of Professor Hiroshi Harada of the Graduate faculty of Informatics, Kyoto college (hereinafter Kyoto institution), Nissin systems Co., Ltd. (hereinafter Nissin methods), and ROHM Co., Ltd. (hereinafter ROHM) became some of the world's first solutions to obtain Wi-solar FAN certification.
BackgroundIn order to understand outside verbal exchange networks similar to judicious cities and sensible grids, tremendous, lengthy-distance and cozy network expertise is required. Wi-solar FAN is a brand new specification of Wi-solar, an international radio communications challenge it's the most efficient usurp to the structure of IoTs. it's an interoperable communications networking artery for electrical energy, fuel, and water metering, as well as for sensible cities and judicious grids in a number of applications corresponding to infrastructure and ingenious transport systems.
This Wi-solar FAN is an interoperable low-vigour IoT instant verbal exchange know-how that makes employ of low-vigour instant transmission technology in keeping with the IEEE 802.15.4g common and multistage routing technology in line with IPv6. On may 16, 2016, the Wi-solar Alliance, which certifies instant verbal exchange standards for IoTs, technical compatibility, and interconnectivity, centered commonplace specifications, and on November eleven, 2016, the three events introduced that they succeeded in fundamental radio tendencies suitable with Wi-sun FAN. The Wi-sun Alliance then announced its Wi-solar FAN certification program on October 3, 2018.
This achievementBased on the results of the fundamental progress of Wi-solar FAN, the three parties developed a radio compatible with Wi-solar FAN technical standards and certification program, and handed an IP-based certification survey at various using multi-hop, frequency-hopping, and advanced certification protection by using a plurality of distinctive radios from distinctive corporations. This radio has the following functions as described in the Wi-solar FAN Technical specifications.
p>With the IEEE802.15.4/4g/4e applied sciences in a position to sturdy transmission over 1km below the eastern regulation, this radio is fitted with a global regular for cyber web entry, which has been brought in Wi-Fi (TM) programs, and a multi-hop foreign regular that realizes multi-stage relay between radios in response to IP. This makes it convenient to connect sensors, meters, and screens that create up smart cities and sensible metering to the information superhighway.
This success became performed within the Impulsing Paradigm change via Disruptive technologies software (have an upshot on) led through the Council for Science, know-how and Innovation, the cabinet office. This software became shaped by a joint trade-academia consortium called the next-technology Wi-solar Joint research Consortium, Kyoto. The three events, based mostly in Kyoto, are Kyoto institution, which luxuriate in a track record of standardization and progress of IEEE 802.15.four/4g/4e, Nissin programs, which commercializes Wi-sun-compatible communique middleware, and ROHM, which develops communication modules suitable with the commonplace.
define of certification acquisition:Date and time of certification acquisition: January 30, 2019Certification authority: Wi-sun AllianceCertified trying out laboratory: Allion Labs, Inc.Certification quantity: WSA 0171
Future developmentIn the long run, the three parties will pilfer piece in an interoperability specification verification sustain backed with the aid of the Wi-sun Alliance to create a contribution to trying out for technical conformity and interoperability of the Wi-solar FAN regular, and to promote additional structure as industry-academia cooperation initiatives in Kyoto as a artery to implement this radio in society. The results were additionally displayed on the Wi-solar Alliance booth in DistribuTECH 2019, the greatest vigour industry-related event in the u.s., which was held in new Orleans on February 5.
further particulars can exist establish at:http://www.dco.cce.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/PL/PL_2019_01.html
View common content material:http://www.prnewswire.com/information-releases/kyoto-tuition-teaming-with-2-eastern-companies-acquires-world-first-certification-for-wireless-communique-specification-wi-sun-fan-300790447.html
source Kyoto college; Nissin systems Co., Ltd.; ROHM Co., Ltd.
Copyright (C) 2019 PR Newswire. any rights reserved
In a rare expose of cohesion at the Baltimore County faculty board meeting Tuesday night, dozens of parents, lecturers and directors encouraged the college board to interrogate for what college students exigency in preference to settle for the slimmed-down funds that meets the county govt’s fiscal limits.
A revision to the budget notion two weeks in the past has been criticized for its failure to give pay raises for college employees and for no longer providing the faculties with enough academics at a time when enrollment is increasing.
fogeys and directors spoke of county colleges luxuriate in been underfunded for years, and some counseled that the county executive heave taxes if indispensable.
“We with no pain can’t expect to proceed to deliver the satisfactory services to a becoming and increasingly advanced pupil build if funding doesn’t hold pace,” observed Tom DeHart, government director of the union representing principals, universal as the Council of Administrative and Supervisory personnel. “it is time that tax fees, both property or income, exist accelerated as they haven’t been in 25 years.”
mum or dad Yara Cheikh mentioned she wishes the board to retrograde to the County Council to quarrel for more cash.
“Be a pacesetter. … create the case to their county. raise taxes to give their college students and their academics what they need,” she observed.
Baltimore County Public colleges teachers and union officers rally to interrogate the board to request a fully funded schooling funds from the county govt.
Ed Vait, a resident, spoke of he believes it's up to the faculty board to promote the expense orbit to the county executive and others.
“You luxuriate in been elected to this workplace. You weren’t elected by artery of the County Council or the county govt,” he stated.
PTA President Jayne Lee asked the board to give up a expense orbit that fogeys desire.
“If the county executive decides to create a reduce, let it's him, now not you,” she observed.
before the assembly, a huge pack of academics and other school employees gathered outside the board’s administration constructing in Towson to protest the proposed finances cuts. dressed in red, academics at the union rally pointed out the budget shouldn’t exist balanced by means of cutting trainer salaries and lecture leeway funding.
“training is under attack, each person ought to battle returned,” they chanted as they headed into the board assembly.
a brace of college board individuals wondered staff concerning the possibility of saving cash by artery of chopping returned on the variety of laptops, in order that now not each pupil is given a device, as is the case this year. college board member Lisa Mack said scholar fulfillment has no longer been increasing at a rate that could warrant the expenditure of thousands and thousands of bucks on laptops.
The Baltimore County academics union, angered with the aid of a expense orbit proposal that it says squeezes colleges and takes away raises, stated it is planning a collection of protests that would inaugurate subsequent week.
“My individuals are actually irritated,” said Abby Beytin, president of the lecturers association of Baltimore County. “I...
“Nothing helps greater than having wee classes, satisfactory teachers to fulfill children’s wants,” she observed. The records “isn't showing me that the funding they made … is paying off.”
directors pushed lower back on the conception of decreasing the computer initiative greater than is proposed subsequent 12 months.
“it's contemptible to create it an both-or circumstance,” notable interim Superintendent Verletta White, including that students should derive both the substances and tools they want as neatly because the lecturers they need.
announcing that she believes her original funds thought, which requested for an 11.2 p.c boost in funding, turned into the funds the board should quiet approve, White answered numerous board questions, whereas defending the faculty gadget’s positions. Board individuals requested for some further cash, including greater funding for aircon, and for offering more free food to students.
The board didn't pilfer a vote on the funds or create it lucid which expense orbit they could pass on to the county council and the county govt. A public hearing on the budget should exist held at 7 p.m. Tuesday, and a vote might exist held Feb. 19.
After months of itsy-bitsy public dialogue, the Baltimore County college board voted Tuesday evening to cognomen a company to enact a countrywide quest a brand new superintendent.
The board used a piggyback condense to select Ray and colleagues, a company widespread for managing searches for much school methods throughout the...
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Disks are divided into regions called “disk slices” or “disk partitions.” A slice is composed of a sole orbit of contiguous blocks. It is a physical subset of the disk (except for slice 2, which represents the entire disk). A UFS or the swap area is built within these disk slices. The boundaries of a disk slice are defined when a disk is partitioned using the format utility, and the slice information for a particular disk can exist viewed by using the prtvtoc command. Each disk slice appears to the OS (and to the system administrator) as though it were a part disk drive.
Disk slicing differs between the SPARC and x86 platforms. On the SPARC platform, the entire disk is devoted to the OS; the disk can exist divided into 8 slices, numbered 0 to 7. On the x86 platform, the disk is divided into fdisk partitions using the fdisk command. The fdisk partition is divided into 10 slices, numbered 0 to 9.
A physical disk consists of a stack of circular platters. Data is stored on these platters in a cylindrical pattern called “cylinders” as illustrated in figure 4-1. Cylinders can exist grouped and isolated from one another. A group of cylinders is referred to as a slice. A slice is defined with start and conclude points, starting from the outside of the platters to the headquarters of the stack of platters, which is called the “spindle.”
For example, a 73GB SCSI disk has 14,087 cylinders, numbered 0 to 14,086. Cylinder 0 is on the outside edge of the platters, and cylinder 14,086 is the closest to the spindle. Disk slices are defined by an offset and a size in cylinders. The offset is the distance from cylinder 0. To define a slice, the administrator provides a starting cylinder and an ending cylinder. A slice spanning from cylinder 0 to 14,086 would employ the entire disk and is typical of the slicing scheme used on a ZFS boot disk.
When setting up slices, recollect these rules:
When they argue ZFS in Chapter 5, you’ll learn how to derive around some of these limitations in file systems.Displaying Disk Configuration Information
As described earlier, disk configuration information is stored in the disk label. If you know the disk and slice number, you can pomp information for a disk by using the print volume table of contents (prtvtoc) command. You can specify the volume by specifying any slice defined on the disk (for example, /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s2 or /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s*). Regardless of which slice you specify, any slices defined on the disk will exist displayed. If you know the target number of the disk but enact not know how it is divided into slices, you can expose information for the entire disk by specifying either slice 2 or s*. The following steps expose how you can examine information stored on a disk’s label by using the prtvtoc command.
Type the following text and press Enter.# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>
The system responds with the following:* /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 424 sectors/track * 24 tracks/cylinder * 10176 sectors/cylinder * 14089 cylinders * 14087 accessible cylinders * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * Unallocated space: * First Sector Last * Sector signify Sector * 0 10176 10175 * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector signify Sector Mount Directory 0 2 00 10176 143339136 143349311 2 5 01 0 143349312 143349311
The disk described is a SAS disk, target 0 with an SMI VTOC label. The prtvtoc command shows the number of cylinders and heads, as well as how the disk’s slices are arranged.
The following is an sample of running the prtvtoc command on a SCSI disk with an EFI label:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1<cr> * /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 8385121 sectors * 8385054 accessible sectors * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector signify Sector Mount Directory 0 2 01 34 41006 41039 1 2 00 41040 8327663 8368702 /mnt 8 11 00 8368703 16384 8385086 Using the format Utility to Create Slices: SPARC
Before you can create a file system on a disk, the disk must exist formatted, and you must divide it into slices using the format utility. Formatting involves two part processes:
When a disk is formatted, header and trailer information is superimposed on the disk. When the format utility runs a surface analysis, the controller scans the disk for defects. It should exist notable that defects and formatting information reduce the total disk space available for data. This is why a new disk usually holds only 90% to 95% of its capacity after formatting. This percentage varies according to disk geometry and decreases as the disk ages and develops more defects.
The exigency to achieve a surface analysis on a disk drive has dropped as more manufacturers ship their disk drives formatted and partitioned. You should not exigency to achieve a surface analysis within the format utility when adding a disk drive to an existing system unless you arbitrator disk defects are causing problems. The primary judgement that you would employ format is if you want to view or change the partitioning scheme on a disk.
The format utility searches your system for any attached disk drives and reports the following information about the disk drives it finds:
In addition, the format utility is used in disk repair operations to enact the following:
The installation program partitions and labels disk drives as piece of installing the Oracle Solaris release. However, you might exigency to employ the format utility when doing the following:
The following sample uses the format utility to create disk slices on a disk.
The system responds with the following:Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c0t0d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@0,0 1. c0t1d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@1,0
Specify the disk (enter its number).
The system responds with the format main menu:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk kind - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - characterize the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and pomp labels save - save new disk/partition definitions inquest - expose vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Table 4-4 describes the format main menu items.Table 4-4 Format Main Menu item Descriptions
Lists any of the system’s drives. besides lets you pick the disk you want to employ in subsequent operations. This disk is referred to as the current disk.
Identifies the manufacturer and model of the current disk. besides displays a list of known drive types. pick the Auto configure option for any SCSI-2 disk drives.
Creates and modifies slices.
Describes the current disk (that is, device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and physical device name).
Formats the current disk using one of these sources of information in this order:
Information that is establish in the format.dat file.
Information from the automatic configuration process.
Information that you kind at the prompt if no format.dat entry exists.
This command does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks are preformatted by the manufacturer.
x86 platform only: Runs the fdisk program to create an Oracle Solaris fdisk partition.
Used to repair a specific cache on the current disk.
Writes a new label to the current disk. This is not the same as labeling the disk with volname.
Runs read, write, and compare tests.
Retrieves and displays defect lists. This feature does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks manage defects automatically.
Searches for backup labels if the VTOC becomes corrupted or gets deleted.
Displays information about the current disk such as device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and partition table.
Saves new disk and partition information.
SCSI disks only: Displays the vendor, product name, and revision smooth of the current drive. This will besides pomp the disk’s current firmware.
Labels the disk with a new eight-character volume cognomen that you specify. This is not the same as writing the partition table to disk using label.
Exits the format menu. Pressing Ctrl+D will besides exit the format utility from the main menu or from any submenu.
Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table cognomen - cognomen the current table print - pomp the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Type “print” to pomp the current partition map.partition> print<cr>
The system responds with the following:Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 24620 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1418 - 9924 11.72GB (8507/0/0) 24576723 1 var wm 9925 - 13469 4.88GB (3545/0/0) 10241505 2 backup wm 0 - 24619 33.92GB (24620/0/0) 71127180 3 swap wu 0 - 1417 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 4 unassigned wm 13470 - 14887 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 5 unassigned wm 14888 - 16112 1.69GB (1225/0/0) 3539025 6 unassigned wm 16113 - 16821 1000.15MB (709/0/0) 2048301 7 home wm 16822 - 23910 9.77GB (7089/0/0) 20480121
The columns displayed with the partition table are
Tag: This is an optional value that indicates how the slice is being used. The value can exist any of the following names that best fits the role of the file system you are creating:
unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates, reserved, system, BIOS_boot
Flag: Values in this column can be
Size: The slice size specified as
You can employ the cognomen and save commands in the partition menu to cognomen and save a newly created partition table to a file that can exist referenced by cognomen later, when you want to employ this same partition scheme on another disk. When issuing the cognomen command, you’ll provide a unique cognomen for this partition scheme and then issue the save command to save the information to the ./format.dat file. Normally this file is located in the /etc directory, so provide the complete pathname for /etc/format.dat to update the master file.
After you partition the disk, you must label it by typing label at the partition prompt:partition> label<cr>
You are asked for confirmation on labeling the disk as follows:Ready to label disk, continue? y<cr>
Enter “Y” to continue.
After labeling the disk, kind “quit” to exit the partition menu or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility:partition> quit<cr>
Type “quit” again to exit the format utility:format> quit<cr>
It’s faultfinding to point out a few undesirable things that can chance when defining disk partitions with the format utility if you’re not careful. First, exist careful not to consume disk space. Wasted disk space can occur when you abate the size of one slice and enact not adjust the starting cylinder number of the adjoining disk slice.
Second, don’t overlap disk slices. Overlapping occurs when one or more cylinders are allocated to more than one disk slice. For example, increasing the size of one slice without decreasing the size of the adjoining slice will create overlapping partitions. The format utility will not forewarn you of wasted disk space or overlapping partitions.
The main judgement a system administrator uses the format utility is to divide a disk into disk slices. In Oracle Solaris 11 11/11, for a bootable ZFS root pool, the disks in the pool must hold slices and must exist labeled with an SMI label. The simplest configuration would exist to set aside the entire disk capacity in slice 0 and employ that slice for the root pool. Bootable ZFS root pools are discussed further in Chapter 5.
I’ll characterize how to employ the SMI label for SPARC-based systems. For example, on a SPARC-based system with a 72GB disk, you would exigency to luxuriate in 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. Similarly, on an x86-based system with a 72GB disk, you would besides exigency to allow 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. A wee amount of boot information is contained in slice 8. Slice 8 requires no administration and cannot exist changed.
Follow these steps to partition a disk (c2t0d0) to exist used as a ZFS boot disk (bootable ZFS root pool) on a SPARC-based system. If the disk has an EFI label, and the firmware has not been upgraded, you must first convert it to an SMI label.
Use the prtvtoc command to verify the disk label as follows:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>
The system displaysPart Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1 - 14086 68.35GB (14086/0/0) 143339136 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
Notice that slice 2 is labeled “backup” and the slices are numbered 0-7. This is an SMI label.
The following shows the output that is displayed for a disk with an EFI label:Part Tag Flag First Sector Size terminal Sector 0 usr wm 34 68.36GB 143358320 1 unassigned wm 0 0 0 2 unassigned wm 0 0 0 3 unassigned wm 0 0 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 0 8 reserved wm 143358321 8.00MB 143374704
Notice there is a slice 8 and slice 2 is NOT labeled “backup.” This is an EFI label and would exigency to exist changed. employ the following steps to change the label from an EFI label to an SMI label:
As root, employ the format -e command and select the disk to label as follows:# format –e<cr>
The system displays a list of disks. In the example, I selected disk 1 (c2t1d0):Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr> selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
The main menu is displayed. kind “label” to label the disk:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk kind - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - characterize the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and pomp labels inquest - expose disk ID scsi - independent SCSI mode selects cache - enable, disable or query SCSI disk cache volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit format> label<cr>
Select option 1 to label the disk with an SMI label and press Enter when prompted for autoconfiguration: SMI Label  EFI Label Specify Label type: 0<cr> Auto configuration via format.dat[no]?<cr> Auto configuration via generic SCSI-2[no]?<cr> format>
Exit the format utility.format> quit<cr>
To slice the disk so that it can exist used as a ZFS boot disk, supervene these steps:
As root, enter the format utility:# format<cr> Searching for disks ... done
Select the disk that is going to exist sliced. In the example, I will select disk 1 (c2t1d0):AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr>
The system responds withselecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table cognomen - cognomen the current table print - pomp the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Type “print” to pomp the current partition map.partition> print<cr>
The system responds with the following:partition> print<cr> Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 25 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 1 swap wu 26 - 51 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 52 - 14086 68.10GB (14035/0/0) 142820160 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
Enter “modify” to change the partition table:partition> modify<cr>
Select option 1 for “All Free Hog” when prompted:Select partitioning base: 0. Current partition table (original) 1. any Free Hog Choose groundwork (enter number) ? 1<cr> Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
Type “yes” when asked whether to continue:Do you wish to continue creating a new partition table based on above table[yes]? yes<cr>
Type “0” for the Free Hog partition:Free Hog partition? 0<cr>
The system will prompt you to enter a size for each partition. Press Enter when prompted as follows, and each slice will exist 0MB:Enter size of partition '1' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '3' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '4' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '5' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '6' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '7' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr>
Because any of the slices luxuriate in been set to “0,” the free hog space is the entire disk. This space will exist allocated to slice 0 as specified in step 6.
When prompted to create this the current partition table, press Enter to employ the default value “yes”:Okay to create this the current partition table[yes]?<cr>
When prompted for a table name, enter “rootdisk.” This cognomen is not significant and can exist any name.Enter table cognomen (remember quotes): rootdisk<cr>
Enter “pr” to pomp the new partition table:partition> pr<cr> Current partition table (unnamed): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
Notice that slice 0 is the entire disk.
Enter “quit” or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility.partition> quit<cr>
As described earlier in this chapter, Oracle Solaris on the x86 platform treats disk drives slightly differently than on the SPARC-based systems. Disks on the x86 platform must luxuriate in an fdisk partition table. The x86-based systems employ the fdisk partition table to identify parts of the disk reserved for different OSs and to identify the partition that the system will boot from. This boot partition is referred to as the “active disk” partition. You can apportion one fdisk partition on a disk to exist used for Oracle Solaris.
On an x86-based system, once a disk drive has been physically installed and verified as working, you’ll employ the format command to slice the disk, but first an fdisk partition must exist created on the new drive. You can create this fdisk partition using the fdisk command from the command line or through the format utility. The following steps characterize how to create a fixed disk partition table on a disk using the format utility:
As root, kind “format” to derive into the format utility.# format<cr>
The following menu appears:AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c1t0d0 <FUJITSU-M1606S-512-6234 cyl 3455 alt 2 hd 6 sec 102> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@0,0 1. c1t1d0 <IBM-DFHSS1W!e-4141 cyl 4071 alt 2 hd 4 sec 135> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@1,0 2. c1t2d0 <DEFAULT cyl 2928 alt 2 hd 6 sec 120> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@2,0 Specify disk (enter its number):
Enter the number corresponding to the new drive and the following menu will exist displayed:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk kind - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - characterize the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk fdisk - race the fdisk program repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and pomp labels save - save new disk/partition definitions inquest - expose vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name5 quit format>
Select the fdisk option and the following menu appears:The recommended default partitioning for your disk is: a 100% "SOLARIS System" partition. To select this, tickle kind "y". To partition your disk differently, kind "n" and the "fdisk" program will let you select other partitions.
If you wish to employ the entire drive for Oracle Solaris, enter “Y.” This will recur you to the format menu. If “N” is entered, the fdisk menu will exist displayed.Total disk size is 4073 cylinders Cylinder size is 540 (512 byte) blocks Cylinders Partition Status kind Start conclude Length ========= ====== ======== ===== === ====== === THERE ARE NO PARTITIONS CURRENTLY DEFINED SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. Create a partition 2. Change lively (Boot from) partition 3. Delete a partition 4. Exit (Update disk configuration and exit) 5. Cancel (Exit without updating disk configuration) Enter Selection:
Disks on x86-based systems can exist divided into 10 slices labeled slice 0 through slice 9. On Oracle Solaris 11/11, slices 0 through 7 are used for the same purposes as disk slices establish on SPARC-based systems. Slice 2 represents any of the space within the fdisk partition. As stated earlier, slices 8 and 9 are used for purposes specific to x86-based hardware. You cannot modify slices 8 and 9 using the format utility. nascence with Oracle Solaris 11.1, the boot disk on an x86-based system can hold an EFI label, and the partition scheme is slightly different than the SPARC system. Slice 0 is reserved for the BIOS_boot information. I’ll characterize this more in the next chapter.
Here’s an sample of the partition table on an IDE or SATA disk on an x86-based system running Oracle Solaris 11/11, as displayed by the format utility:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 alternates wm 1 - 2 15.69MB (2/0/0) 32130
In the previous example, notice that slice 9 is defined and tagged as the alternates slice.
The next sample shows the partition table for a SCSI disk attached to an x86-based system. Notice that partition 8 is assigned, but slice 9 is not used:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
One more item of note: On touchstone UFSs, don’t change the size of disk slices that are currently in use. When a disk with existing slices is repartitioned and relabeled, any existing data will exist lost. Before repartitioning a disk, first copy any of the data to tape or to another disk.
You can besides create the fixed disk partition table on an x86-based system disk from the command line using a sole command as follows:# fdisk –B c1t0d0<cr>
The –B option creates a sole fixed disk partition that spans the entire disk. The following 36GB disk was formatted using the fdisk –B command:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 4695 35.97GB (4696/0/0) 75441240 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
The fdisk –B command can besides exist used to convert a disk label from an EFI to SMI.
To verify that a disk contains a fixed disk partition table, issue the following command:
# fdisk -v -W - /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p<cr>
The system displays the fdisk table for disk c3t0d0:* /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p0 default fdisk table * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 63 sectors/track * 255 tracks/cylinder * 2088 cylinders * * systid: * 1: DOSOS12 * 2: PCIXOS * 4: DOSOS16 * 5: EXTDOS * 6: DOSBIG * 7: FDISK_IFS * 8: FDISK_AIXBOOT * 9: FDISK_AIXDATA * 10: FDISK_0S2BOOT * 11: FDISK_WINDOWS * 12: FDISK_EXT_WIN * 14: FDISK_FAT95 * 15: FDISK_EXTLBA * 18: DIAGPART * 65: FDISK_LINUX * 82: FDISK_CPM * 86: DOSDATA * 98: OTHEROS * 99: UNIXOS * 100: FDISK_NOVELL2 * 101: FDISK_NOVELL3 * 119: FDISK_QNX4 * 120: FDISK_QNX42 * 121: FDISK_QNX43 * 130: SUNIXOS * 131: FDISK_LINUXNAT * 134: FDISK_NTFSVOL1 * 135: FDISK_NTFSVOL2 * 165: FDISK_BSD * 167: FDISK_NEXTSTEP * 183: FDISK_BSDIFS * 184: FDISK_BSDISWAP * 190: X86BOOT * 191: SUNIXOS2 * 238: EFI_PMBR * 239: EFI_FS * Id Act Bhead Bsect Bcyl Ehead Esect Ecyl Rsect Numsect 191 128 0 1 1 254 63 1023 16065 33527655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
When there are multiple disks of the same kind (manufacturer, model, size, and geometry) to exist sliced, you can save time by copying the label from a source disk over to a target disk without going through any of the steps using the format utility. employ the prtvtoc command to derive the partition table from the source disk (c0t0d0) and write the table to the target disk (c0t1d0) using the fmthard command as follows:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard –s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2<cr>
Although I’ve been supporting Macs since they came out in 1984 (when I was in elevated school), I haven’t received any “formal” training. It has mostly been learning by doing, reading the occasional engage and now of course, TheAppleBlog. Does formal certification really create a contrast as a technician? You betray me.Advertisement
Recently I got into an argument with a vendor that by hook or by thought a technician who first started repairing Macs sixth months ago trumped my 25 years experience. Did certification create this person a better technician? Having done quite a bit of hiring myself, I’ve too often establish that certification only verifies your ability to pilfer a test and may not luxuriate in presence in the existent world.
Now that the market has changed and everyone seems to exist competing for scarce resources, perhaps a certification would exist an additional edge? What’s the trade strategy for independent Mac technicians wanting more? The retort took a lot of research — even Apple wasn’t able to retort my questions — so learn from my journey.
Credit goes to both Brian Best of BestMacs and Doug Hanley of MacTEK Training, because without them I wouldn’t understand the alphabet soup of ACSP, ACMT, ACTC, ACSA, AASP, ACN and more. Didn’t they any become Mac users to avoid esoteric terms? As many of you know, the ease of the Apple user interface is equalled only by the frustration of trying to understand Apple’s certifications programs. Figuring out this path was much harder than any video game I’ve ever played, but a “game” may exist the best metaphor to characterize the process.The Game
You inaugurate the “game” as a universal Mac user. The three worlds you’ll generally survey in the game are IT, Pro Apps, and Sales. As an IT person maybe you luxuriate in skills, maybe you don’t. Nothing stops you from simply repairing Macs on your own, unless you enact things that specifically void the warranty and you derive caught doing so. You enact not exigency leave per se from Apple to drudgery on Macs. Many folks are pleased at this smooth collecting coins one by one, but you can’t proceed any further unless you derive a certification — the key that unlocks the next smooth in the game.
The first certification most retrograde for is Apple Certified champion Professional (ACSP) which used to exist known as an Apple Certified attend Desk Specialist (ACHDS). This certifies your ability to understand the operating system and is earned based on the OS version. Therefore, you are an Apple Certified champion Professional in 10.5 (or soon 10.6). Each OS requires certification, but your certification does not expire. Therefore, if you are a ACHDS in 10.3, you can summon yourself certified without understanding 10.5 at all. Your can pilfer the test without training (many do), self-study via materials from Peachpit, or attend an instructor-lead course at an Apple Authorized Training headquarters (AATC). MacTek is one of those centers. You’ll pilfer the test at a Prometric testing headquarters and pay around $200. The test takes about 90 minutes or so and you derive the results immediately.Apple Consultants Network
While certification is the means, the conclude you may exist reaching for is the ability to join the Apple Consultants Network (ACN). Joining the ACN requires any Apple certification, such as the ACSP discussed above, or any number of other certifications (described below, though one source says not any certifications are valid, so beware). Keeping with the video game analogy, the ACN is like an entire new area of the video game you want to explore, but the boss that must exist defeated first is Apple, and your weapon is a certification!
After getting a certification you can then apply to join the ACN. The application fee is $60 and the actual fee to join is $395 as a sole proprietor. The complete requirements are here. You’ll derive lots of benefits such as product discounts as well as the ability to network with other Macintosh consultants. As an ACN, Apple store employees may hand out your card to customers in the store. Now your trade can really expand as every Apple store customer is a potential customer for you.
ACN membership is much and many sojourn at this smooth of the “game” using the ACN membership as a multiplier for their income. However, you quiet can’t enact hardware repairs under warranty nor order Apple parts. As with the video game, you’re stuck at this smooth unless you explore further and try to beat the next boss. Apple always controls the rules. Accept it as piece of the game. Fail to accept it and you’ll derive slapped back to the nascence of the game quicker than you can click the home button.Server Administration Certification
From this point, you luxuriate in a brace directions you can go. You can focus on repair and service, or you can focus on server or advanced software administration (many folks will enact both). I will argue the server administration certifications and the hardware services certifications. You can arbitrator of each of these as two part worlds in the game. You can pick one or the other, or explore them both.
The first smooth server administration certification is another 4-letter acronym: ACTC: Apple Certified Technical Coordinator. In addition to passing the test for ACSP, you’ll visage the Server Essentials test. This extends your workstation abilities to servers. An even higher smooth of certification within the server realm is an ACSA — Apple Certified Systems Administrator. For the ACSA, you’ll exigency to pass four tests: Server Essentials, Directory Services, Deployment, and Mobility and Security for 10.6 (or Advanced System Administration for 10.5).
Apple besides offers the ACMA (Apple Certified Media Administrator) which includes Server Essentials, Xsan, Final sever Server and as an option, champion Essentials, Deployment, Directory Services, or Final sever smooth 1. Other certifications are not necessarily IT related and are software-focused. That’s a realm I’m not exploring as they chose the IT track at the nascence of the game.Hardware Repair Certification
Moving on from server administration to actual Apple hardware repair, the primary certification you will win is the Apple Certified Macintosh Technician (ACMT), formerly the Apple Certified Portable Technician (ACPT) and Apple Certified Desktop Technician (ACDT). This certification means you are theoretically qualified to enact warranty repairs on Apple Macintosh equipment. The skills required for ACMT are those of hardware repair and software troubleshooting. You don’t exigency an ACSP to exist an ACMT, but many people win both. The educational process for hardware repair is more intense and it’s less likely you’ll pass the test without some training. At this level, you can besides retrograde to an AATC and pay about $4,800 for both the hardware and software aspects of the course, or your can purchase self-study materials from Apple called “Apple custody Technician Training” for $299.Apple Authorized Service Provider
Similar to how passing the ACSP allows you to join the Apple Consultants Network, passing the ACMT allows you to enter the realm of an Apple Authorized Service Provider (AASP). You may not automatically become one though, and only AASP’s derive reimbursement from Apple for warranty work. However, being an ACMT is very helpful if you want to derive a job as an AASP. You may besides apply to enact warranty repairs for your larger organization of over 50 Macs via the Self-Service program. If you want to further to being able to enact warranty repairs for anyone, you’ll visage that same boss again, Apple. Note that becoming an ACMT will not necessarily win you any more money than an ACSA or ACTC. Facing the next boss may exist too expensive and too restricting, but if you enact want the next level, read on.
Getting to that AASP smooth is really the final smooth of the game. You’ll exigency to luxuriate in an ACMT on staff and supervene stricter requirements than joining the Apple Consultants Network. Generally you’ll exigency a existent store front and not exist a one-person operation. Apple grants exceptions (doesn’t every game luxuriate in cheat codes?), but don’t signify on it. Once you luxuriate in your AASP you can exist listed with Apple as a service provider and derive reimbursed for warranty repairs.
So I’ve loaded the game and pressed Start. Is certification worth it? What about ACN or AASP? Which training should I retrograde for? Is instructor lead training worth it? Any training vendors willing to sponsor me? What about the self-study programs? participate with me your experiences in the game and let’s develop a definitive guide including “cheat codes.”Apple-authorized Organizations
ACN (Apple Consultants Network)What it is: Network on Apple professionals, receives discounts and assistance from Apple, and can exist referred from Apple retail stores.Requirements: Any certification.
AASP (Apple Authorized Service Provider)What is it: trade that is permitted to enact Apple warranty repairs for reimbursement and order parts from Apple.Requirements: luxuriate in an Apple Certified Macintosh Technician on staff, among other requirements.Certifications
Apple Certified champion Professional: Basic understanding of the client Mac operating system and troubleshooting.
Apple Certified Technical Coordinator: Deeper understanding of the Mac OS, including the Mac OS X Server and Server Essentials.
Apple Certified Systems Administrator: Even greater technical understanding of the Mac OS X Server, including passing tests on Server Essentials, Directory Services, Deployment, and Mobility and Security.
Apple Certified Media Administrator: This is a sister track of the “Apple Certified Systems Administrator” with a focus on the needs of media management, and includes training in XSan or Final Cut.
Apple Certified Macintosh Technician: You can enact Apple hardware repairs, both in and out of warranty. Required to start (or derive a job with) an Apple Authorized Service Provider, or self-service your big organization.
In-Depth10 Common IT Security Blunders (and How To Avoid Them)
While IT managers are trained early on to avoid obvious threats, many quiet fail to watch out for the basics. From password issues to unreasonable auditing to not using Group Policy, here's a list of 10 things to create positive your shop is taking custody of.
No matter how hard they fight, cyber threats are ever on the rise. Microsoft and the federal government are stepping up their war on organizations driving botnets. This is piece of the problem. One of the biggest threats comes from within and failure to prepare for those battles is asking for trouble.
Even if you arbitrator your shop is doing any it can to avoid common security threats, you'd probably exist surprised at how easily an outsider can find common -- even silly -- mistakes.
IT pros are overworked. It's only natural that even a top dog makes the occasional blunder. Over the years I've establish many oversights in otherwise tightly secure organizations.
Here are some of the more common security mistakes I've race into.
1. Using Default PasswordsIT pros luxuriate in long been told to employ secure passwords and change them regularly. This thought seems to retrograde out the window when it comes to network appliances. I've lost signify of the number of times I've race into network appliances in production environments using default passwords.
Default passwords are a huge risk simply because they allow appliances to exist easily compromised. This is especially honest for network access points, but besides applies to firewall appliances, intrusion-detection appliances and just about any other kind of hardware appliance.2. Setting up decrepit PasswordsA few years ago, a neighbor asked me to set up his wireless network. When it came time to enter the passphrase, I left the leeway and let him enter the phrase in private. Although I told my friend to employ a tenacious passphrase, I had a hunch he'd employ the cognomen of his favorite sports team.
Later that night I connected to his wireless network from my house and after two or three tries was able to guess his passphrase. Once connected, I attached to his network printer and printed a message that his network was insecure and to summon me when he was ready to fix it.
The point is that wireless passphrases are vulnerable to the same types of attacks as insecure passwords. Therefore, you should create a point of using tenacious wireless passphrases or at the very least avoiding those that others can guess.
3. Central Administrator AccountsI used to drudgery in a status where the entire administrative staff shared a sole generic Administrator account. They had a disgruntled employee on the staff and she was constantly doing things to sabotage the network. Their audit logs showed her various actions as being performed by Administrator. Needless to say, a generic audit log entry wasn't enough for disciplinary action.
The IT manager was reluctant to create individual Administrator accounts, fearing multiple administrative accounts would expand the chances of a security breach. This meant the disgruntled administrator was able to continue with her shenanigans for quite some time.
Ever since, I've recommended to clients that they create two part accounts for each member of the administrative staff. Both of these accounts should exist personally identifiable. One account should want administrative privileges and exist used for any day-to-day activities. The other account should hold administrative privileges, but should only exist used for administrative actions. Using this technique lowers the risk of a security breach, while ensuring that any administrative actions can exist tracked back to the administrator who performed the action.
4. Failing to Utilize Group Policy SecurityI recently read an article in which the author cautioned administrators to employ Group Policy settings sparingly. It made the case that the more Group Policy settings are enabled, the longer the login process takes.
While I'm any for expediting the login process, I recommend taking complete odds of Group Policy security settings. Group Policy settings are the primary mechanism for ensuring the computers on your network adhere to your corporate security policy. Furthermore, if you exigency to create a change to your security, it's a lot more practical to modify a Group Policy setting than it is to try to update each computer individually.
5. Not Making employ of Local Security PoliciesAlthough Group Policies are important, it's besides faultfinding to create employ of local security policies. Local security policies are often overlooked because they exist at the lowest smooth of the Group Policy hierarchy. It's usually considered a better drill to implement policy settings at a higher level, such as at the domain or Organizational Unit (OU) smooth of the Group Policy hierarchy. Even so, using local security policies is important.
This is the case because higher-level Group Policy settings only apply once a user logs in to a domain. If someone happens to log in to a workstation using a local account, then zero of the higher-level Group Policy settings will exist applied. The workstation's only defense at that point is the local security policies.
I'll exist the first to admit that if someone logs into a workstation with a local account, then they can disable the individual elements within the local security policy. However, that only becomes a concern if the person who's logging in has malicious intent. There are plenty of perfectly legitimate reasons why someone might exigency to log into a workstation using a local account (such as to achieve a repair or system maintenance). In these types of situations, the local security policy helps provide basic security.
6. Forgetting About Certificate ExpirationsI luxuriate in to confess this is one bonehead straggle I'm personally guilty of. Recently I took a brace weeks off and went to South America to enact some extreme caving and scuba diving. While I was gone I left my smartphone turned off. When I got back to the United States, I turned my phone on, but couldn't derive any e-mail.
I assumed my server must luxuriate in crashed, or that my power or Internet connection was out. living in the sticks, I lose Internet and electricity any the time, so I didn't panic.
When I finally got to my house 12 hours later, I establish everything on my network functioning perfectly. While going through the troubleshooting process, I establish the digital certificate for my Exchange Server had expired. The certificate was cogent for five years, and just happened to expire while I was on vacation. Now I'm in the employ of documenting certificate expiration dates and setting up automated reminders to renew certificates before they expire.
7. unreasonable AuditingI took my first Windows certification class back in the '90s, and will never forget the lesson on event auditing. I was utterly amazed by the granularity with which events could exist audited. At the same time, I was bewildered as to why enabling auditing was a manual process. I asked why Microsoft didn't enable any the auditing mechanisms by default. The instructor's response holds just as honest today as it did back then.
Auditing every possible event is a contemptible thought for a brace of reasons. First, unreasonable auditing can humble a server's performance. CPU and disk resources are consumed by the auditing process, but when auditing is performed in moderation the resource consumption is no much deal. However, when you audit an unreasonable number of events, the auditing process can luxuriate in a noticeable impact on the server's performance.
A more faultfinding judgement for auditing in moderation is that, when you audit an unreasonable number of events, the event logs can quickly become huge. When this happens, it's nearly impossible to pinpoint the events you're truly interested in. faultfinding security alerts blend in with any of the purposeless events that luxuriate in been logged. That being the case, you should only log the events that are most germane and would provide the most useful forensic information if an storm should occur.8. Writing Down PasswordsWhen I first started working in IT, I lost signify of the people who told me you should never, ever write down a password. In many ways this rule makes sense. After all, if you write down passwords there's a casual those passwords could find their artery into the wrong hands. But I arbitrator the thought of never writing down passwords is incredibly shortsighted.
I harmonize user account passwords that are used on a day-to-day basis should not exist written down. After all, these types of passwords expire on a regular basis and are simple enough to reset. However, there are other passwords that attend to exist a bit more permanent and are used much less frequently.
One sample is my wireless router password. I probably haven't logged into my router's Web interface in at least a year. I'm not even positive I recollect the password correctly. That's why I luxuriate in the router's password written down and locked in a safe with the rest of my network documentation. That way, if a problem ever does occur, I don't luxuriate in to worry about trying to recollect an obscure password that I haven't used in a while.
I recommend writing down semi-permanent and rarely used passwords. Of course, this is assuming you luxuriate in a artery to adequately protect the paper containing the passwords.
9. Ineffective Service Account MaintenanceIn a Windows Server environment, system services are associated with a security account. Services can't start unless the service account is successfully authenticated. Most services create employ of the Local System Account, but some services (such as the ones used by SharePoint 2010) require actual user accounts. In these types of situations, there are two mistakes that are commonly made.
One common mistake is creating an all-purpose service account. This is a mistake because service accounts are almost always assigned special permissions. These permissions allow the corresponding service to achieve its intended tasks. When a sole account is assigned to multiple services, the service account might inaugurate to accumulate permissions that are far beyond those required to achieve any one, sole task. These excess permissions could allow an attacker to exploit a service to gain control of the system.
The other common blunder related to service accounts is that administrators often require service account passwords to exist changed on a regular basis. There's nothing wrong with resetting service account passwords, but you won't typically receive a reminder that the account is about to expire, and you'll luxuriate in to update the service itself to employ the new password. This usually means shutting down the service for a moment.
Service accounts can exist a favorite target for hackers because they attend to employ static passwords and might luxuriate in permissions that exceed those of even an administrator (service accounts are typically able to act as a piece of the OS, while admins are not). As such, it's a obedient thought to dedicate each service account to one specific service and give your service accounts names that cloak their honest purposes. I recommend giving your service accounts names that blend in with your user accounts. For example, you might cognomen a service account JSmith.
10. Failing to luxuriate in an Incident Response PlanBy far the most serious -- and yet one of the most common -- security blunders is not having an incident response plan. Imagine you walked into the office tomorrow and establish you've been hacked. What enact you do?
If you had to desist and arbitrator about it, you just demonstrated my point. It's faultfinding to develop a formalized incident response map before a security breach occurs, so you and your staff will know exactly what to do. Initial actions you might pilfer embrace disconnecting network cables, reviewing audit logs, verifying the integrity of your data and rebuilding affected servers.
The usurp response will vary from one organization to the next, and it's critically faultfinding to gain up with a security incident response map that fits your organization's needs.
Brien Posey is a 16-time Microsoft MVP with decades of IT experience. As a freelance writer, Posey has written thousands of articles and contributed to several dozen books on a wide variety of IT topics. Prior to going freelance, Posey was a CIO for a national chain of hospitals and health custody facilities. He has besides served as a network administrator for some of the country's largest insurance companies and for the Department of Defense at Fort Knox. In addition to his continued drudgery in IT, Posey has spent the terminal several years actively training as a commercial scientist-astronaut candidate in preparation to flit on a mission to study polar mesospheric clouds from space. You can supervene his spaceflight training on his Web site.
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