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310-200 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, Part I
Test Code : 310-200
Test name : Sun Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, Part I
Vendor name : SUN
: 354 existent Questions
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licensed Solaris gadget administrators are assistance know-how (IT) experts who installation and sustain network servers working one of the crucial Solaris working apparatus presently purchasable throughout the Oracle industry enterprise. they're always employed by using agencies and different corporations with computing device networks that expend the company's open supply utility products. As techniques administrators, they may additionally oversee different IT team of workers and respond to questions and upkeep requests from office people.education Bachelor's degree in guidance know-how or computer science informed Job expertise Troubleshooting, analytical considering, multitasking, conversation income latitude (2019)* $61,390 to $145,437 with solar certified apparatus Administrator credentials Job augment (2016-2026)** 6% for community and desktop methods directors
source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor informationRequired training
Most systems directors possess achieved a Bachelor of Science in assistance technology, computing device Science or a linked container. Core coursework customarily comprises topics in programming languages and methods, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications can be establish in the course of the Oracle industry enterprise in community, safety and programs administration. necessities consist of a passing rating on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by route of enrolling in lessons at the Oracle Academy or an authorised working towards core, reviewing seminar programs and taking celebrate assessments.abilities Required
systems directors are analytical thinkers who're able to troubleshoot considerations for massive businesses of community apparatus clients. stressful situations require clear, quickly considering, and might accommodate working lengthy hours unless the issue is mounted. The capacity to multitask can furthermore be effective when managing multiple challenge at a time. verbal exchange abilities are key when working with nontechnical personnel participants.profession and income Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor records (BLS) predicted that jobs for apparatus directors in accepted will augment by route of an medium pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. licensed device administrators will entangle joy from staggering job possibilities, as companies more and more rely on full-time authorities to retain their desktop working methods. according to Payscale.com, certified techniques directors for Solaris working systems earned between $61,390 and $a hundred forty five,437 in April 2019.
Computime's Ian Attard is the primary wholly licensed Maltese trainer in solar Solaris, the typical operating apparatus for servers. Most gaming and telecommunication providers in Malta expend Solaris, therefore the claim for Solaris practising comes powerful from these agencies.
This become the ultimate step for Computime to provide the total latitude of training on Solaris on a aboriginal stage. The enterprise first grew to be an accredited solar education centre, and therefore replete started on the Java course. as soon as the company has established and familiarised itself with solar's practising strategies, it turned into best herbal to circulation on to the Solaris lessons.
"competencies learned throughout the courses encompass primary to advanced working apparatus approaches, spanning from primary configurations corresponding to disk formatting and cutting, network configurations and troubleshooting recommendations to operating apparatus again-up and recuperation processes," Mr Attard informed i-Tech . "All of these expertise may be used privilege through training lessons as the route can be very arms-on and lets college students adventure these first hand. The atmosphere was very conducive to researching with a entire lot of recommendation obtainable from solar to shape my system as painless as feasible."
Solaris operating device certifications are Cut up into three ingredients.
The sun licensed Solaris Administrator Part 1 direction starts from the very fundamentals and tackles the basic and intermediate administrative projects that a Solaris administrator will requisite to recognize. This direction additionally builds the foundation for different greater advanced ideas and is a prerequisite to the sun certified Solaris Administrator half 2 path.
The 2nd path builds on the ideas coated by route of the Part 1 route and introduces other greater superior administrative initiatives equivalent to more advanced setting up methods and operating device troubleshooting and prognosis. After this direction the student is eligible to enact the exam and spin into a sun certified systems administrator.
The third path, the solar licensed community Administrator, makes a speciality of the networking facets latest within the Solaris working system and tackles subjects akin to IP routing, extremely redundant networking configurations and load-balancing suggestions on the operating system degree. After this path the student is eligible to enact the exam and become a sun certified network administrator.
Mr Attard reassures that it is not intricate to find out how to shape expend of and purchase odds of Solaris.
"lots of the Solaris ideas are very similar to the concepts present in different Unix-primarily based operating systems, therefore prior talents in other operating methods reminiscent of Linux will prove to be very effective within the transition to Solaris. even so, Solaris isn't a difficult working gadget to gain lore of to shape expend of from scratch."
particulars on Solaris lessons are available from Computime.
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Noah Broadwater, VP of information services for Sesame Workshop , likes using open source virtualization tools for several pleasant reasons—starting with green ones that possess nothing to enact with Oscar the Grouch.
Broadwater recently faced a budget crunch at the very time he needed new Web servers and was physically running out of leeway in his data center. His solution: new HP blade servers based on Novell's SUSE Linux Enterprise server software, which builds in Xen's virtualization software (Xen is the leading open source alternative to VMware's offering.)
MORE ON VIRTUALIZATION
Virtualization at Warp Speed: How One Company Made it Fly
CIO John Halamka Tries on Novell SUSE Linux
"We said let's try it," says Broadwater, who leads the non-profit company's IT staff of about 20 people. "It saved us from buying new servers." blissful with the results from virtualizing the Web servers, Broadwater planned a substantial virtualization project to shape over his other servers, starting with his test and evolution boxes, beginning about one year ago.The Vendor Road Less Taken
Sesame Workshop had been spending approximately $250,000 every three years on hardware and back for its Sun Solaris servers, Broadwater says. The new approach combined 25 virtual machines onto 4 physical servers within a blade focus and reduced that cost to $24,000 every 3 years, he says. Broadwater's team furthermore consolidated 10 servers including application, image and log servers onto 4 physical boxes. When done with its virtualization effort, the company will reclaim 2 racks worth of space in its already cramped data center, and reduce power consumption by 15 percent, Broadwater estimates.
Broadwater's desire to rescue is not unique: Many IT leaders now tap into the consolidation benefits of virtualization. But his preference of vendor is relatively unusual. Today, the overwhelming majority of enterprise shops expend VMware's tools.
Do many enterprise leaders even deem Novell when they're considering virtualization options? "On the technology side, Novell has made significant headway; however I deem they requisite to up their marketing efforts to further build brand recognition for their virtualization offerings," says Burton Group research analyst Chris Wolf. "That is furthermore crucial in edifice a tenacious colleague ecosystem." VMware and Citirx possess rounded up more partners to date than Novell, to proffer complementary products to IT managers.
With Microsoft entering the virtualization market with its Hyper-V hypervisor (expected to ship in August) and a virtualization management suite, Novell will mug even more competition. But that's not a death knell for Novell, Wolf says. "The virtualization market is more than big enough for Novell to carve out its own sizable chunk," Wolf says.Out With Relics, In With Open Source
So with VMware commanding the enterprise virtualization market, why didn't Broadwater expend the leader? "First, obviously, cost," Broadwater says. "VMware has a distinguished solution, it's just very expensive. Second, we're a difficult believer in and expend a lot of open source. Not just because of cost but because of philosophy. They actually work on open source projects and give code back." Broadwater has been using open source tools such as the Apache Web server software for years.
As for why he went with Novell SUSE Linux, comfort played a Part here. "We've had Novell in the data focus a long time nothing against Red Hat [and its Linux products,]" Broadwater says. "With Novell, I knew what my back was, I knew how to work that system."
"The blueprint is, within the next three years, to be off Solaris completely," touching over to as much Linux as practicable on servers, Broadwater says. "I looked around at what I saw with my engineers. I told my engineers 'Every one of you knows Linux. If there's a problem with the basis OS, if it's Linux, any one of you can fix it.' Today my Solaris guy can't fix Windows problems," he says. "It [virtualizing on Linux] furthermore makes their cataclysm recovery a lot simpler."
What about the internal IT group politics of making such a broad change in OS strategy? Respondents to their recent survey, Your Virtualized situation in 2008, ranked IT organization politics issues as their second toughest management challenge around virtualization, second only to balancing server workloads.
"We've always had a heterogeneous environment," Broadwater says. "They replete knew Linux. We've had, obviously, some fear. Their Unix administrator has been supporting Solaris for 18 years. His job isn't going away; he's getting certified on Linux," Broadwater says. The small size of his IT group helps minimize the political battles, he adds.
As for what's next: By June 2009, Sesame Workshop furthermore plans to virtualize its 10 non-critical, low utilization servers, some of which are running Microsoft Windows Server 2003. Some of these are one-application, one-server relics, a problem that many CIOs know replete too well.
One example: "Our conference leeway scheduler has its own server," Broadwater says. "It's taking up space in my data center. It uses maybe 7 percent of the processor [in the server] and zero of the memory."
One intuition this resource-waster has hung around: The scheduling application requires Microsoft's IIS (Internet Information Sevices) web server, Broadwater says. "Everything else they hasten runs on Apache [web server]," Broadwater says. Thanks to virtualization, application servers relish this one will soon be a thing of the past for Sesame Workshop.
4 Tips for Managing Virtualization
Sesame Workshop IT leader Noah Broadwater shares lessons learned during his open source virtualization project:
1. Know your systems: "Get a accurate baseline of how your systems are running," Broadwater says. "Two days out of the month a server may spike relish crazy because a special application job kills it." purchase as long a snapshot of server deportment as possible—at least one month's activity—he advises.
2. Build in extra time to test virtualized servers: "It takes a while to entangle it right," Broadwater says. You will requisite time to test how much I/O and reminiscence your apps consume, to ensure that application performance doesn't tedious down because you combine too may resource-hungry apps on the very physical server. Xen, relish replete virtualization tools, is relatively puerile and you'll requisite time to entangle used to it, he adds.
3. Don't create a nightmare on backup street: In one instance, Broadwater's IT team virtualized 4 servers onto one physical machine; replete 4 VMs were scheduled to back up at the very time, and created a bottleneck for the backup software and the physical server, Broadwater says. "Think out your backup strategy. They just changed the timing. That first replete backup could be a nightmare."
4. Don't feel pressured regarding management tools: One year into its virtualization project, Sesame Workshop has yet to buy any third-party management tools for virtualization, Broadwater notes, though he is now looking at adopting tools from Platespin (recently acquired by Novell) tools for physical to virtual server conversions. These tools could rescue his team manual labor and time when consolidating Windows physical servers, he believes.
Copyright © 2008 IDG Communications, Inc.
Certified Solaris system administrators are information technology (IT) professionals who install and maintain network servers running one of the Solaris operating system currently available through the Oracle Corporation. They are usually employed by businesses and other organizations with computer networks that expend the company's open source software products. As systems administrators, they may furthermore oversee other IT staff and respond to questions and maintenance requests from office workers.Education Bachelor's degree in information technology or computer science recommended Job Skills Troubleshooting, analytical thinking, multitasking, communication Salary ambit (2019)* $61,390 to $145,437 with Sun Certified System Administrator credentials Job Growth (2016-2026)** 6% for network and computer systems administrators
Source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor StatisticsRequired Education
Most systems administrators possess completed a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field. Core coursework typically includes topics in programming languages and procedures, networking and systems design. Solaris certifications are available through the Oracle Corporation in network, security and systems administration. Requirements comprehend a passing score on an exam, which candidates can prepare for by enrolling in courses at the Oracle Academy or an approved training center, reviewing seminar packages and taking practice exams.Skills Required
Systems administrators are analytical thinkers who are able to troubleshoot issues for big groups of network system users. Stressful situations require clear, hastily thinking, and can involve working long hours until the problem is fixed. The talent to multitask can be helpful when managing more than one project at a time. Communication skills are key when working with nontechnical staff members.Career and Salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that jobs for system administrators in generic will augment by an medium pace, 6% from 2016 to 2026. Certified system administrators will savor excellent job prospects, as businesses increasingly rely on full-time professionals to maintain their computer operating systems. According to Payscale.com, certified systems administrators for Solaris operating systems earned between $61,390 and $145,437 in April 2019.
This article is the first of a two-part progression that offers a technical overview of how the Solaris 9 Operating Environment implementation of Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) works. This article demonstrates straightforward methods for configuring PAM to accommodate site-specific security policy requirements and examines the PAM architecture and its components.Like this article? They recommend
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) are an integral Part of the authentication mechanism for the Solaris™ 9 Operating Environment (Solaris OE). PAM provides system administrators with the talent and flexibility to elect any authentication service available on a system to effect end-user authentication. Other PAM implementations are Linux-PAM and OpenPAM.
By using PAM, applications can effect authentication regardless of what authentication routine is defined by the system administrator for the given client.
PAM enables system administrators to deploy the appropriate authentication mechanism for each service throughout the network. System administrators can furthermore select one or multiple authentication technologies without modifying applications or utilities. PAM insulates application developers from evolutionary improvements to authentication technologies, while at the very time allowing deployed applications to expend those improvements.
PAM employs run-time pluggable modules to provide authentication for system entry services. PAM offers a number of benefits, including:
Flexible configuration policy by enabling each application or service to expend its own authentication policy. PAM provides the talent for system administrators to elect a default authentication mechanism. By using the PAM mechanism to require multiple passwords, protection can be enhanced on towering security systems. For example, a system administrator might want users to entangle authenticated by both Kerberos and Digest-MD5.
Ease of expend for the halt user. Password usage can be made easier by using PAM. If users possess the very passwords for different mechanisms, they enact not requisite to retype the password. Configured and implemented properly, PAM offers a route to n prompt the user for passwords for multiple authentication methods without having the user enter multiple commands. For example, a site may require certificate-based password authentication for telnet access, while allowing console login sessions with just a UNIX password.
Enhances security and provides ease of expend of the Solaris 9 OE in an extensible way. The security mechanisms accessible through PAM are implemented as dynamically loadable, shared software modules that can be installed by system administrators in a manner that is transparent to applications. By increasing overall security, users savor greater service levels and lower cost of ownership.
This article is Part one of a two-part progression that offers a technical overview of how the Solaris 9 OE implementation of PAM works, and demonstrates the straightforward route in which it can be configured to accommodate site-specific security policy requirements. This article examines the PAM architecture and the components that shape up PAM.
Extending Authentication in the Solaris 9 OE Using PAM: Part II due in the October issue of Sun BluePrintsTM Online details the PAM application programming interface (API) and the PAM service provider interface (SPI). It furthermore details how to write your first PAM module, including annotated examples of how to write pluggable authentication modules.
Part one of this article contains the following information:
Traditional Solaris OE authentication is based on the routine developed for early UNIX implementations. This routine employs an one-way encryption hashing algorithm called crypt(3c). The encrypted password is stored either in a file or in a Solaris OE naming service, from which it is retrieved during the user login process. The traditional UNIX routine of the Solaris OE authentication, using crypt(3c), is very celebrated and has been enhanced to expend an LDAP directory as its data store.
Before proceeding with the details on authentication, you must possess a pleasant understanding of what crypt(3c) is. There is some confusion because of a naming fight with an application named crypt; the latter is a gauge utensil that ships with the Solaris OE and is a program for encrypting and decrypting the contents of a file. (This program can be establish in /usr/bin/crypt.)
However, when the term "crypt" is referred to in authentication, it is normally cited as crypt(3c) and refers to the gauge UNIX password hashing algorithm crypt(3c), available to C programmers in the libc.so library.
A more sophisticated authentication routine based on public key technology was introduced with the Network Information System (NIS+) naming service (now rebranded as the Sun OSTM 5.0 Network Information Service). The NIS+ naming service routine does not replace crypt(3c), but rather provides an additional security layer by introducing the concept of a network password. When users access network services through the secure remote procedure convene (RPC) mechanism, the network password is required.
Originally developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. and adopted by the Open Software Foundation (OSF) for inclusion in Common Desktop Environment (CDE)/Motif, pluggable authentication modules (PAM) provide a mechanism for dynamic system authentication and related services such as password, account, and session management. Realizing that new authentication models continue to be developed, Sun Microsystems, Inc. created the PAM architecture that allows additional methods to be added without disturbing existing ones. PAM was introduced in the Solaris 2.6 OE to overcome having to recode system entry services such as, login, passwd, dtlogin, telnet, and rlogin when a new authentication mechanism was developed and introduced.
The PAM architecture and alternatives to traditional Solaris OE authentication are presented in the Section , "Solaris 9 OE PAM Framework," on page 6.UNIX Passwords
Passwords are created with the Solaris OE passwd command. This command prompts the user for a (new) password, which the user enters as a text string. In the Solaris OE, this text string is then hashed—or one-way encrypted—using the crypt(3c) algorithm. The result is stored either in /etc/shadow, or in the passwd.byname and passwd.byuid NIS maps. If the NIS+ naming service is used, the results are stored in the Passwd and Cred table type. The crypt(3c) algorithm is provided with a random seed, known technically as a salt string, so that the result is different each time the passwd command is run, even if the very text string is used.
When a user logs in, the Solaris OE login program challenges the user to provide a password. This password is hashed in the very manner as the passwd command. If the output from this process matches the output that is stored in the password database, the user is authenticated.
FIGURE 1 illustrates how the UNIX password process works.
FIGURE 1 Login Program Text String Converting to a Hashed StringBenefits and Drawbacks of crypt(3c)
The major profit of crypt(3c) is that it is effortless to implement in a closed environment. Authentication takes site on the host that the user logs in to, so an authentication server is not required. In the case of local logins, the transparent text passwords are never stored or sent over the network, so there is no intuition to be concerned about eavesdroppers intercepting the password. However, when authenticating over a network using telnet or rlogin, passwords are sent in the transparent text.
Because crypt(3c) uses a one-way encryption algorithm, it is difficult to decrypt passwords stored on the server. Only the user knows what the actual password is. This means that there is no route to transmute passwords stored in crypt to another format required by a different authentication method.
When the crypt(3c) office is called, it takes the first eight characters and returns its computation. This computation is then injected with a randomly generated value called the salt. In conventional crypt, the salt is stored as the first two characters. This salt value is then added, resulting in a sequence of 13 characters. The result is that the salt is actually an necessary Part of the password string that is stored in the specific naming service.
In the future, Sun plans to update the crypt(3c) API in the Solaris 9 OE to allow different algorithms, such as MD5 and Blowfish to be used for encrypting the user's login password.
As CPUs and storage capabilities increase, the crypt(3c) algorithm becomes vulnerable to attack. The crypt(3c) mechanism shipping with the Solaris 9 OE, along with PAM authentication, is exactly the very implementation that has been in the Solaris OE for many years now, and is due to change in a subsequent update release of the Solaris 9 OE.
The Solaris OE crypt(3c) mechanisms work well for authenticating local Solaris OE clients, but they are not the only methods used by applications and services running in the Solaris OE. This can shape it difficult for system developers and system administrators, who must work with multiple password systems, and for users who must bethink multiple passwords.
The PAM interface in the Solaris 9 OE makes it easier for system administrators to deploy different authentication technologies without modifying administrative commands such as login, telnet, and other administrative commands. Administrators are able to select one or multiple authentication technologies, without modifying applications or utilities. PAM can furthermore be an integral Part of a single sign-on system. The PAM APIs provide a resilient mechanism that increases overall system security. The PAM APIs are circumstantial in Extending Authentication in the Solaris 9 OE Using PAM: Part II due in the October issue of Sun BluePrints Online.
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