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310-110 Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0

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310-110 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0

Test Code : 310-110
Test name : Sun Certified Mobile Application Developer for the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, Version 1.0
Vendor name : SUN
: 340 existent Questions

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SUN Sun Certified Mobile Application

Wi-solar Alliance Drives start of Open, cozy and Interoperable solutions, with Availability of First Wi-solar container enviornment community certified products | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

SAN RAMON, California, Feb. four, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The Wi-solar Alliance, a global ecosystem of member agencies in search of to speed up the implementation of open requisites-based mostly box enviornment Networks (FAN) and the information superhighway of things (IoT), nowadays introduced that the first wave of contributors Have efficiently accomplished interoperability testing to become the primary options to obtain Wi-sun FAN certification.

"necessities and interoperability are key to continued boom for the IoT trade," says Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-sun Alliance. "the provision of licensed Wi-sun FAN options grants on their mission to offer utilities, cities and repair suppliers adaptable multi-service networks so as to assist subsist confident interoperability these days and for future generations."

The options from Cisco, Itron, Nissin techniques, Kyoto school, Landis+Gyr, Renesas and ROHM tackle the wants of utilities, city builders and other service providers to simplify and back large-scale, out of doors networks for sensible cities, smart utilities and other IoT rollouts.

Wi-sun FAN is a communications infrastructure for extremely huge-scale networks, enabling many instruments to interconnect on one regular community. All Wi-sun licensed items had been rigorously verified with the aid of Allion check Labs in Taiwan, the primary examine lab to achieve Wi-sun FAN 1.0 validation, to subsist confident the gadgets labored together with no anxiety and securely to ensure rapid time to market. Upon a success test completion, authorised products are approved to pomp the Wi-solar certified FAN emblem, which shows to clients that these products are compliant with open specifications, interoperable, cozy and scalable and can furthermore subsist deployed with self assurance. To subsist trained extra about Wi-sun product certification, tickle consult with

Wi-solar FAN licensed products:

Cisco:  done the very first Wi-solar FAN 1.0 certification with its IR509 WPAN Industrial Router, which can subsist deployed into a diverse set of information superhighway of things functions including: sage metering, sensible grids, distribution automation, supervisory handle and records acquisition, and highway lighting.  dedicated to the Wi-solar software, Cisco has contributed numerous check bed instruments for the Wi-sun FAN certification program.

Itron: The Wi-solar FAN licensed Itron Bridge5-WS is a key constituent of the Itron community platform that allows cities and utilities to cost-effectively combine industrial IoT and utility handle and monitoring devices onto a cozy, reputable and open specifications-primarily based Wi-sun FAN. With this certification, Itron continues its lengthy-time leadership in the Wi-sun Alliance main as much as this milestone, including tremendous contributions to the progress of the FAN Technical Profile, Compliance check arrangement and check mattress. 

Nissin programs, Kyoto university, and ROHM: Collaborated on the progress of the EW-WSN BP35C4, which has accomplished Wi-sun FAN certification. The EW-WSN BP35C4 is a multi-intention module compliant with Wi-solar FAN 1.0 router with a UART interface. it is handy to integrate in sensible utilities and various IoT gadgets.

Landis+Gyr: The N550 community Node is an integral Part of Gridstream® connect, the trade main utility IoT solution that supplies flexibility for applications comparable to AMI, distribution automation, buyer engagement, sensible cities, DER integration and extra. For more counsel tickle visit:

ProCubed: supplied check tools for the certification trying out environment including: 1) ProShark Plus (Wi-solar FAN 1.0 Protocol Analyzer), 2) examine mattress Controller (professional-Si-sun FAN1.0-915-TBC

Renesas: selected to supply one of the most interoperability verify mattress gadgets for the Wi-solar FAN certification application and performed Wi-solar FAN 1.0 certification with its RF (RAA604S00)+ MCU (RX651) wireless answer.

be confident to talk over with us at DistribuTECH 2019The Wi-solar Alliance will showcase Wi-sun FAN certified options from Cisco, Itron, Landis+Gyr, Nissin systems and Renesas at DistribuTECH 2019 in sales space 11225.

join the Wi-solar Alliance and utilities Hawaiian electric, Xcel power and Avangrid for the sensible city/IoT panel session: container zone Networks befriend Utility and sage city Initiatives on Wednesday, February 6th, 2019, from 1:30 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. in rooms 280-282. Panelists will discuss how fanatics are fitting a vital constituent in the creation of smart cities.

also sequel not miss the increasing the Grid potential Hub on the exhibit floor booth 12031 scheduled for Thursday, February seventh from 10:00 AM -eleven:00 AM. Iker Urrutia from Iberdrola will talk about interoperability applied to sensible metering and how Wi-sun technology is the conversation protocol chosen to address the problem for an upcoming project in the situation of ny. Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-sun Alliance will give an overview of the Wi-sun Alliance organization, the specification for province zone Networks, and an update on certification fame, technical collaborations with other agencies, and plans for the longer term.

concerning the Wi-sun AllianceThe Wi-sun Alliance is a world non-income member-based mostly affiliation made of business main organizations. Its mission is to obligate the global proliferation of interoperable wireless solutions for disburse in smart cities, smart grids and different web of issues (IoT) applications using open international requirements from businesses, corresponding to IEEE802, IETF, TIA, TTC and ETSI. With greater than 200 members worldwide, membership of the Wi-sun Alliance is open to every trade stakeholders and includes silicon providers, product vendors, services providers, utilities, universities, companies and municipalities and indigenous government companies. For more tips, tickle discuss with:

Wi-sun Alliance and the Wi-solar Alliance logo are logos of the Wi-sun Alliance.

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supply Wi-sun Alliance

Kyoto college, Teaming with 2 jap organizations, Acquires World-First Certification for wireless communique Specification Wi-sun FAN | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

KYOTO, Japan, Feb. 6, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- wireless gadgets fitted with the newfangled strange instant communique specification Wi-solar FAN (container enviornment community) for the internet of issues developed collectively through the analysis community of Professor Hiroshi Harada of the Graduate school of Informatics, Kyoto college (hereinafter Kyoto institution), Nissin techniques Co., Ltd. (hereinafter Nissin systems), and ROHM Co., Ltd. (hereinafter ROHM) became one of the crucial world's first solutions to achieve Wi-sun FAN certification.

BackgroundIn order to recognize outside communique networks akin to sensible cities and sensible grids, terrific, long-distance and comfy network know-how is required. Wi-solar FAN is a brand newfangled specification of Wi-solar, a global radio communications mission it's the top-rated perfect to the progress of IoTs. it is an interoperable communications networking technique for electrical energy, gasoline, and water metering, as well as for smart cities and sensible grids in various functions equivalent to infrastructure and intellectual transport techniques.

This Wi-solar FAN is an interoperable low-vigour IoT instant verbal exchange know-how that makes disburse of low-vigor instant transmission expertise in line with the IEEE 802.15.4g mediocre and multistage routing know-how in response to IPv6. On may additionally sixteen, 2016, the Wi-sun Alliance, which certifies instant conversation requisites for IoTs, technical compatibility, and interconnectivity, centered typical standards, and on November 11, 2016, the three events introduced that they succeeded in basic radio developments arrogate with Wi-sun FAN. The Wi-sun Alliance then announced its Wi-solar FAN certification software on October 3, 2018.

This achievementBased on the consequences of the simple construction of Wi-sun FAN, the three events developed a radio suitable with Wi-sun FAN technical requirements and certification application, and passed an IP-based certification check using multi-hop, frequency-hopping, and advanced certification safety through the disburse of a plurality of distinctive radios from discrete companies. This radio has here capabilities as described in the Wi-sun FAN Technical necessities.

  • physical layer and MAC layer similar to IEEE 802.15.4/4g/4e required for operation in Japan
  • Adaptation layer, network layer, and transport layer relative with the aid of IETF reminiscent of 6LowPAN and IPv6 
  • Multi-hop conversation gadget using RPL 
  • Frequency hopping 
  • RADIUS/AAA high-degree security 
  • Multi-dealer interconnectivity
  • With the IEEE802.15.four/4g/4e technologies capable of solid transmission over 1km below the eastern legislation, this radio is fitted with a global typical for web access, which has been added in Wi-Fi (TM) methods, and a multi-hop international common that realizes multi-stage relay between radios based on IP. This makes it convenient to unite sensors, meters, and screens that discharge up sage cities and sage metering to the cyber web.

    This success changed into carried out within the Impulsing Paradigm change through Disruptive applied sciences application (have an sequel on) led by the Council for Science, expertise and Innovation, the cupboard workplace. This software turned into fashioned by way of a joint industry-academia consortium called the next-era Wi-solar Joint research Consortium, Kyoto. The three events, based mostly in Kyoto, are Kyoto college, which Have a track record of standardization and pile of IEEE 802.15.four/4g/4e, Nissin programs, which commercializes Wi-sun-appropriate communication middleware, and ROHM, which develops conversation modules suitable with the commonplace.

    define of certification acquisition:Date and time of certification acquisition: January 30, 2019Certification authority: Wi-solar AllianceCertified checking out laboratory: Allion Labs, Inc.Certification quantity: WSA 0171

    Future developmentIn the longer term, the three parties will acquire Part in an interoperability specification verification undergo sponsored by way of the Wi-solar Alliance to discharge a contribution to trying out for technical conformity and interoperability of the Wi-solar FAN standard, and to advertise further progress as business-academia cooperation initiatives in Kyoto with a view to establish in obligate this radio in society. The outcomes were furthermore displayed on the Wi-solar Alliance sales space in DistribuTECH 2019, the biggest energy industry-linked adventure within the united states, which changed into held in newfangled Orleans on February 5.

    extra particulars can subsist found at:

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    The Pokémon TCG Card Dex app is formally accessible on the Play shop | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    past this week the Pokémon TCG Card Dex app turned into smooth launched on the Play shop in Sweden, and greater territories had been scheduled to open up presently. neatly, now that a number of days Have handed The Pokémon company has officially introduced the global unencumber of its trading card management app. you can disburse this release to scan and retain song of your actual cards, and you'll additionally browse the constructed-in Pokémon TCG database to formulate newfangled plans on your competitive deck design or quite simply music which cards you nevertheless don't personal.

    The Pokémon TCG Card Dex app will obviously find a house on the telephones of many Pokémon TCG gamers, even though there's one minute caveat to this liberate. to date it simplest helps the playing cards released on the grounds that the launch of the Pokémon TCG: sun & Moon sequence. So in case you own any cards that are older than this sequence, you won't subsist capable of scan them into the app.

    one of the most more welcome points is for you to without hardship scan playing cards which are broken or contain textual content from distinctive languages. Scanning broken cards permit them to reside on in digital form so for you to soundless eke out some cost from your purchases, plus that you may scan international language cards to then Have them demonstrate up to your digital library within the language you Have set within the app. to date English, French, Italian, German, Spanish, and Portuguese are the languages supported during this release.

    The Pokémon company is a shrimp late to the cardboard monitoring birthday party on Android, above every due to the fact that there are already a bunch of third-birthday celebration apps on the Play store explicitly designed for this goal, though I Have to utter it subsist every the time fine to Have the choice to discharge disburse of an officially supported app. while it will had been top notch to note better assist for older playing cards arrogate out of the gate, i am confident this unlock will soundless cowl the majority of needs for Pokémon TCG collectors and avid gamers.

    February eight, 2019—The Pokémon business strange has launched the Pokémon TCG Card Dex mobile app global on suitable iOS and Android instruments. This app, purchasable for gratis, offers an effortless option to browse and determine every expansions and promo cards from the Pokémon TCG: sun & Moon series, including the these days launched sun & Moon—crew Up.

    Pokémon TCG Card Dex allows fans to quite simply maintain music of their Pokémon TCG: sun & Moon string assortment by scanning playing cards the disburse of their mobile equipment’s digital camera and storing them in the community for handy offline viewing. It additionally offers a comprehensive database of every sun & Moon collection expansions, with the potential to filter by using enlargement, card class and rarity, Pokémon classification, power category, HP, and other alternatives, so fans can readily search and find playing cards. players can now initiate including the solar & Moon—team Up expansion to their collection in Pokémon TCG Card Dex.

    Pokémon TCG Card Dex is available to down load for gratis from the App store and Google Play. For extra assistance about the Pokémon TCG, tickle consult with:

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    Sun Announces Revolutionary Version of Java Technology - Java Platform gauge Edition 6 | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    LONDON, Dec. 11 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Sun Microsystems, Inc. , the creator of Java(TM) technology and the Solaris(TM) Operating System and the world's leading contributor of open source code, today announced the availability of Java Platform gauge Edition 6 (Java SE 6). The Java SE 6 release is the result of over two years of industry-wide progress involving open review, weekly builds and extensive collaboration between Sun engineers and over 330 external developers. Developers interested in getting started immediately with the Java SE 6 release can leverage the newfangled NetBeans(TM) Integrated progress Environment (IDE) 5.5, which fully supports every the latest features of the Java SE 6 platform.

    Java SE 6 software makes progress easier, faster and more cost-efficient and delivers enhanced functionality for web services, dynamic language support, diagnostics, and desktop applications. In addition, over 160 companies worked with Sun and tested their Java technology-based applications on the Java SE 6 platform to befriend ensure compatibility, stability and optimum performance for the Java SE 6 release. Backward compatibility of Java SE 6 with previous versions of the platform preserves the skill sets of current Java software developers and protects Java technology investments. In-depth information and technology downloads for the Java SE 6 release are available at:

    The powerful combination of the newfangled Java SE 6 release and the NetBeans 5.5 IDE provides developers with a reliable, open and compatible, high-performance framework for delivering Java technology-based applications faster and easier than ever before. The NetBeans IDE provides an open source, lofty performance, modular, extensible, multi-platform Java IDE to accelerate the progress of Java SE 6 software-based applications and web services. The NetBeans IDE is available for download along with the Java SE 6 platform at:, or separately at

    "Java SE 6 technology is now, more than ever, an extremely sturdy platform for both developers and vendors and the NetBeans IDE is the best way for developers to leverage every the newfangled functionality in the Java SE 6 release. With expanded dynamic language and web services support, the Java SE 6 platform is optimized for pile Web 2.0 applications and services," said loaded Green, executive vice president of Software at Sun. "Moving forward, the OpenJDK(TM) project will define how Sun's Java SE implementation evolves, and they peer forward to working even more closely with the developer community on the next version of the Java SE platform."

    Web 2.0

    The Java SE 6 software helps accelerate developer innovation for web- based, dynamic and online collaboration applications by including a newfangled framework and developer APIs to allow mixing of Java technology with dynamically typed languages, such as PHP, Python, Ruby and JavaScript(TM) technology. Sun has furthermore created a collection of scripting engines at: and pre-configured the Rhino JavaScript engine in the Java SE 6 platform. In addition, the Java SE 6 software includes a plenary web services client stack and supports the latest web services specifications, such as JAX-WS 2.0, JAXB 2.0, STAX and JAXP.

    Diagnostics, Monitoring, and Management

    The Java SE 6 platform provides expanded tools for diagnosing, managing and monitoring applications and furthermore includes back for the newfangled NetBeans Profiler 5.5 and for Solaris(TM) DTrace, a comprehensive dynamic tracing framework that is included in the Solaris 10 Operating System. In addition, the Java SE 6 software further increases ease of progress with tool interface updates for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM (TM)) and the Java Platform Debugger Architecture (JPDA).

    Enterprise Desktop

    The Java SE 6 release delivers significant improvements to the desktop, which enable Java applications to integrate even more seamlessly into the end- user experience. For rapid visual progress of interactive applications, the Java SE 6 platform includes a newfangled layout manager component, based on the NetBeans GUI Builder (formerly code named Matisse). The Java SE 6 software furthermore provides enhanced back for the upcoming version of Windows Vista.

    "We welcome the Java SE 6 release and its compatibility with Windows Vista because they want to note a auspicious Java technology undergo available for customers using Windows," said Brad Goldberg, universal manager for Windows Client at Microsoft Corp. "We Have worked very closely with Sun through the progress process to ensure continued compatibility and interoperability between Java technology, Windows and the latest versions of Internet Explorer.

    Developer back and Services

    Developers using the Java SE 6 platform or Sun Developer Tools and technologies to leverage the Java SE 6 release, can pick up back through Sun Developer Services - Sun's complete line of developer how-to help, product back and updates, and training and certification programs ( For the Java SE 6 release, Sun is offering a special promotion for 60 days of unlimited back for Java SE 6 software, free of charge, through Sun Developer Expert Assistance. Sun Java MultiPlatform (JMP) back ( offers end-to-end, mission faultfinding Java technology back for customers with heterogeneous computing environments and helps to optimize application performance and reduce risk. In addition to the existing one year offering, Sun is now offering newfangled three year subscription pricing for JMP back to befriend customers lower costs. Sun Developer Network Program (SDN) members can furthermore pick up a 10 percent discount on the newfangled Java SE 6 technology training course. Developers are encouraged to unite the SDN, at no cost, by registering online at:

    About Sun Microsystems, Inc.

    A singular vision -- "The Network Is The Computer"(TM) -- guides Sun in the progress of technologies that power the world's most notable markets. Sun's philosophy of sharing innovation and pile communities is at the forefront of the next wave of computing: the Participation Age. Sun can subsist found in more than 100 countries and on the Web at

    FOR MORE INFORMATION: Ken Shuman gnaw Communications (415) 365-0381 [email protected] Jacki DeCoster Sun Microsystems (415) 294-4482 [email protected]

    Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo, Java, NetBeans, JVM, Solaris, Open JDK and The Network Is The Computer are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries.

    Sun Microsystems, Inc.

    CONTACT: Ken Shuman of gnaw Communications, +1-415-365-0381,[email protected]; or Jacki DeCoster of Sun Microsystems, +1-415-294-4482,[email protected]

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    Java 2 Platform Security | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter explains the Java 2 platform architecture and its security features as they apply to pile Java applications. In particular, it describes the various Java platforms and the core security features that contribute to the end-to-end security of Java-based applications running on various systems—from servers to stand-alone computers, computers to devices, and devices to smart cards.

    This chapter is from the book 

    Topics in This Chapter

  • Java Security Architecture
  • Java Applet Security
  • Java Web Start Security
  • Java Security Management Tools
  • J2ME Security Architecture
  • Java Card Security Architecture
  • Securing the Java Code
  • Sun's Java philosophy of "Write Once, rush Anywhere" has been an evolving success epic since its inception, and it has revolutionized the computing industry by delivering to us the most capable platform for pile and running a wide orbit of applications and services. In general, the Java platform provides a general-purpose object-oriented programming language and a gauge runtime environment for developing and delivering secure, cross-platform application solutions that can subsist accessed and dynamically loaded over the network or rush locally.

    With the release of the Java 2 Platform, Sun categorized the Java technologies under three key major editions in order to simplify software progress and deployment. The Java 2 gauge Edition (J2SE) provides the runtime environment and API technologies for developing and executing basic Java applications, and it furthermore serves as the secure foundation for running Java enterprise applications. The Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE), or the J2EE Platform, is a set of standards and API technologies for developing and deploying multi-tier business applications. To back Java on microdevices and embedded systems, Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) provides the runtime environment and API technologies for addressing the needs of consumer electronics and devices. With its widespread adoption, today Java technology is enabled and executed from smart cards to microdevices, handhelds to desktops, workstations to enterprise servers, mainframes to supercomputers, and so on.

    To facilitate end-to-end security of the Java platform-based application solutions, the Java runtime environment (JRE) and the Java language provide a solid security foundation from the ground up by imposing sturdy format and structural constraints on the code and its execution environment. This distinguishes the Java platform from other application programming languages—it has a well-defined security architectural model for programming Java-based solutions and their secure execution.

    In this chapter, they will explore the various Java platforms and the intricate details of their security architecture that contribute to the end-to-end security of Java-based application solutions. In particular, they will study Java security and the inherent features of the following technologies:

  • J2SE security
  • Java applet security
  • Java Web start security
  • Java security management tools
  • J2ME security
  • Java Card security
  • Java Code obfuscation
  • Security has been an integral Part of Java technology from day one. Security is furthermore an evolving design goal of the Java community—building and running secure and robust Java-based network applications. The primary reason for Java's success today as a secure execution environment is the intrinsic security of its architectural foundation—the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and the Java language. This foundation achieves the basic Java security goal and its definitive ways for extending security capabilities to ensure features such as confidentiality, integrity, trust, and so forth. A second reason for its success is its aptitude to deliver an interoperable and platform-neutral security infrastructure that can subsist integrated with the security of the underlying operating system and services.

    The Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

    The JVM is an abstract computing engine that resides on a host computer. It is the execution environment for the Java programming language and has the primary responsibility for executing the compiled code by interpreting it in a machine-independent and cross-platform fashion. The JVM is often referred to as the Java runtime environment. While executing a Java program running on top of the JVM, the JVM insulates the application from the underlying differences of the operating systems, networks, and system hardware, thus ensuring cross-platform compatibility among every of the implementations of the Java platform.

    The Java language allows creation of general-purpose programs called Java classes that picture a Java program or an application. The Java classes compile into a format called Java's executable bytecodes, which are quite similar to the machine language that can rush on top of a JVM. The JVM furthermore allows users to download and execute untrusted programs and applications from remote resources or over a network. To back delivery of Java components over the network, the JVM controls the primary security layer by protecting users and the environment from malicious programs. To enable security, the JVM enforces stringent measures ensuring systems security on the host client machine and its target server environments.

    Distributing the executable Java bytecode over a network or running automatically inside a Web browser or a client's machine leads to different security risks and attacks, such as disclosure of the target environment to the untrusted applications and damage or modification of the client's private information and data. For example, Java applets downloaded from a network are not allowed to Have access to, read from, or write to a local file system. They are furthermore not allowed to create network connections to any host system except the one where they are deployed. On the other hand, stand-alone Java applications that reside and rush locally as trusted applications are not subjected to these security features. The key issue is that allowing untrusted applications such as Java applets to subsist downloaded from a network via a Web browser and letting them access confident resources on the host computer paves the way for security breaches and becomes a potential avenue for the spread of viruses. To prevent known security breaches and threats, the JVM provides a built-in Java security architecture model, configurable security policies, access control mechanisms, and security extensions. Because of the built-in JVM safety features, Java programs can rush safely and are more securely protected from known vulnerabilities.

    The Java Language

    Java is a general-purpose object-oriented programming language similar to C++. It delivers platform-neutral compiled code that can subsist executed using a JVM and is intended for disburse in distributed application environments, heterogeneous systems, and diverse network environments. The Java language is furthermore designed to provide for the security and integrity of the application and its underlying systems at every levels—from the Java language constructs to the JVM runtime and from the class library to the complete application.

    The several inherent features of the Java language that provide for the secure Java platform are as follows:

  • The language defines every primitives with a specific size and every operations are defined to subsist in a specific order of execution. Thus, the code executed in different JVMs will not differ from the specified order of execution.
  • The language provides access-control functionality on variables and methods in the remonstrate by defining name space management for ilk and procedure names. This secures the program by restricting access to its faultfinding objects from untrusted code. For example, access is restricted by qualifying the ilk members as public, protected, private, package, etc.
  • The Java language does not allow defining or dereferencing pointers, which means that programmers cannot forge a pointer to the memory or create code defining offset points to memory. every references to methods and instance variables in the class file are done via symbolic names. The elimination of pointers helps to prevent malicious programs fancy computer viruses and misuse of pointers such as accessing private methods directly by using a pointer starting from the object's pointer, or running off the halt of an array.
  • The Java remonstrate encapsulation supports "programming by contract," which allows the reuse of code that has already been tested.
  • The Java language is a strongly typed language. During compile time, the Java compiler does extensive ilk checking for ilk mismatches. This mechanism guarantees that the runtime data ilk variables are compatible and consistent with the compile time information.
  • The language allows declaring classes or methods as final. Any classes or methods that are declared as final cannot subsist overridden. This helps to protect the code from malicious attacks such as creating a subclass and substituting it for the original class and override methods.
  • The Java Garbage Collection mechanism contributes to secure Java programs by providing a transparent storage allocation and recovering unused memory instead of deallocating the memory using manual intervention. This ensures program integrity during execution and prevents programmatic access to contingent and incorrect freeing of memory resulting in a JVM crash.
  • With these features, Java fulfills the swear of providing a secure programming language that gives the programmer the freedom to write and execute code locally or divide it over a network.

    Java Built-in Security Model

    In the previous two sections, they briefly looked at the basic security features provided by the JVM and the Java language. As Part of its security architecture, Java has a built-in policy-driven, domain-based security model. This allows implementing security policies, protecting/controlling access to resources, rule-based class loading, signing code and assigning levels of capability, and maintaining content privacy.

    In the first release of the Sun Java Platform, the Java progress Kit 1.0.x (JDK) introduced the notion of a sandbox-based security model. This primarily supports downloading and running Java applets securely and avoids any potential risks to the user's resources. With the JDK 1.0 sandbox security model, every Java applications (excluding Java applets) executed locally can Have plenary access to the resources available to the JVM. Application code downloaded from remote resources, such as Java applets, will Have access only to the restricted resources provided within its sandbox. This sandbox security protects the Java applet user from potential risks because the downloaded applet cannot access or alter the user's resources beyond the sandbox.

    The release of JDK 1.1.x introduced the notion of signed applets, which allowed downloading and executing applets as trusted code after verifying the applet signer's information. To facilitate signed applets, JDK 1.1.x added back for cryptographic algorithms that provide digital signature capabilities. With this support, a Java applet class could subsist signed with digital signatures in the Java archive format (JAR file). The JDK runtime will disburse the trusted public keys to verify the signers of the downloaded applet and then deal it as a trusted local application, granting access to its resources. figure 3-1 shows the representation of a sandbox in the JDK 1.1 security model.

    Java 2 Security Model

    The release of J2SE [J2SE] introduced a number of significant enhancements to JDK 1.1 and added such features as security extensions providing cryptographic services, digital certificate management, PKI management, and related tools. Some of the major changes in the Java 2 security architecture are as follows:

  • Policy-driven restricted access control to JVM resources.
  • Rules-based class loading and verification of byte code.
  • System for signing code and assigning levels of capability.
  • Policy-driven access to Java applets downloaded by a Web browser.
  • In the Java 2 security architecture, every code—regardless of whether it is rush locally or downloaded remotely—can subsist subjected to a security policy configured by a JVM user or administrator. every code is configured to disburse a particular domain (equivalent to a sandbox) and a security policy that dictates whether the code can subsist rush on a particular domain or not. figure 3-2 illustrates the J2SE security architecture and its basic elements.


    Figure 3-2 Java 2 Security architecture and basic elements

    Let's acquire a more circumstantial peer at those core elements of the Java 2 security architecture.

    Protection Domains ( ): In J2SE, every local Java applications rush unrestricted as trusted applications by default, but they can furthermore subsist configured with access-control policies similar to what is defined in applets and remote applications. This is done by configuring a ProtectionDomain, which allows grouping of classes and instances and then associating them with a set of permissions between the resources. Protection domains are generally categorized as two domains: "system domain" and "application domain." every protected external resources, such as the file systems, networks, and so forth, are accessible only via system domains. The resources that are Part of the lone execution thread are considered an application domain. So in reality, an application that requires access to an external resource may Have an application domain as well as a system domain. While executing code, the Java runtime maintains a mapping from code to protection domain and then to its permissions.

    Protection domains are determined by the current security policy defined for a Java runtime environment. The domains are characterized using a set of permissions associated with a code source and location. The class encapsulates the characteristics of a protected domain, which encloses a set of classes and its granted set of permissions when being executed on behalf of a user.

    Permissions ( ): In essence, permissions determine whether access to a resource of the JVM is granted or denied. To subsist more precise, they give specified resources or classes running in that instance of the JVM the aptitude to permit or contradict confident runtime operations. An applet or an application using a security manager can obtain access to a system resource only if it has permission. The Java Security API defines a hierarchy for authorization classes that can subsist used to configure a security policy. At the root, is the abstract class, which represents access to a target resource; it can furthermore comprise a set of operations to construct access on a particular resource. The authorization class contains several subclasses that picture access to different types of resources. The subclasses belong to their own packages that picture the APIs for the particular resource. Some of the commonly used authorization classes are as follows:

    For wildcard permissions

    For named permissions

    For file system

    For network

    For properties


    For runtime resources


    For authentication

    For graphical resources


    Example 3-1 shows how to protect access to an remonstrate using permissions. The code shows the caller application with the required authorization to access an object.

    Example 3-1. Using Java permissions to protect access to an object // Create the remonstrate that requires protection String protectedObj = "For trusted eyes only"; // create the required authorization that will // protect the object. // Guard, represents an remonstrate that is used to protect // access to another object. Guard myGuard = newfangled PropertyPermission ("java.home", "read"); // Create the guard GuardedObject gobj = newfangled GuardedObject(protectedObj, myGuard); // pick up the guarded object try { remonstrate o = gobj.getObject(); } catch (AccessControlException e) { // Cannot access the object }

    Permissions can furthermore subsist defined using security policy configuration files (java.policy). For example, to award access to read a file in "c:\temp\" (on Windows), the FilePermission can subsist defined in a security policy file (see instance 3-2).

    Example 3-2. Setting Java permissions in policy configuration file grant{ authorization "c:\\temp\\testFile", "read"; };

    Policy: The Java 2 security policy defines the protection domains for every running Java code with access privileges and a set of permissions such as read and write access or making a connection to a host. The policy for a Java application is represented by a Policy object, which provides a way to declare permissions for granting access to its required resources. In general, every JVMs Have security mechanisms built in that allow you to define permissions through a Java security policy file. A JVM makes disburse of a policy-driven access-control mechanism by dynamically mapping a static set of permissions defined in one or more policy configuration files. These entries are often referred to as award entries. A user or an administrator externally configures the policy file for a J2SE runtime environment using an ASCII text file or a serialized binary file representing a Policy class. In a J2SE environment, the default system-wide security policy file java.policy is located at <JRE_HOME>/lib/security/ directory. The policy file location is defined in the security properties file with a setting, which is located at <JRE_HOME>/lib/security/

    Example 3-3 is a policy configuration file that specifies the authorization for a signed JAR file loaded from "*" and signed by "javaguy," and then grants read/write access to every files in /export/home/test.

    Example 3-3. Setting codebase and permissions in policy configuration file award signedBy "javaguy", codebase "*" { authorization "/export/home/test/*", "read,write"; };

    The J2SE environment furthermore provides a GUI-based tool called "policytool" for editing a security policy file, which is located at "<JAVA_HOME>/bin/policytool."

    By default, the Java runtime uses the policy files located in:

    ${java.home}/jre/lib/security/java.policy ${user.home}/.java.policy

    These policy files are specified in the default security file:


    The efficient policy of the JVM runtime environment will subsist the union of every permissions in every policy files. To specify an additional policy file, you can set the system property at the command line:

    java MyClass

    To ignore the policies in the file and only disburse the custom policy, disburse '==' instead of '=':

    java MyClass

    SecurityManager ( java.lang.SecurityManager ): Each Java application can Have its own security manager that acts as its primary security guard against malicious attacks. The security manager enforces the required security policy of an application by performing runtime checks and authorizing access, thereby protecting resources from malicious operations. Under the hood, it uses the Java security policy file to choose which set of permissions are granted to the classes. However, when untrusted classes and third-party applications disburse the JVM, the Java security manager applies the security policy associated with the JVM to identify malicious operations. In many cases, where the threat model does not comprise malicious code being rush in the JVM, the Java security manager is unnecessary. In cases where the SecurityManager detects a security policy violation, the JVM will fling an AccessControlException or a SecurityException.

    In a Java application, the security manager is set by the setSecurityManager method in class System. And the current security manager is obtained via the getSecurityManager method (see instance 3-4).

    Example 3-4. Using SecurityManager SecurityManager mySecurityMgr = System.getSecurityManager(); if (mySecurityMgr != null) { mySecurityMgr.checkWrite(name); }

    The class java.lang.SecurityManager consists of a number of checkXXXX methods fancy checkRead (String file) to determine access privileges to a file. The check methods summon the SecurityManager.checkPermission method to find whether the calling application has permissions to discharge the requested operation, based on the security policy file. If not, it throws a SecurityException.

    If you wish to Have your applications disburse a SecurityManager and security policy, start up the JVM with the option and you can furthermore specify a security policy file using the policies in the option as JVM arguments. If you enable the Java Security Manager in your application but sequel not specify a security policy file, then the Java Security Manager uses the default security policies defined in the java.policy file in the $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security directory. instance 3-5 programmatically enables the security manager.

    Example 3-5. Using SecurityManager for restricting access control // Before the security manager is enabled, // this summon is possible System.setProperty("java.version","Malicious: Delete"); try { // Enable the security manager SecurityManager sm = newfangled SecurityManager(); System.setSecurityManager(sm); } catch (SecurityException se) { // SecurityManager already set } // After the security manager is enabled: // This summon is no longer possible; // an AccessControlException is thrown System.setProperty ("java.version", "Malicious: Delete");

    The security manager can furthermore subsist installed from the command-line interface:

    java <ClassName>

    AccessController ( ): The access controller mechanism performs a dynamic inspection and decides whether the access to a particular resource can subsist allowed or denied. From a programmer's standpoint, the Java access controller encapsulates the location, code source, and permissions to discharge the particular operation. In a typical process, when a program executes an operation, it calls through the security manager, which delegates the request to the access controller, and then finally it gets access or denial to the resources. In the class, the checkPermission method is used to determine whether the access to the required resource is granted or denied. If a requested access is granted, the checkPermission method returns true; otherwise, the method throws an AccessControlException.

    For example, to check read and write authorization for a directory in the file system, you would disburse the code shown in instance 3-6.

    Example 3-6. Using AccessController try { AccessController.checkPermission (new FilePermission("/var/temp/*", "read,write")); } catch (SecurityException e) { // Does not Have authorization to access the directory }

    Codebase: A URL location of class or JAR files are specified using codebase. The URL may refer to a location of a directory in the local file system or on the Internet. instance 3-7 retrieves every the permissions granted to a particular class that's been loaded from a code base. The permissions are efficient only if the security manager is installed. The loaded class uses those permissions by executing Class.getProtectionDomain() and Policy.getPermissions().

    Example 3-7. Using codebase class URL codebase = null; try { // pick up permissions for a URL codebase = newfangled URL(""); } catch (MalformedURLException e) { } catch (IOException e) { } // Construct a code source with the code base CodeSource cs = newfangled CodeSource(codebase, null); // pick up every granted permissions PermissionCollection pcoll = Policy.getPolicy().getPermissions(cs); // View each authorization in the authorization collection Enumeration enum = pcoll.elements(); for (; enum.hasMoreElements(); ) { authorization p = (Permission)enum.nextElement(); System.out.println("Permission " + p); }

    To test instance 3-7, instance 3-8 is the policy file (test.policy), which provides authorization to read every system properties.

    Example 3-8. Policy file for testing permissions to a codebase award codebase "" { // Give authorization to read every system properties authorization java.util.PropertyPermission "*", "read"; };

    To ignore the default policies in the file, and only disburse the specified policy, disburse '==' instead of '='. With the policy just presented, you may rush the following:

    java TestClass

    CodeSource: The CodeSource allows representation of a URL from which a class was loaded and the certificate keys that were used to note that class. It provides the identical notion as codebase, but it encapsulates the codebase (URL) of the code where it is loaded and furthermore the certificate keys that were used to verify the signed code. The CodeSource class and its two arguments to specify the code location and its associated certificate keys are as follows:

    CodeSource(URL url, certs[]);

    To construct a code source with the code basis and without using certificates, you would disburse the following:

    CodeSource cs = newfangled CodeSource(codebase, null);

    Bytecode verifier: The Java bytecode verifier is an integral Part of the JVM that plays the notable role of verifying the code prior to execution. It ensures that the code was produced consistent with specifications by a trustworthy compiler, confirms the format of the class file, and proves that the string of Java byte codes are legal. With bytecode verification, the code is proved to subsist internally consistent following many of the rules and constraints defined by the Java language compiler. The bytecode verifier may furthermore detect inconsistencies related to confident cases of array bound-checking and object-casting through runtime enforcement.

    To manually control the flush of bytecode verification, the options to the Java command with the V1.2 JRE are as follows:

  • -Xverify:remote runs verification process on classes loaded over network (default)
  • -Xverify:all verifies every classes loaded
  • -Xverify:none does no verification
  • ClassLoader: The ClassLoader plays a discrete role in Java security, because it is primarily accountable for loading the Java classes into the JVM and then converting the raw data of a class into an internal data structure representing the class. From a security standpoint, class loaders can subsist used to establish security policies before executing untrusted code, to verify digital signatures, and so on. To implement security, the class loader coordinates with the security manager and access controller of the JVM to determine the security policies of a Java application. The class loader further enforces security by defining the namespace separation between classes that are loaded from different locations, including networks. This ensures that classes loaded from multiple hosts will not communicate within the identical JVM space, thus making it impossible for untrusted code to pick up information from trusted code. The class loader finds out the Java application's access privileges using the security manager, which applies the required security policy based on the requesting context of the caller application.

    With the Java 2 platform, every Java applications Have the capability of loading bootstrap classes, system classes, and application classes initially using an internal class loader (also referred to as primordial class loader). The primordial class loader uses a special class loader SecureClassLoader to protect the JVM from loading malicious classes. This class has a protected constructor that associates a loaded class to a protection domain. The SecureClassLoader furthermore makes disburse of permissions set for the codebase. For instance, URLClassLoader is a subclass of the SecureClassLoader. URLClassLoader allows loading a class or location specified with a URL.

    Refer to instance 3-9, which shows how a URLClassLoader can subsist used to load classes from a directory.

    Example 3-9. Using URLClassLoader // Create a File remonstrate on the root of the // directory containing the class file File file = newfangled File("c:\\myclasses\\"); try { // transform File to a URL URL url = file.toURL(); URL[] urls = newfangled URL[]{url}; // Create a newfangled class loader with the directory ClassLoader myclassloader = newfangled URLClassLoader(urls); // Load in the class; // MyClass.class should subsist located in // the directory file:/c:/myclasses/com/security Class myclass = myclassloader.loadClass(""); } catch (MalformedURLException e) { } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) { }

    Keystore and Keytool: The Java 2 platform provides a password-protected database facility for storing trusted certificate entries and key entries. The keytool allows the users to create, manage, and administer their own public/private key pairs and associated certificates that are intended for disburse in authentication services and in representing digital signatures.

    We will acquire a peer in greater detail at the usage of the Java keystore and keytool and how these tools befriend Java security in the section entitled "Java Security Management Tools," later in this chapter.

    Product ReviewA Small-Device Power ToolCodeWarrior PersonalJava Platform Edition 1.0 | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Product ReviewA Small-Device Power ToolCodeWarrior PersonalJava Platform Edition 1.0
  • By L. J. Cohen
  • 10/13/2000
  • There's no doubt about it: The world is going wireless. Providing applications for a fast-emerging generation of mobile computing devices is the challenge of the day. Beyond the sexier wireless applications, embedded devices of every kinds are pushing programmers into smaller and smaller spaces. Small-device programmers everywhere are charged with the job of providing high-performance, robust apps that won't Have much legroom. They need every the befriend they can pick up as they strive to squeeze an ever-swelling package of features and functions into a stampeding herd of the limited-footprint, resource-constrained devices.

    For Java programmers, Sun's PersonalJava gauge is making it easier to pick up this particular job done. Already licensed by more than 1,300 companies (Motorola, Sony, and TCI among them), this subset of the Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) is quickly becoming a key technology for mobile computing developers.

    New tools specifically designed to exploit the PersonalJava gauge are nascence to appear. Products such as Wind River Systems' Personal JWorks and Insignia Solutions' Jeode are creating a newfangled category of Internet-appliance and embedded-device applications. Among this newfangled crop of progress tools, the newly released Metrowerks CodeWarrior PersonalJava Platform Edition Version 1.0 caught their eye. They asked freelance programmer L. J. Cohen to acquire the product for a test-drive.

    —John K. Waters Product Review Editor

    Vendor InfoMetrowerks Corp.9801 Metric Blvd.Austin, TX 78758800.377.5416

    THE METROWERKS CODEWARRIOR IDE has been around for a number of years, and because it's easy-to-use, Mac compatible, and so many junior colleges and universities recommend it to their programming students (there's a student version of the product), it has grown a fairly substantial fan base.

    As one of those fans, I was delighted to learn the company had released a version of the product this past summer for small-device programmers. CodeWarrior PersonalJava Platform Edition 1.0 offers excellent back for Sun's PersonalJava technology.

    PersonalJava is a subset of the J2ME, which is used to develop applications for devices such as set-top boxes, Internet-connected cell phones, PDAs, and automotive navigation systems. The newfangled CodeWarrior IDE accelerates the progress of PersonalJava applets and applications that target these kinds of networkable consumer devices.

    The newfangled CodeWarrior IDE supports the PersonalJava 3.1 platform and combines most if not every of the features developers await in a auspicious IDE. The product is touted by the vendor as "a complete tool suite for PersonalJava development," and I'd Have to utter they're not exaggerating. The product offers: a Java compiler; Rapid Application progress (RAD) for the Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) GUI library; JavaCheck (see figure 1), which provides validation of an application's API requirements with the PersonalJava API; and a Project Template that provides developers with a quick start to creating PersonalJava applications.

    Figure 1Figure 1. PersonalJava Platform Edition 1.0 validates code using the JavaCheck testing tool.

    The product includes every the tools and functionality of the traditional CodeWarrior IDE. It furthermore comes with the Truffle Graphical Toolkit, with which developers can create customized interfaces. It supports version control through third-party products such as Microsoft SourceSafe and Merant PVCS. And if you want to disassemble your compiled source code and view the machine code, it'll let you sequel that too.

    I installed the CodeWarrior PersonalJava Edition from a CD onto a Pentium III-based desktop PC running Windows 98. Not much to utter here, except that the wizard-managed installation came off without a hitch.

    The tool comes with an emulation environment for analyzing, verifying, and debugging code, which you choose to install at the nascence of the installation routine. (I can't deem of a reason not to install it.) According to both Metrowerks and Sun, any code that operates in CodeWarrior's emulation environment will rush on any PersonalJava certified device.

    Working with the product was—no surprise—easy and intuitive. I particularly liked the project templates and wizards, which offer quick starting of Java and PersonalJava applets and applications (which is why you bought the product), but furthermore Beans, Java Stationary, and Project Makefiles. The product furthermore allows users to set markers at specific locations inside the code for effortless navigation. Also, you can right-click on any method to find the definition and every the implementations—very artic and a existent time-saver.

    To create a simple PersonalJava app (for this review, a stock-ticker-like text display), I chose a template (although the product gave me the option of pile it from scratch). I was then able to labor with a project preconfigured with every the necessary libraries and source files. The unifying "entity" here is the project, which is a gathering of source files, resource files, compiler and linker switches, and parameters.

    The speed, integration, and flexibility of the product are truly impressive. CodeWarrior manages projects visually. Adding a source file to a project is simply a matter of dragging its icon from the desktop and dropping it into the project window. For every intents and purposes, you can create, compile, link, and debug a project with a brace of mouse clicks. I was particularly pleased with the built-in debuggers for the Sun VM, the Apple MRJ, and PersonalJava emulation environment (PJEE).

    The product's File menu contains an updated newfangled command, with which users create files, projects, RAD designs, and objects. The newfangled command furthermore lets users access CodeWarrior's Makefile Importer and RAD wizards.

    Developers of large, intricate remonstrate models will adore the straightforward navigability of the class hierarchy in this product. The class browser is a powerful and simple-to-use feature that lets you maneuver to precise locations in your source code, quickly and easily.

    I was probably most impressed with the product's debugging capabilities. You revolve on the debugger from within the Project pull-down menu (not the Debug pull-down menu—go figure), and you set conditional breakpoints from within the editor with a right-click of the mouse. The product furthermore provides menu options that allow you to single-step through the code and even change program counters. A syntax error at compilation opens a fully functioning editor window, with the insertion point set automatically to the offending statement.

    As I mentioned earlier, the JavaCheck testing tool is integrated with CodeWarrior. To validate my code—to discharge confident that it conformed to the PersonalJava spec—I simply set the post-link compiler to execute JavaCheck.

    Running the application within the PJEE is the final step, if you want to discharge confident it's going to rush in a PersonalJava environment. This involved a command-line summon with the name of the class file, but having the emulator successfully pomp my text gave me a existent sense of self-possession that the application would labor later on.

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