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250-253 Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

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250-253 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

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Symantec Symantec Administration of Veritas

Symantec: partners can hope unified security mode | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

With the fresh information of the $eight billion buyout of Veritas to The Carlyle community and additional buyers, Symantec this week outlined, to SearchITChannel, the business's strategic course and headquarters of attention over the next 12 to 18 months, and touched on the role Symantec companions will play going ahead.

Amit Jasuja, senior vp of products, commerce protection with Symantec talked about the recent Symantec, as a sheer security enterprise, is guided via what's being referred to as, a unified safety strategy that includes a strategy aspect and technology aspect.

The technology aspect is to compose expend of massive data analytics on proper of a ton of global telemetry statistics -- gathered from Symantec's huge global chance intelligence community -- to befriend customers rotate into smarter about security. Symantec calls this it's unified safety analytics platform.

The unified protection approach takes the analytics information to compose Symantec's protection products smarter and extra adaptable.

"feel a few risk-based mostly remarks loop that makes these products smarter about threats," Jasuja spoke of.

an improved cloud focal point

an extra component that Symantec partners will commemorate in regards to the seller going ahead is a stronger headquarters of attention on cloud and offering stronger cloud safety. in response to a corporation spokeswoman, eighty one% of Symantec's commerce flows via channel companions.

Our aim, as they reduce loose Veritas, is to identify the confiscate companions which gain bizarre safety interest and focus on enabling them. Amit JasujaSenior vp of items, commerce safety, Symantec

Jasuja defined that many Symantec consumers are relocating records into Microsoft workplace 365, field, Microsoft Azure and Amazon net functions, for instance, for applications, compute or storage, and are more and more using cell gadgets.

"clients effect not necessarily exigency their cellular gadgets to connect to a VPN, which may additionally create operate complications," eminent Jasuja.

So, Symantec is building a cloud security broker, a broking service within the cloud, it's capable of prefer supervision of total of the average threats as well as recommendation protection challenges of enterprise clients, he defined.

The cloud security broking service is a cloud-primarily based manage element that integrates information loss prevention (DLP), identity and analytics.

From a channel standpoint, selling the cloud safety broking service might subsist straightforward -- no stock to raise, no containers, no advanced promoting motions. "there may subsist a multi-tiered, channel-branded site the set americans could vicinity their orders," Jasuja said. "We prompt them and away they go." He brought that there is an simple option to configure enterprise site visitors to subsist routed throughout the cloud brokers, which will subsist dispersed prerogative through the globe.

the primary cloud protection broker items delivered had been DLP for office 365 (electronic mail) and DLP for Cloud Storage for field, announced in June. predict to survey additional cloud-primarily based products that allow endpoint management, statistics middle security and identification management, as an instance.

There are two additional areas of focal point for Symantec going ahead: hazard coverage and cyber safety functions.

Symantec's probability coverage mode addresses the complete advanced possibility protection cycle: avoid, become watchful of, respond and predict. "Our purpose is to carry a solution this is more unified and deals with total of a corporation's manage facets, i.e., e mail, community, gateway, endpoint, cloud," said Jasuja.

today, Symantec presents advanced chance insurance policy products for the network and for e-mail.

The supplier's cyber safety functions approach falls in the managed security services space. in accordance with Jasuja, are expecting to peer the commerce lead with its cyber security services.

today, Symantec presents a security monitoring provider and an adversary hazard intelligence carrier. increased functions will consist of incident response and forensics functions and security simulation capabilities for safety preparedness and typical fitness checks.

All products mentioned via Jasuja might subsist in the market via year-conclusion.

accomplice chance

The quick growing to subsist protection market items auspicious commerce possibility expand for partners, in response to Symantec.

"Our companions wish to expand their presence with valued clientele and subsist in a position to effect extra result-based mostly work. They exigency something that is less complicated, integrated, creates greater synergy, a lone point of buy, a lone point of administration, and lone aspect of handle," Jasuja stated.

nonetheless, shoppers are looking to protect their ambiance holistically, not stitch collectively discrete security pieces, i.e., malware, endpoint administration and patching, and DLP, he added.

On the unified safety and analytics side, there's a growing opening for Symantec companions to bring intelligence to their purchasers. "With intelligence and analytics, partners may subsist able to carry greater solutions, more desirable services that champion purchasers optimize the tackle they've," referred to Jasuja.

additionally, as greater organizations drag facts outside the perimeter of their data centers and into the cloud, safety turns into a controversy. final 12 months, Forrester research pronounced that the marketplace for cloud-based mostly safety items changed into $300 million. The research company expected a 40% compound annual growth fee (CAGR) for the cloud-based mostly protection product market reaching $2 billion with the aid of 2020 -- yet another sturdy chance for partners.

"Our aim, as they part from Veritas, is to determine the amend companions which gain mighty protection activity and headquarters of attention on enabling them, providing them with content, practising, or capabilities on how they market and promote together -- you're going to survey loads of investment in that house," Jasuja referred to.


Symantec has been exploring Veritas sale for months-sources | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

April 10 (Reuters) - security application maker Symantec Corp has been looking for consumers for its storage utility business, Veritas, or the entire enterprise for several months, sources conventional with the import number said.

Symantec has approached NetApp Inc, EMC Corp and a number of inner most fairness organizations to gauge their interest, the individuals referred to, asking asked no longer to subsist recognized as the deliberations are confidential.

youngsters, hobby from abilities patrons has been limited on account of a tax affliction associated with splitting the company, the people delivered.

As of Friday’s close, Symantec had a market capital of about $17.5 billion, with Veritas accounting for roughly half of that, the sources observed.

Symantec spoke of ultimate 12 months it could reduce up into two publicly traded businesses - one concentrated on its safety enterprise and the other on its storage and backup business, potentially making itself greater magnificent to suitors.

Slowing computer revenue gain impair the safety enterprise, while tedious demand for its storage and statistics administration software has diminished the cost of Veritas, which became viewed as a “cash cow” when it was bought for $13.5 billion a decade ago.

JPMorgan Chase & Co has been advising Symantec on the capabilities split as smartly as the viable sale of the whole enterprise, based on the sources.

Symantec, EMC and JPMorgan declined to remark, whereas NetApp could not automatically subsist reached for comment.

earlier on Friday, the Wall highway Journal reported, citing sources, that Symantec had, "in recent weeks", contacted private equity enterprises and viable trade bidders about purchasing Veritas. (on.wsj.com/1I0bdVE) (additional reporting by using invoice Rigby in Seattle and Arathy S Nair in Bengaluru; editing by means of Savio D'Souza)


With Veritas' Operational Separation complete, What's next For Symantec? | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No result discovered, are attempting recent keyword!leading safety application vendor Symantec is probably going to focus on acquisitions and R&D investments now that the divestiture of its counsel administration enterprise, Veritas, processes. The sale will tra...

250-253 Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

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250-253 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

Test Code : 250-253
Test appellation : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix
Vendor appellation : Symantec
: 235 true Questions

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Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

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Implementing Security, piece II: Hardening Your UNIX/Linux Servers | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Continuing with piece 2 of this two-article series, Joseph Dries helps you continue to expand upon your list of basic security processes by looking at UNIX/Linux hardening, protecting your servers from network based TCP/IP attacks, and utilizing centralized logging servers.

This article was excerpted from The Concise sheperd to Enterprise Internetworking and Security.

"A commercial, and in some respects a social, doubt has been started within the final year or two, whether or not it is prerogative to debate so openly the security or insecurity of locks. Many well-meaning persons suppose that the discussion respecting the means for baffling the reputed safety of locks offers a premium for dishonesty, by showing others how to subsist dishonest. This is a fallacy. Rogues are very keen in their profession, and already know much more than they can discipline them respecting their several kinds of roguery. Rogues knew a auspicious deal about lockpicking long before locksmiths discussed it among themselves, as they gain lately done. If a lock—let it gain been made in whatever country, or by whatever maker—is not so inviolable as it has hitherto been deemed to be, surely it is in the interest of honest persons to know this fact because the lying are tolerably confident to subsist the first to apply the erudition practically; and the spread of erudition is necessary to give unbiased play to those who might suffer by ignorance. It cannot subsist too earnestly urged, that an acquaintance with true facts will, in the end, subsist better for total parties." —Charles Tomlinson's "Rudimentary Treatise on the Construction of Locks," published around 1850

It has been said that the wonderful thing about standards is there are so many to pick from. The same election is available in the UNIX arena. There are two basic flavors, BSD-derived and AT&T System V-derived. BSD-derived UNIX systems comprise OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSDi, MacOS X, and SunOS 4. System V-derived UNIX systems comprise HP-UX and Solaris (SunOS 5). Other UNIX systems, such as AIX, provide commands that will act BSD-ish or System V-ish, depending on how they were invoked. Linux is not derived from any UNIX, but depending on the distribution, borrows from both BSD and System V semantics. Actually, Linux itself is just the operating system kernel and supporting drivers. Most Linux distributions expend the GNU system (http://www.gnu.org), thus they are called GNU/Linux distributions. There are hundreds of available GNU/Linux distributions, but even the "top 5" are different in their default commands, startup scripts, filesystem layout, included utilities, and packaging systems.

What does this import to you? Unlike Windows NT, including Windows 2000, it is a far more tangled process to rehearse how to toughen a UNIX/Linux server. This next section provides some common procedures that can subsist applied across UNIX versions and GNU/Linux distributions. Following that are some pointers to animated documents on the Internet, which track available data and releases, and proceed into a more detailed account of how to toughen a server for a particular task.

Common Steps for Hardening UNIX/Linux Servers

The process of building a UNIX or GNU/Linux server for expend as a firewall or DMZ server begins with installation. Eliminating points of attack, such as filling the filesystem, or removing unnecessary libraries and services, is equivalent to removing viable entry points for intruders.

Some common guidelines for configuring UNIX servers with a more secure default stance are available from CERT's Web site at ftp://info.cert.org/pub/tech_tips/UNIX_configuration_guidelines.

Partition for Protection

Besides having part partitions for the obvious, such as SWAP and /tmp, you should protect against out-of-disk-space denial-of-service attacks. Intruders might try to create inordinate generation of logging data or fill your file system with great files through FTP or mail spool. The best way to protect against this is to segment the filesystem hierarchy into part physical partitions.

The root partition / can subsist miniature because it generally contains just the kernel—the necessary files, libraries, and configuration for booting in /bin, /sbin, /etc, and /lib. Access to the attached devices is provided through the /dev and /devices directories. Many GNU/Linux distributions store kernels and attribute data in the /boot directory, whereas kernel libraries are stored under /lib.

The /usr partition is normally where user-accessible applications are stored. Normally, /usr does not accommodate data or configuration files that change; therefore, an added security measure can subsist mounted as read-only.

The /var partition stores system logs and data services such as mail, Web, databases, printing, running services, package management, and so on. On a mail server, you might want to compose /var/spool/mail, or /var/mail in Solaris, a part partition, or—even better—a part disk array. If you only create one part partition from /, /var is the one you should separate.

The /usr/local directory structure, and in Solaris the /opt directory, often contains locally installed optional software, configuration files, and data. /usr/local is normally not affected by operating system upgrades. Depending on how you expend those directories, they too can subsist mounted as read-only.

These are suggestions and guidelines only, and are different from recommended settings for a system that contains user accounts, usually in /home.

Disable Extraneous inetd Services

inetd is the UNIX "Internet Super Server." It is a daemon process that is invoked at boot time and reads in a flat file configuration database normally establish at /etc/inetd.conf. inetd listens for incoming connections on the defined IP ports. When a connection is initiated on a defined port, it invokes the configured program to service the request. After the connection is finished, the process invoked to service that request terminates. This was originally designed to lighten the load and resources required for systems.

There are a number of services enabled through inetd, and almost total of them should subsist disabled for building firewalls and DMZ servers. Besides normally disabling FTP, TFTP, Telnet, and the Berkeley r* commands, disable the following:

  • in.named—BIND appellation services daemon. Except for your DNS servers, you should not subsist running DNS on your firewall or DMZ servers.

  • in.fingerd—Finger daemon that can subsist used to disclose user information and lists of users who are logged in. There is no reason to advertise that information to would-be intruders.

  • daytime—Connections to this service pomp the date and time on the system in a string format. Getting the date and time of a system is useful for an intruder trying to implement replay attacks.

  • time—Connections to this service revert the time as a 32-bit value representing the number of seconds since midnight 1-Jan-1900. effect not provide intruders with your exact system time.

  • echo—This is a diagnostic service that echoes incoming data back to the connecting machine.

  • discard—This is a diagnostic service that does not reverberate (thus discarding) the incoming data stream back to the connecting machine.

  • chargen—This is a diagnostic service that automatically generates a stream of characters sent to the connecting machine.

  • systat—Connections to this service provide a list of total processes and their status.

  • netstat—Connections to this service provide a list of current network connections and their status.

  • Install and Configure tcp_wrappers

    Install and configure Wietse Venema's tcp_wrappers on both your firewall and DMZ servers. tcp_wrappers allows you to define access control to various services, depending on a limited set of criteria, such as username, IP address, or DNS domain.

    You might subsist asking why it's necessary to configure and install additional products when your firewall will subsist doing the same thing. And that's a sound question. The respond is to avoid lone points of failure, and to provide security in layers. If one layer is pierced and bypassed, other layers will subsist standing guard behind the breach.

    tcp_wrappers are lightweight and extremely useful on internal servers; not just on firewalls and DMZ servers. retain in intellect that most information security breaches, intentional or accidental, chance internally. It's only the external defacements, massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, virus-du-jour, and stolen credit card databases that grab the press. That, and misplaced hard drives with highly sensitive nuclear information.

    tcp_wrappers gain two main files that allow access to the individually defined services. The following two files are checked for rules governing access to individual or wildcard services:

    /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny

    Like most firewalls, access is granted or denied on the first matching rule. The rules are checked in order, first in hosts.allow and then in hosts.deny.

    Care should subsist taken when using the KNOWN or UNKNOWN wildcards. total will always match whatever criteria you are testing. Read the hosts_access manual page included with tcp_wrappers for further details on syntax and rules setup.

    tcp_wrappers is installed and configured by default on most GNU/Linux distributions and BSD releases. For those UNIX systems that effect not gain tcp_wrappers installed by default, they can subsist establish at ftp://ftp.porcupine.org/pub/security/index.html. Retrieve the source, compile, and install the binaries on the servers.

    Lock Down Your DNS Server

    The Berkeley Internet appellation Daemon, or BIND, is the reference implementation of the appellation service providing DNS for the Internet. The Internet Software Consortium (ISC) is liable for implementing and maintaining BIND. There are three basic versions of BIND: BIND 4, BIND 8, and (recently) BIND 9.

    BIND 4 has been around forever, and has its share of exploits. Only very passe versions of UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions came with BIND 4. Still, you'll subsist surprised how many installations still gain the older BIND 4 running. You should upgrade to a newer version of BIND. The unlucky thing is that the file format defining the zones served by the server has changed. There are conversion scripts, but there is confident to subsist some hand editing.

    BIND 8 is the current stable release, and offers many more features and better control and granularity in access control. The settings described later are discussed with BIND 8 in mind.

    BIND 9 was released late in 2000. It offers many recent features, such as IPv6 support, DNSSEC, complete Dynamic DNS, incremental zone transfers, multiple views (internal, external, and so on) from a lone server, and scalability improvements. If any of those features are primary to your configuration, you should investigate using BIND 9; otherwise, it's best left to the adventurous.

    Although almost total UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions further with BIND as the appellation server, it is primary you compose confident you are at a recommended release. Before deploying a DNS server, internally or on the DMZ, compose confident it is at least version 8.2.2-P5. Any version prior to that has grave exploits. This warning should not subsist ignored. The Internet Software Consortium themselves gain issued a statement that if you are running any version of BIND prior to 8.2.2-P5, you should assume your server has already been compromised. Check your UNIX system or GNU/Linux distribution. If the version of BIND is not at least 8.2.2-P5, check with your vendor for upgrades. If an upgrade is not available, you can compile a version of BIND yourself on a workstation, and install the binaries on your server. The source code can subsist establish at http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/.

    First, restrict zone transfers to specific secondary servers in your primary zones. The acl command allows you to define an access control list composed of blocks of addresses to subsist used with a named identifier. Using ACLs provides a self-documenting mode of administrating the named.conf configuration file. In the following example, they define two ACLs comprising their externally visible DNS servers and the secondary servers at their ISP:

    acl your-company-dns { 172.16.30.12; 172.16.30.24; }; acl your-ISP-dns { 199.177.202.10; 204.95.224.200; };

    The following allow-transfer option directive placed in your named.conf file will default total defined zones to only allow transfers for the defined hosts:

    options { allow-transfer { your-company-dns; your-ISP-dns; }; };

    You can override the allow-transfer statement in the options directive by placing the allow-transfer statement in the zone definition:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { type master; file "db.yourdomain-com"; allow-transfer { 172.16.30.12; 192.168.71.200; }; }

    The default allow-transfer option will avert zone transfers to hosts not specified in the ACLs. However, if you want to restrict total zone transfers on your secondary servers and any secondary zones on your primary servers, expend predefined match list none. This can subsist accomplished with the following allow-transfer directive in your zone definitions:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { type slave; file "db.yourdomain-com.s"; masters { 192.168.71.1; }; allow-transfer { none; }; };

    Finally, because you will subsist allowing recursive queries through your servers, it's best to enable access control lists for your internal networks. Using a nested, named acl with the allow-query option in the zone definition, you can then restrict recursive queries to internal hosts only as seen in the following example:

    acl internal-net { 192.168.71.0/24; }; acl dmz-net { 172.16.30.0/24; }; acl trusted-hosts { localhost; internal-net; dmz-net; }; zone "yourdomain.com" { type master; file "db.yourdomain-com" allow-query { trusted-hosts; }; };

    Que's Concise sheperd to DNS and BIND by Nicolai Langfeldt is a wonderful resource to further grok BIND configuration and maintenance.

    Tighten Sendmail Default Options

    Send mail comes with just about every UNIX/Linux installation as the default mail transfer agent (MTA). As a result of being so widely installed, it has been estimated that sendmail handles a majority of the email on the Internet. Because it runs as suid root, sendmail exploits impress millions of machines.

    sendmail version 8.11.0 is available at the time of publication, and supports recent features such as STARTTLS and SMTP AUTH encryption. Upgrade to the newest version available, if possible, but gladden compose confident that you are running a version no later than version 8.9.3 because of security exploits.

    To enable the Realtime Blackhole List feature, expend the following in your sendmail.mc file:

    FEATURE(rbl)dnl

    Additionally, you might want to disable the SMTP VRFY and EXPN commands in sendmail. These commands are often used by intruders to congregate information about your system:

    define(´confPRIVACY_FLAGS', ´novrfy,noexpn')dnl

    There are several additional flags you can set to compose sendmail gain a more secure stance:

  • authwarnings—Add X-Authentication-Warning header in messages on confident conditions that might indicate mail system spoof attempts.

  • needmailhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command first when connecting to forward email.

  • needexpnhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any EXPN usage.

  • needvrfyhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any VRFY usage.

  • noreceipts—Disable Delivery Status Notification (DSNs) of delivery and read receipts.

  • goaway—Set total flags except restrictmailq and restrictqrun.

  • restrictmailq—Prevent users from using the mailq command to view the contents of the mail queue.

  • restrictqrun—Stop users from processing the queue.

  • Better than sendmail: Making Postfix Your MTA

    According to its Web page, Postfix's goals are "to subsist fast, simple to administer, and secure, while at the same time being sendmail compatible enough to not upset existing users."

    Postfix was primarily written by Wietse Venema of tcp_wrappers fame. Postfix was designed to subsist modular, thus Postfix is not a lone executable fancy sendmail; rather, Postfix comprises a collection of specialized programs that discharge specific tasks. total the programs except for the master control process (oddly called master because it runs without root privilege) hasten as nonprivileged users, limiting the damage an attacker can inflict on your system. Because of the speed, ease of configuration (and thus less chance of misconfiguration), and security, it is recommended that you investigate replacing sendmail with Postfix. For those of you who effect not dream in sendmail.cf syntax, Postfix will compose email administration both easier and more secure.

    Postfix is now distributed with most GNU/Linux and BSD releases, although it is not often installed by default. Usually, it is a simple matter of installing it via your package management system, or (in the BSD case) via the ports collection.

    If you are using an operating system that does not deal Postfix, hopelessness not. You can download and compile the sources easily on a progress workstation and then install the binaries on your mail server. The sources, FAQs, and documentation can subsist establish at http://www.postfix.org/

    Linux-Specific Tasks

    There are many GNU/Linux distributions out there. Each vendor has its own installation process, which usually changes between recent versions of the vendor's distribution. The "forerunners" of GNU/Linux distributions are Red Hat, SuSE, TurboLinux, Mandrake, Caldera, Slackware, and Debian. That does not import specifically that you should expend any one of them because the lofty number of distributions allows vendors to tailor their GNU/Linux distributions to specific tasks such as embedded systems, routers, and firewalls. prefer the time to carefully investigate the available distributions, and determine which best fits your needs.

    With that said, two of these generic distributions stand out, but for different reasons. Red Hat, because it has had the most appellation recognition, and is usually the first to accumulate any sort of corporate champion in the way of commercial software or commercial technical service. Many vendors, such as Oracle, IBM, and Check Point, gain released products for Red Hat-specific distributions. This does not import that those software releases will not hasten on other GNU/Linux distributions, but if there is a problem, the vendor might not champion your installation of its product on a non-Red Hat distribution.

    Debian is the second distribution that deserves mention. First, not because it is entirely free, but because it is maintained by a nonprofit organization made up entirely of volunteers. These volunteers are highly motivated by character and pride in their efforts to compose Debian the most stable and completely 100% free distribution available. Debian has proven to subsist extremely stable and simple to manage and upgrade remotely. The upgrade process is by far the easiest of any of the GNU/Linux distributions. Debian installations can subsist upgraded without the exigency for reboots, replacing every installed package and running process excepting the kernel. Additionally, the Debian packaging system and its front ends allow extremely fine-grained control over which packages, utilities, libraries, and files exist on your system. Debian furthermore is currently available on six different architectures, with more than 3,900 included software packages to select from when installing.

    For both Debian and Red Hat installations, you should pick custom installations, and select the individual packages you want on your system. There should subsist no exigency to install progress packages, any of the recent KDE or GNOME desktops, and certainly not X Window. Unfortunately, neither distribution yet has a minimal secure server or firewall predefined install-set.

    During the installation process, you should pick to enable shadow password file support; pick to expend MD5 hashes for the passwords rather than the typical crypt function. If you miss these options during the install, you can change them after installation. In Red Hat, expend the setup utility. In Debian, you can expend the shadowconfig utility to enable or disable shadow passwords. To enable MD5 hashes, you gain to edit the confiscate files under /etc/pam.d to comprise md5 on the password lines.

    You should furthermore enable ipchains support, even if this is an application server on the DMZ. ipchains provides additional layers of security, and allows you to protect the server from traffic should the firewall fail for some reason. A sample ipchains configuration is discussed later in the article.

    You should additionally read and monitor the security and errata/updates lists from your distribution vendor. With Debian, it is extremely simple to automatically install security updates using the apt-get utility. For Red Hat installations starting with the 6.0 release, there is the up2date utility to retrieve updated packages for your release.

    For those people who pick to install Red Hat Linux, there is a security-related project called Bastille Linux, whose level is not just to toughen your Linux installation, but to educate the administrators on how to toughen the system. Bastille Linux supports Red Hat and Mandrake Linux distributions with project goals to become distribution, and UNIX flavor, agnostic. The Bastille Linux product is a set of scripts that asks a series of questions and then allows you to apply those modifications to your system. The questions rehearse what needs to subsist done, why it should subsist done, and why you might not want to effect it. It is very educational, especially for those administrators just getting confidential with Linux. Bastille Linux can subsist establish at http://www.bastille-linux.org/.

    Another excellent source of information for administrators is the Linux Administrator's Security Guide. It covers an extremely wide array of topics related to Linux and security. You can find the Linux Administrator's Security sheperd online at http://www.securityportal.com/lasg/.

    Solaris-Specific Tasks

    Solaris has four default install-sets: Core, End-User, Developer, and Entire Distribution. Installing any install-set higher than the Core installation will enable more services than are required for DMZ servers or firewalls. In reality, you can often remove a significant percentage of the default Core install-set, depending on your server's application requirements.

    For Solaris-based servers, there are several excellent documents from Sun in its Blueprints Online archive at http://www.sun.com/software/solutions/blueprints/online.html. The following three papers are excellent starting points for building secure Solaris servers:

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Minimization for Security: A Simple, Reproducible and Secure Application Installation Methodology" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. Although this paper specifically covers the iPlanet Web server requirements, similar requirements are necessary for using Apache or other Web servers.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. An overview of generic security options on a Solaris server. This paper includes some specifics for the SPARC architecture; however, most of the material is applicable to Intel architectures as well.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson is another excellent paper on kernel tuning and application parameters that impress network security.

  • As a matter of fact, Sun's Blueprints Online is a wealth of whitepapers outlining Best Practices regarding Solaris Operating Environments, whether it is a DMZ Web server, firewall, or internal highly available database cluster.

    Lance Spitzner furthermore has an excellent Solaris hardening document that details the hardening process for building a Check Point FireWall-1 firewall on several recent versions of Solaris (through version 8) for the Intel and SPARC platforms. The animated document resides at http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/armoring.html.

    Finally, there is an equivalent to the Bastille-Linux hardening scripts for Solaris called TITAN. The TITAN project and documentation can subsist establish at http://www.fish.com/titan/.

    OpenBSD-Specific Tasks

    This section concentrates on OpenBSD 2.7, which is one of the three more eminent BSD variants; the others being NetBSD and FreeBSD. Each variant has focused on a different problem: NetBSD is the most portable, FreeBSD has the best performance, and OpenBSD is the most secure.

    One of the mighty strengths of OpenBSD is the highly secure default stance of a default install of OpenBSD. The OpenBSD Web site claims "three years without a remote cavity in the default install, only one localhost cavity in two years in the default install." Almost total services are disabled until the administrator has enough sustain to properly configure them.

    Two additional changes necessary for an OpenBSD box to become a firewall are to disable sendmail and enable IP filter support. Both changes are made to the same file, /etc/rc.conf. To disable sendmail, change

    sendmail_flags="-q30m"

    to

    sendmail_flags=NO

    To enable IP filter support, you must change

    ipfilter=NO

    to

    ipfilter=YES

    Additionally, if you will subsist doing Network Address Translation (NAT), providing transparent proxying, or providing champion for FTP, you must enable the ipnat option by setting ipnat=YES. Syntax for IP filters will subsist covered briefly later in the chapter.


    OpsMgr 2007 R2 hardware, software, security requirements | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Solutions provider takeaway: prefer a witness at information on how to expend OpsMgr 2007 R2, accumulate an overview of OpsMgr component requirements and become an expert on advanced OpsMgr concepts and security. Learning about OpsMgr 2007 R2 component requirements, such as hardware and software, will befriend solutions providers ensure OpsMgr is functional and reliable. They will furthermore exigency to subsist watchful of champion for non-Windows devices, capacity limits and how to retain track of the size of the OpsMgr 2007 R2 database.

    Understanding How to expend OpsMgr

    Using OpsMgr is relatively straightforward. The OpsMgr monitoring environment can subsist accessed through three sets of consoles: an Operations Console, a Web console, and a command shell. The Operations Console provides complete monitoring of agent systems and administration of the OpsMgr environment, whereas the Web console provides access only to the monitoring functionality. The command shell provides command-line access to administer the OpsMgr environment.

    Managing and Monitoring with OpsMgr

    As mentioned in the preceding section, two methods are provided to configure and view OpsMgr settings. The first approach is through the Operations Console and the second is through the command shell.

    Within the Administration section of the Operations Console, you can easily configure the security roles, notifications, and configuration settings. Within the Monitoring section of the Operations Console, you can easily monitor a quick "up/down" status, energetic and closed alerts, and verify overall environment health.

    In addition, a web-based monitoring console can subsist hasten on any system that supports Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher. This console can subsist used to view the health of systems, view and respond to alerts, view events, view performance graphs, hasten tasks, and manage Maintenance mode of monitored objects. recent to OpsMgr 2007 R2 is the skill to pomp the Health Explorer in the Web console.

    Reporting from OpsMgr

    OpsMgr management packs commonly comprise a variety of preconfigured reports to disclose information about the operating system or the specific application they were designed to labor with. These reports are hasten in SQL Reporting Services. The reports provide an effective view of systems and services on the network over a custom period, such as weekly, monthly, or quarterly. They can furthermore befriend you monitor your networks based on performance data, which can comprise critical pattern analysis, trend analysis, capacity planning, and security auditing. Reports furthermore provide availability statistics for distributed applications, servers, and specific components within a server.

    Availability reports are particularly useful for executives, managers, and application owners. These reports can disclose the availability of any object within OpsMgr, including a server (shown in figure 23.5), a database, or even a service such as Windows Server 2008 R2 that includes a host of servers and components. The Availability report shown in figure 23.5 indicates that the SP server was down on 9/29/2009 for about 4.17% of the time or just slightly over 1 hour. The ease of the time it had been up.

    FIGURE 23.5 Availability report.

    The reports can subsist hasten on demand or at scheduled times and delivered via email. OpsMgr can furthermore generate HTML-based reports that can subsist published to a web server and viewed from any web browser. Vendors can furthermore create additional reports as piece of their management packs.

    Using Performance Monitoring

    Another key feature of OpsMgr is the capability to monitor and track server performance. OpsMgr can subsist configured to monitor key performance thresholds through rules that are set to collect predefined performance data, such as recollection and CPU usage over time.

    Rules can subsist configured to trigger alerts and actions when specified performance thresh-olds gain been met or exceeded, allowing network administrators to act on potential performance issues. Performance data can subsist viewed from the OpsMgr Operations Console.

    In addition, performance monitors can establish baselines for the environment and then alert the administrator when the counter subsequently falls outside the defined baseline envelope.

    Using energetic Directory Integration

    Active Directory integration provides a way to install management agents on systems without environmental-specific settings. When the agent starts, the amend environmental settings, such as the primary and failover management servers, are stored in energetic Directory. The configuration of energetic Directory integration provides advanced search and filter capabilities to fine-tune the dynamic assignment of systems.

    Integrating OpsMgr Non-Windows Devices

    Network management is not a recent concept. Simple management of various network nodes has been handled for quite some time through the expend of the SNMP. Quite often, simple or even tangled systems that utilize SNMP to provide for system monitoring are in set in an organization to provide for varying degrees of system management on a network.

    OpsMgr can subsist configured to integrate with non-Windows systems through monitoring of syslog information, log file data, and SNMP traps. OpsMgr can furthermore monitor TCP port communication and website transaction sequencing for information-specific data management.

    New to OpsMgr 2007 R2 is the skill to monitor non-Microsoft operating systems such as Linux and UNIX, as well as the applications that hasten on them such as Apache and MySQL. OpsMgr monitors the file systems, network interfaces, daemons, configurations, and performance metrics. Operations Manager 2007 R2 supports monitoring of the following operating systems:

  • HP-UX 11i v2 and v3 (PA-RISC and IA64)
  • Sun Solaris 8 and 9 (SPARC) and Solaris 10 (SPARC and x86)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (x86/x64) and 5 (x86/x64) Server
  • Novell SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 (x86) and 10 SP1 (x86/x64)
  • IBM AIX v5.3 and v6.1
  • These operating systems are "first-class citizens" in Microsoft's parlance, import they are treated as equals with the Windows operating systems. Agents can subsist pushed from the console, operations data is collected automatically, tasks can hasten against the agents, and total major functions are supported.

    Special connectors can subsist created to provide bidirectional information flows to other management products. OpsMgr can monitor SNMP traps from SNMP-supported devices as well as generate SNMP traps to subsist delivered to third-party network management infrastructures.

    Exploring Third-Party Management Packs

    Software and hardware developers can subsequently create their own management packs to extend OpsMgr's management capabilities. These management packs extend OpsMgr's management capabilities beyond Microsoft-specific applications. Each management pack is designed to accommodate a set of rules and product erudition required to champion its respective products. Currently, management packs gain been developed for APC, Cisco, Citrix, Dell, F5, HP, IBM, Linux, Oracle, Solaris, UNIX, and VMware to appellation a few. A complete list of management packs can subsist establish at the following Microsoft site: http://technet. microsoft.com/en-us/opsmgr/cc539535.aspx.

    Understanding OpsMgr Component Requirements

    Each OpsMgr component has specific design requirements, and a auspicious erudition of these factors is required before nascence the design of OpsMgr. Hardware and software requirements must subsist taken into account, as well as factors involving specific OpsMgr components, such as the Root Management Server, gateway servers, service accounts, mutual authentication, and backup requirements.

    Exploring Hardware Requirements

    Having the proper hardware for OpsMgr to operate on is a critical component of OpsMgr functionality, reliability, and overall performance. Nothing is worse than overloading a brand-new server only a few short months after its implementation. The industry standard generally holds that any production servers deployed should remain material for three to four years following deployment. Stretching beyond this time frame might subsist possible, but the frightening verisimilitude is that hardware investments are typically short term and exigency to subsist replaced often to ensure relevance. Buying a less-expensive server might rescue money in the short term but could potentially expand costs associated with downtime, troubleshooting, and administration. That said, the following are the Microsoft-recommended minimums for any server running an OpsMgr 2007 server component:

  • 2.8GHz processor or faster
  • 20GB of free disk space
  • 2GB of random access recollection (RAM)
  • These recommendations apply only to the smallest OpsMgr deployments and should subsist seen as minimum levels for OpsMgr hardware. More realistic deployments would gain the following minimums:

  • 2--4 2.8GHz cores
  • 64-bit Windows operating system
  • 64-bit SQL Server
  • 60GB free disk space on RAID 1+0 for performance
  • 4--8GB RAM
  • Operations Manager 2007 R2 is one of Microsoft's most resource-intensive applications, so generous processor, disk, and recollection are primary for optimal performance. Future expansion and relevance of hardware should subsist taken into account when sizing servers for OpsMgr deployment, to ensure that the system has margin to grow as agents are added and the databases grow.

    Determining Software Requirements

    OpsMgr components can subsist installed on either 32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, or Windows Server 2008 R2. The database for OpsMgr must subsist hasten on a Microsoft SQL Server 2005 or Microsoft SQL Server 2008 server. The database can subsist installed on the same server as OpsMgr or on a part server, a concept that is discussed in more detail in following sections.

    OpsMgr itself must subsist installed on a member server in a Windows energetic Directory domain. It is commonly recommended to retain the installation of OpsMgr on a part server or set of dedicated member servers that effect not hasten any other applications that could meddle in the monitoring and alerting process.

    A few other requirements critical to the success of OpsMgr implementations are as follows:

  • Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 and 3.0 must subsist installed on the management server and the reporting server.
  • Windows PowerShell.
  • Microsoft Core XML Services (MSXML) 6.0.
  • WS-MAN v1.1 (for UNIX/Linux clients).
  • Client certificates must subsist installed in environments to facilitate mutual authentication between nondomain members and management servers.
  • SQL Reporting Services must subsist installed for an organization to subsist able to view and relent custom reports using OpsMgr's reporting feature.
  • OpsMgr Backup Considerations

    The most critical piece of OpsMgr, the SQL databases, should subsist regularly backed up using standard backup software that can effectively discharge online backups of SQL databases. If integrating these specialized backup utilities into an OpsMgr deployment is not possible, it becomes necessary to leverage built-in backup functionality establish in SQL Server.

    Understanding Advanced OpsMgr Concepts

    OpsMgr's simple installation and relative ease of expend often belie the potential complexity of its underlying components. This complexity can subsist managed with the prerogative amount of erudition of some of the advanced concepts of OpsMgr design and implementation.

    Understanding OpsMgr Deployment Scenarios

    As previously mentioned, OpsMgr components can subsist divided across multiple servers to deal load and ensure balanced functionality. This separation allows OpsMgr servers to further in four potential "flavors," depending on the OpsMgr components held by those servers. The four OpsMgr server types are as follows:

  • Operations database server -- An operations database server is simply a member server with SQL Server installed for the OpsMgr operations database. No other OpsMgr components are installed on this server. The SQL Server component can subsist installed with default options and with the system account used for authentication. Data in this database is kept for 7 days by default.
  • Reporting database server -- A reporting database server is simply a member server with SQL Server and SQL Server Reporting Services installed. This database stores data collected through the monitoring rules for a much longer term than the operations database and is used for reporting and trend analysis. This database requires significantly more drive space than the operations database server. Data in this data-base is kept for 13 months by default.
  • Management server -- A management server is the communication point for both management consoles and agents. Effectively, a management server does not gain a database and is often used in great OpsMgr implementations that gain a dedicated database server. Often, in these configurations, multiple management servers are used in a lone management group to provide for scalability and to address multiple managed nodes.
  • All-in-one server -- An all-in-one server is effectively an OpsMgr server that holds total OpsMgr roles, including that of the databases. Subsequently, single-server OpsMgr configurations expend one server for total OpsMgr operations.
  • Multiple Configuration Groups

    As previously defined, an OpsMgr management group is a rational grouping of monitored servers that are managed by a lone OpsMgr SQL database, one or more management servers, and a unique management group name. Each management group established operates completely separately from other management groups, although they can subsist configured in a hierarchical structure with a top-level management group able to survey "connected" lower-level management groups.

    The concept of connected management groups allows OpsMgr to scale beyond synthetic boundaries and furthermore gives a mighty deal of flexibility when combining OpsMgr environments. However, confident caveats must subsist taken into account. Because each management group is an island in itself, each must subsequently subsist manually configured with individual settings. In environments with a great number of customized rules, for example, such manual configuration would create a mighty deal of redundant labor in the creation, administration, and troubleshooting of multiple management groups.

    Deploying Geographic-Based Configuration Groups

    Based on the factors outlined in the preceding section, it is preferable to deploy OpsMgr in a lone management group. However, in some situations, an organization needs to divide its OpsMgr environment into multiple management groups. The most common reason for division of OpsMgr management groups is division along geographic lines. In situations in which wide district network (WAN) links are saturated or unreliable, it might subsist sensible to part great "islands" of WAN connectivity into part management groups.

    Simply being separated across tedious WAN links is not enough reason to warrant a part management group, however. For example, miniature sites with few servers would not warrant the creation of a part OpsMgr management group, with the associated hardware, soft-ware, and administrative costs. However, if many servers exist in a distributed, generally well-connected geographical area, that might subsist a case for the creation of a management group. For example, an organization could subsist divided into several sites across the United States but pick to divide the OpsMgr environment into part management groups for East Coast and West Coast, to roughly approximate their WAN infrastructure.

    Smaller sites that are not well connected but are not great enough to warrant their own management group should gain their event monitoring throttled to avoid being sent across the WAN during peak usage times. The downside to this approach, however, is that the reaction time to critical event response is increased.

    Deploying Political or Security-Based Configuration Groups

    The less-common mode of dividing OpsMgr management groups is by political or security lines. For example, it might become necessary to part fiscal servers into a part management group to maintain the security of the finance environment and allow for a part set of administrators.

    Politically, if administration is not centralized within an organization, management groups can subsist established to part OpsMgr management into part spheres of control. This would retain each OpsMgr management zone under part security models.

    As previously mentioned, a lone management group is the most efficient OpsMgr environment and provides for the least amount of redundant setup, administration, and troubleshooting work. Consequently, synthetic OpsMgr division along political or security lines should subsist avoided, if possible.

    Sizing the OpsMgr Database

    Depending on several factors, such as the type of data collected, the length of time that collected data will subsist kept, or the amount of database grooming that is scheduled, the size of the OpsMgr database will grow or shrink accordingly. It is primary to monitor the size of the database to ensure that it does not expand well beyond the bounds of accept-able size. OpsMgr can subsist configured to monitor itself, supplying further notice of data-base problems and capacity thresholds. This type of strategy is highly recommended because OpsMgr could easily collect event information faster than it could accumulate rid of it.

    The size of the operations database can subsist estimated through the following formula:

    Number of agents x 5MB x retention days + 1024 overhead = estimated database size

    For example, an OpsMgr environment monitoring 1,000 servers with the default 7-day retention term will gain an estimated 35GB operations database:

    (1000 * 5 * 7) + 1024 = 36024 MB

    The size of the reporting database can subsist estimated through the following formula:

    Number of agents x 3MB x retention days + 1024 overhead = estimated database size

    The same environment monitoring 1,000 servers with the default 400-day retention term will gain an estimated 1.1TB reporting database:

    (1000 * 3 * 400) + 1024 = 1201024 MB

    It is primary to understand that these estimates are jagged guidelines only and can vary widely depending on the types of servers monitored, the monitoring configuration, the degree of customization, and other factors.

    Defining Capacity Limits

    As with any system, OpsMgr includes some hard limits that should subsist taken into account before deployment begins. Surpassing these limits could subsist reason for the creation of recent management groups and should subsequently subsist included in a design plan. These limits are as follows:

  • Operations database -- OpsMgr operates through a principle of centralized, rather than distributed, collection of data. total event logs, performance counters, and alerts are sent to a single, centralized database, and there can subsequently subsist only a lone operations database per management group. Considering the expend of a backup and high-availability strategy for the OpsMgr database is, therefore, highly recommended, to protect it from outage. It is recommended to retain this database with a 50GB confine to improve efficiency and reduce alert latency.
  • Management servers -- OpsMgr does not gain a hard-coded confine of management servers per management group. However, it is recommended to retain the environment between three to five management servers. Each management server can champion approximately 2,000 managed agents.
  • Gateway servers -- OpsMgr does not gain a hard-coded confine of gateway servers per management group. However, it is recommended to deploy a gateway server for every 200 nontrusted domain members.
  • Agents -- Each management server can theoretically champion up to 2,000 monitored agents. In most configurations, however, it is sensible to confine the number of agents per management server, although the levels can subsist scaled upward with more robust hardware, if necessary.
  • Administrative consoles -- OpsMgr does not confine the number of instances of the Web and Operations Console; however, going beyond the suggested confine might interlard performance and scalability problems.
  • Defining System Redundancy

    In addition to the scalability built in to OpsMgr, redundancy is built in to the components of the environment. Proper erudition of how to deploy OpsMgr redundancy and set OpsMgr components correctly is primary to the understanding of OpsMgr redundancy. The main components of OpsMgr can subsist made redundant through the following methods:

  • Management servers -- Management servers are automatically redundant and agents will failover and failback automatically between them. Simply install addi-tional management servers for redundancy. In addition, the RMS system acts as a management server and participates in the fault tolerance.
  • SQL databases -- The SQL database servers hosting the databases can subsist made redundant using SQL clustering, which is based on Windows clustering. This supports failover and failback.
  • Root Management Server -- The RMS can subsist made redundant using Windows clus-tering. This supports failover and failback.
  • Having multiple management servers deployed across a management group allows an environment to achieve a confident level of redundancy. If a lone management server expe-riences downtime, another management server within the management group will prefer over the responsibilities for the monitored servers in the environment. For this reason, it might subsist sensible to comprise multiple management servers in an environment to achieve a confident level of redundancy if lofty uptime is a priority.

    The first management server in the management group is called the Root Management Server. Only one Root Management Server can exist in a management group and it hosts the software progress kit (SDK) and Configuration service. total OpsMgr consoles communicate with the management server so its availability is critical. In large-scale envi-ronments, the Root Management Server should leverage Microsoft Cluster technology to provide lofty availability for this component.

    Because there can subsist only a lone OpsMgr database per management group, the database is subsequently a lone point of failure and should subsist protected from downtime. Utilizing Windows Server 2008 R2 clustering or third-party fault-tolerance solutions for SQL data-bases helps to mitigate the risk involved with the OpsMgr database.

    Monitoring Nondomain Member Considerations

    DMZ, Workgroup, and Nontrusted Domain Agents require special configuration; in partic-ular, they require certificates to establish mutual authentication. Operations Manager 2007 R2 requires mutual authentication, that is, the server authenticates to the client and the client authenticates to the server, to ensure that the monitoring communications are not hacked. Without mutual authentication, it is viable for a hacker to execute a man-in-the-middle attack and impersonate either the client or the server. Thus, mutual authenti-cation is a security measure designed to protect clients, servers, and sensitive energetic Directory domain information, which is exposed to potential hacking attempts by the all-powerful management infrastructure. However, OpsMgr relies on energetic Directory Kerberos for mutual authentication, which is not available to nondomain members.

    Note:Workgroup servers, public web servers, and Microsoft Exchange Edge Transport role servers are commonly placed in the DMZ and are for security reasons not domain members, so almost every Windows Server 2008 R2 environment will exigency to deploy certificate-based authentication.

    In the absence of energetic Directory, trusts, and Kerberos, OpsMgr 2007 R2 can expend X.509 certificates to establish the mutual authentication. These can subsist issued by any PKI, such as Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Enterprise CA. survey Chapter 14, "Transport-Level Security," for details on PKI and Windows Server 2008 R2.

    Installing agents on DMZ servers is discussed later in this chapter in the section "Monitoring DMZ Servers with Certificates."

    Securing OpsMgr

    Security has evolved into a primary concern that can no longer subsist taken for granted. The inherent security in Windows Server 2008 R2 is only as auspicious as the services that gain access to it; therefore, it is sensible to discharge a security audit of total systems that access information from servers. This concept holds proper for management systems as well because they collect sensitive information from every server in an enterprise. This includes potentially sensitive event logs that could subsist used to compromise a system. Consequently, securing the OpsMgr infrastructure should not subsist taken lightly.

    Securing OpsMgr Agents

    Each server that contains an OpsMgr agent and forwards events to management servers has specific security requirements. Server-level security should subsist established and should comprise provisions for OpsMgr data collection. total traffic between OpsMgr components, such as the agents, management servers, and database, is encrypted automatically for security, so the traffic is inherently secured.

    In addition, environments with high-security requirements should investigate the expend of encryption technologies such as IPSec to scramble the event IDs that are sent between agents and OpsMgr servers, to protect against eavesdropping of OpsMgr packets.

    OpsMgr uses mutual authentication between agents and management servers. This means that the agent must reside in the same forest as the management server. If the agent is located in a different forest or workgroup, client certificates can subsist used to establish mutual authentication. If an entire nontrusted domain must subsist monitored, the gateway server can subsist installed in the nontrusted domain, agents can establish mutual authentication to the gateway server, and certificates on the gateway and management server are used to establish mutual authentication. In this scenario, you can avoid needing to set a certificate on each nontrusted domain member.

    Understanding Firewall Requirements

    OpsMgr servers that are deployed across a firewall gain special considerations that must subsist taken into account. Port 5723, the default port for OpsMgr communications, must specifically subsist opened on a firewall to allow OpsMgr to communicate across it.

    Table 23.1 describes communication for this and other OpsMgr components.

    TABLE 23.1 OpsMgr Communication Ports

    From To Port Agent Root Management Server 5723 Agent Management Server 5723 Agent Gateway Server 5723 Agent (ACS forwarder) Management server ACS collector 51909 Gateway Server Root Management Server 5723 Gateway Server Root Management Server 5723 Management or Gateway server Unix or Linux computer 1270 Management or Gateway server Unix or Linux computer 22 Management server Operations Manager database 1433 Management server Root Management Server 5723, 5724 Management server Reporting data warehouse 1433 Management server ACS collector ACS database 1433 Operations console Root Management Server 5724 Operations console (reports) SQL Server reporting services 80 Reporting server Root Management Server 5723, 5724 Reporting server Reporting data warehouse 1433 Root Management Server Operations Manager database 1433 Root Management Server Reporting data warehouse 1433 Web console browser Web console server 51908 Web console server Root Management Server 5724

    The firewall port for the agents is the port that needs to subsist opened most often, which is only port 5723 from the agent to the management servers for monitoring. Other ports, such as 51909 for ACS, are more rarely needed. figure 23.6 shows the major communications paths and ports between OpsMgr components.

    FIGURE 23.6 Communications ports.

    Outlining Service Account Security

    In addition to the aforementioned security measures, security of an OpsMgr environment can subsist strengthened by the addition of multiple service accounts to exploit the different OpsMgr components. For example, the Management Server Action account and the SDK/Configuration service account should subsist configured to expend part credentials, to provide for an extra layer of protection in the event that one account is compromised.

  • Management Server Action account -- The account liable for collecting data and running responses from management servers.
  • SDK and Configuration service account -- The account that writes data to the operations database; this service is furthermore used for total console communication.
  • Local Administrator account -- The account used during the agent propel installation process. To install the agent, local administrative rights are required.
  • Agent Action account -- The credentials the agent will hasten as. This account can hasten under a built-in system account, such as Local System, or a limited domain user account for high-security environments.
  • Data Warehouse Write Action account -- The account used by the management server to write data to the reporting data warehouse.
  • Data Warehouse Reader account -- The account used to read data from the data warehouse when reports are executed.
  • Run As accounts -- The specific accounts used by management packs to facilitate monitoring. These accounts must subsist manually created and delegated specific rights as defined in the management pack documentation. These accounts are then assigned as hasten As accounts used by the management pack to achieve a lofty degree of security and flexibility when monitoring the environment. recent to OpsMgr 2007 R2 is the skill to selectively deal the hasten As Account to just the agents that exigency them.
  • Integrating System headquarters Operations Manager 2007 R2 with Windows Server 2008 R2  Using OpsMgr 2007 R2 to monitor Windows Server 2008 R2  OpsMgr 2007 R2 hardware, software, security requirements  OpsMgr 2007 R2 installation steps  Operations Manager 2007 R2 configuration  Operations Manager 2007 R2: Using alerts, running reports

    Printed with license from Sams Publishing. Copyright 2010. Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed by Rand Morimoto, Michael Noel, Omar Droubi and Ross Mistry. For more information about this title and other similar books, gladden visit Sams Publishing.


    1998 in review | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    LWN 1998 Linux timeline

    This is version 1.0 of the 1998 Linux timeline. Thanks to input from many of you, many omissions from the previous version gain been fixed. For those who gain seen the earlier version, check out the changes page to survey what got added. The permanent site for this page is and will remain:

    http://lwn.net/1999/features/1998timeline/

    We're still looking for input for the final version of this page, which will subsist piece of the January 7, 1999 issue of LWN. gladden drop us a note with your suggestions for additions to this page.

    This page was produced by Jonathan Corbet at Eklektix, Inc. Contributions gain since further in from Zachary Beane, Christopher Bohn, badge Bolzern, Malcolm Caldwell, Victor Chang, Alan Cox, David Damerell, Joe DeVita, Gael Duval, Sammy Ford, Emmanuel Galanos, Jason Haas, Hans ? (hzo), Tres Hofmeister, "Kerberus," Alexander Kjeldaas, Matthias Kranz, Barry Kwok, Erik Levy, William Mackeown, Rick Moen, Olivier M�ller, Hartmut Niemann, Rodolphe Ortalo, wealthy Payne, Kelly Price, G. Branden Robinson, Greg Roelofs, Daniel Roesen, Seth David Schoen, Dan Shafer, Lewis Tanzos, Jarto Tarpio, Henri de la Vall�e Poussin, Moshe Vainer, Steve Wainstead, David A. Wheeler, Micah Yoder, and James Youngman. Many thanks to total of these folks!

    You may jump straight to the month of your choice: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, or December.

    The Linux Weekly news begins publication. The very first issue, dated January 22, was a just a tiny hint of what LWN was to become. Since then we've gotten better at it, and the Linux world has gotten much more complicated. It has been an pitiful adventure.

    [Netscape]Netscape announces that they will release the source to their browser under a free software license. This almost certainly remains one of the most primary events of the year; it opened a lot of eyes to what Linux and free software could provide.

    [RHAD] Red Hat Advanced progress Labs is founded. It has since become one of the higher-profile places where people are paid to develop free software, and an primary component of the GNOME project. RHAD is able to attract developers fancy "Rasterman" and Federico Mena Quintero.

    The Stampede Linux distribution is announced. Actually, this happened in December, but the news took a while to spread... Stampede positions itself as a high-performance "real Linux hacker's" distribution.

    Word gets out that parts of the blockbuster film "Titanic" were rendered on Alpha machines running Linux. This was another primary step in the "legitimization" of Linux - everybody had heard of The Titanic, and some of its success seemed to rub off on everything associated with it.

    [Qube] The Cobalt Qube is announced and immediately becomes a favorite in the trade press due to its lofty performance, low price, and cute shape factor. Cobalt's Linux engineering is done by None other than David Miller, source of much that is auspicious in the Linux kernel.

    [prize] The Linux user community wins InfoWorld's technical champion award; Red Hat 5.0 furthermore won their Operating System award. But it was the tech champion award that truly opened some eyes; everybody had been saw that Linux had no support. This was the nascence of the discontinuance of the "no support" argument.

    [opensource] Red Hat announces that their installation champion staff is running behind. They are a victim of their own success, and examine for resignation while they accumulate their act together.

    Linux according to Jesse Berst "I arbiter it's mighty if you are willing to promote Linux to your boss. As long as you are watchful of the risk you are taking. The risk of getting fired." (Feb. 16). "Is a Linux takeover likely? Give me a break. Of course not." (June 23). "I personally arbiter Windows NT will subsist the mainstream operating system within a few years." [...] "My belief: Linux will never proceed mainstream" (Sep. 9). "I've always said that Linux could become a grave challenger to Microsoft's Windows NT." Sep. 28).

    Eric Raymond and friends further up with the "open source" term. They apply for trademark status, and effect up the opensource.org web site. Thus begins the formal application to propel Linux for corporate use.

    Linus Torvalds and Richard Stallman win the EFF Pioneer award. The award recognizes their contributions to electronic freedom. Strangely, total mention of this seems to gain vanished from the Electronic Frontier Foundation web site.

    Caldera 1.2 is released. Unlike Red Hat, which had been shipping libc6 based systems for some time, Caldera sticks with the tried and proper libc5.

    The OpenBIOS project is launched, in the credit that no system is free if it depends on proprietary BIOS code. A web page is set up for the project.

    [GGI] Major battles rage over whether GGI belongs in the Linux Kernel. GGI, the "Generic Graphics Interface," seeks to relent a better defined, better supported interface to video cards on Linux and other systems. Interestingly, GGI had made no request for kernel inclusion at this time. No resolution was reached, but better communications with a number of kernel hackers did result from this episode.

    The Linux generic Store opens; this is "the first walk-in Linux store." (Web page here).

    [Learning tree] Learning Tree, International adds a Linux administration course to their lineup. This course is offered frequently in the U.S. and Britain. "The character of Linux software has improved dramatically, making it a low-cost, reliable, supported computing platform confiscate for the commerce environment."

    Consumer advocate Ralph Nader asks the great PC vendors (Dell, Gateway, Micron...) to present non-Microsoft systems, including systems with Linux installed. (See InfoPolicy Notes).

    Sun offers 70% discounts for people interested in "upgrading" from Linux to Solaris.

    [Debian] [Sendmail logo] Bruce Perens, once leader of the Debian project, quits entirely in the wake of disagreements on how the project should proceed.

    Sendmail, Inc. is formed by Eric Allman, in an attempt to compose money selling sendmail champion services while keeping the basic sendmail code free.

    John Kirch releases his "Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 versus Unix" paper. This paper remains one of the best advocacy pieces out there, and should subsist required reading for anybody contemplating deployment of either technology.

    [Mozilla] The Mozilla source code hits the net. Netscape throws a huge party. The code is downloaded total over the world, and people start hacking. recent features, such as sturdy encryption and a Qt port, are added almost immediately.

    Linus makes Inter@ctive Week's "25 Unsung Heroes of the Net" list. He is in auspicious company, joining names fancy Steven Bellovin, Van Jacobson, Peter G. Neumann, and others. April was maybe about the final time that Linus could subsist said to subsist an "unsung" hero.

    Linus announces Linux 2.1.92 and declares a 2.1 feature freeze. The announcment goes as far as to convey "...there are probably still bugs with some of the recent code, but I'll freeze recent features for the upcoming 2.2 kernel." This freeze turned out to subsist rather slushy, to convey the least.

    The Open Group announces a recent licensing policy for the X window system. recent versions of X will subsist proprietary and only available to paying customers. They immediately withhold some security bugfixes from generic distribution. XFree86 decides that it can not live with the recent licensing, and declares its intent to proceed its own way.

    [NPR] Linux is covered by the U.S. National Public Radio news, marking one of its first appearances in the mainstream, non-technical press.

    O'Reilly holds the "first ever" Free Software Summit, featuring Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Linus Torvalds, Guido van Rossum, Eric Allman, Phil Zimmermann, Eric Raymond, and Paul Vixie.

    The Linux Weekly news daily updates page debuts. Despite LWN's intent to retain the its weekly focus, the daily page eventually exceeds the weekly newsletter in traffic. The Linux events calendar is furthermore announced.

    Linus 3.0 is announced; the birth of Linus's second daughter causes mighty joy, and substantial disruption in kernel progress as total labor stops and many patches accumulate lost. Some grumbling results as it becomes lucid just how matter the entire process is on Linus's incessant presence.

    RH  champion  colleague logo[Avalon] Red Hat announces their commercial champion program, based on a worldwide network of "support partners," of which Eklektix, Inc., the producer of the Linux Weekly News, is one.

    The Avalon Beowulf cluster at Los Alamos goes on line and immediately powers itself into the list of the fastest computers on the planet.

    Eric S. Raymond publishes "Homesteading the Noosphere" on the web; This paper gives his view of how economics of open source software can work.

    Kernel hacker Alan Cox goes to labor for Red Hat.

    Bruce Perens proposes a recent Linux distribution (proposal here) based on his sustain with Debian. This distribution never comes about, but much of what's there later gets folded into the Linux standard foundation project.

    [Project Heresy C|Net's "Project Heresy" starts a high-profile attempt to labor using only Linux. The result was a long series of articles and "radio" programs, total on the Project Heresy page.

    Sun Microsystems joins Linux International.

    [Google] The "Google" search engine pops up. Not only is it one of the best search engines around, but it's based on Linux and features a Linux-specific search page.

    Sm@rt Reseller reports that Oracle and Informix gain no plans to champion Linux. "In fact, many doubt that Linux-no matter how stable or how cheap-can ever compete in the corporate marketplace alongside the well-funded Windows NT and Solaris." (article here).

    [SuSE] The SuSE 5.2 distribution is released.

    [Corel] Corel formally embraces Linux. The Netwinder products are featured, and they pledge their champion for the Linux system.

    The Association Francophone des Utilsateurs de Linux et des Logiciels Libres (AFUL) is formed in France. AFUL promptly becomes a compel in French computer circles.

    O2 broad databases start to arrive. champion for Linux is announced by Computer Associates for their Ingres system, and by Ardent Software for their O2 object database.

    The Linux Core/Layers project was announced and became the first in a series of attempts at creating standards for Linux systems. The Core/Layers page still exists, but this project is no longer energetic in this form.

    "But Linux is a communist operating system in a capitalist society. Its popularity is going to lead toward its fragmentation....The broad problem with Linux is that it has no obvious direction. It's in the prerogative set at the prerogative time, but its 15 minutes are nearly up." (PC Week, May 22).

    The Linux Weekly news moved to its own domain at lwn.net.

    A proposal goes out to create the Linux standard foundation (LSB) project. This proposal, signed by a great number of Linux luminaries, was discussed at Linux Expo and formed into a project, with Bruce Perens at the head. Numerous editorials were written and posted on FreshMeat; the list can subsist establish on the LSB web page. The LSB then disappeared from view for a few months.

    And, yes, Linux Expo was held; a auspicious time was had by all.

    Red Hat 5.1 was released and immediately started accumulating rather more than the habitual number of updates (partly as a result of the Linux Security Audit program). There was talk of "Red Hat 5.1 service pack 1" as a result. 5.1 did eventually stabilize into a solid release.

    "First, let me convey that I am uniquely unqualified to write about this week's topic. fancy most of you, I've never used Linux....Linux has a snowball's chance in hell of making perceptible inroads against Windows." (The infamous John Dodge hatchet job, PC Week, June 8).

    The Open Group offers the possibility of Unix 98 certification to Linux at the Uniforum meeting. The resulting press release says "Since the Linux OS is proving to subsist increasingly rigid competition for NT in this marketspace, it's in the best interest of total Unix vendors for Linux to accumulate branded so that it may compete more effectively and retain the low discontinuance UNIX 98-compliant." Very miniature is heard thereafter.

    The Gartner Group says there is miniature hope for free software. "...these operating systems will not find widespread expend in mainstream commercial applications in the next three years, nor will there subsist broad third-party application support."

    [Wilbur] The Gimp 1.0 is released. This long-awaited release of one of Linux's highest profile tools did not disappoint.

    Stable kernel 2.0.34 is released after a long prepatch series.

    [Beowulf] The Beowulf web site shuts down temporarily due to concerns about U.S. export restrictions. Suddenly anybody can create a supercomputer, and people are getting worried. survey this Dr. Dobbs article for some more background. Shortly thereafter the site (www.beowulf.org) is back up as if nothing had happened.

    The Datapro study comes out showing that Linux has the highest user satisfaction of any system; it furthermore shows Linux to subsist the only system other than NT that is increasing market share.

    "Like a lot of products that are free, you accumulate a loyal following even though it's small. I've never had a customer mention Linux to me." (Bill Gates in PC Week, June 25).

    [Netwinder] Corel launches the Netwinder DM with this press release.

    Debian 2.0 goes into beta test after numerous delays.

    [Adaptec] Adaptec reverses its longstanding nondisclosure policy and announces champion for Linux. The initial deal was with Red Hat; other distribution vendors gain since then announced agreements with Adaptec.

    The Chinese Linux Extension project begins; this project is doing a Chinese localization of Linux. (Web page (mix English/Chinese) here).

    IBM announces that it will deal and champion the Apache web server, after working a deal with the Apache team.

    [Rocket]

    The Silicon Valley Linux Users Group holds "The mighty Linux Revolt of 1998", turning Microsoft's Windows 98 product launch celebration into a Linux publicity event at two high-profile retail outlets.

    Not content with that, The Silicon Valley Linux Users Group Launches Windows 98...on a rocket.

    The UK Linux Developers' Conference is held in Manchester (basic web page here).

    Rumors of a merger between Caldera and Red Hat circulate. It hasn't happened yet...

    The desktop wars rage as KDE and GNOME advocates hurl flames at each other. Linus gets in on the act, saw that KDE is OK with him. Those who are sentiment nostalgic can head over to this Slashdot discussion just to survey how much fun it really was.

    In this context, KDE 1.0 is released. The first stable release of the K Desktop Environment proves popular, despite the complaints from those who effect not fancy the licensing of the Qt library.

    NC World magazine shuts down with Nicholas Petreley's devastating criticism of Windows NT. The article, (still available on the net), concludes that Windows NT 5 (now "Windows 2000") can only subsist an absolute disaster.

    Stable kernel 2.0.35 is released.

    The Internet Operating System Counter goes online and finds, after querying hundreds of thousands of hosts, that Linux has the largest web server market share of any operating system out there. The results are available on the Internet Operating System Counter page.

    LinuxPPC 4.0 is released.

    "IBM, Informix, and Sybase furthermore gain no intentions of releasing versions of their databases on Linux, company representatives said." (InfoWorld, July 6)

    [Oracle] Oracle announces champion for Linux in this press release. They promise to compose a affliction version available by the discontinuance of 1998, a deadline they beat by months. This, seemingly, was one of the acid tests for the potential of long-term success for Linux; a mighty deal of attention resulted from this announcement.

    [Informix] Informix announces champion for Linux on almost the same day with a press release of their own.

    The SVLUG/Taos "Future of Linux" panel is held featuring Linus and numerous other luminaries. (Writeup here). Among other things, this conference is where Intel first started making grave noises about supporting Linux.

    "When I heard that Steve Ballmer was promoted to the office of president at Microsoft, I couldn't befriend but miracle if he was being set up to prefer the tumble when Windows NT 5.0 proves to subsist a catastrophic market failure and Linux supplants Windows NT as the future server operating system of choice."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, July 27).

    [Forbes cover] Linus appears on the cover of Forbes magazine. A lengthy chronicle presents Linux in a highly positive manner, and brings the system to the attention of many who had never heard of it before. Linux begins to become a household word. (Yes, it was the August 10 issue, but it came out in July).

    The first release of the Mandrake distribution is announced. Mandrake is a version of the Red Hat distribution with international language champion and KDE added.

    Stampede distribution 0.86 is released.

    Debian 2.0 is released with this announcement. It is a huge distribution, containing over 1500 packages and requiring at least two CD's to hold it.

    MkLinux distribution DR3 is released, announced thusly.

    Caldera releases Netware for Linux 1.0 (product info here).

    The EiffelBase library is released under an open source license; this library had previously been proprietary. (Info here).

    Red Hat announces (again) that their installation champion staff is running behind (again). Their note on the topic asks for resignation while they accumulate their act together.

    The Open Source Initiative is formed by Bruce Perens, Eric Raymond, Ian Murdock, and Tim Sailer (Russ Nelson and Chip Salzenberg unite the board a month later). Its purpose, among others, is to manage the "open source" trademark.

    Richard Stallman calls for the creation of free documentation for free software in this message to info-gnu.

    [GNOME] GNOME 0.25 is released; this release is codenamed Drooling Macaque.

    The Linux Compatibility Standards project is formed as a cooperative venture between Red Hat and Debian. This project (announcement) was formed out of an increasing frustration with the progress of the Linux standard Base, which was having twinge finding consensus on its goals.

    Bruce Perens then leaves the Linux standard foundation project and, for a while, dropped out of the free software world entirely.

    Software in the Public Interest (SPI) chooses its recent officers, recovering from the departure of most of its board. The recent folks are Ian Jackson, Martin Schulze, Dale Scheetz and Nils Lohner; here's their announcement on the subject.

    [LSB] Red Hat puts out a paper on why they effect not fancy the Qt license and why they will not subsist including KDE anytime soon. The paper is still available on Red Hat's web site.

    The Linux Standards Association appears out of nowhere and claims that they will relent the true standard for Linux systems. The LSA draws almost universal condemnation and slowly fades out of existence, but not before generating a unbiased amount of press saw that the Linux community is hostile to standards. One auspicious effect of their presence may gain been to befriend drive the Linux Compatibility Standards and Linux standard foundation projects to merge back together and accumulate grave about producing something.

    "Organizations should not consider deployment of NT v.5.0 prior to 2001. They believe organizations are better-served in the interim by evaluating the costs and benefits of using alternative products and not waiting on NT v.5.0 to emerge from 'vaporware' status."(Gartner Group, August 11)

    Red Hat makes the progress version of their distribution available as "RawHide".

    "Personally, I arbiter open-source software needs a grown-up to step in and lead it without total this petty bickering."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, August 24).

    Michael McLagan, a founder of the LSA, challenges the validity of the Linux trademark. Linux International responded with a bit of counsel action, causing the withdrawal of the challenge and the insertion of trademark ® symbols on the (now defunct) LSA web site.

    Kernel 2.1.115 is released; Linus calls a code freeze, for real, this time. Sort of.

    The Linux Internet Server Administration sheperd project starts up with a page at lisa.8304.ch.

    Linux Magazine France debuts as "the" French print magazine on Linux (information here).

    Stackguard/Immunix 5.1 is released. StackGuard is actually a version of gcc modified to protect against stack overrun attacks; Immunix is a version of the Red Hat distribution built with this compiler.

    Microsoft's Steve Ballmer admits that they are "worried" about free software and suggests that some of the NT source code may subsist made available to developers.

    [SuSE] SuSE 5.3 (English version) is released.

    [Caldera] Caldera splits into two part companies. "Caldera Systems," under Ransom Love, now handles the Linux business, while "Caldera Thin Clients" does the embedded systems. (Press release here).

    "The Linux community, a temporary, self-managed gathering of diverse individuals engaged in a common task, is a model for a recent benign of commerce organization that could shape the basis for a recent benign of economy."(Harvard commerce Review, September)

    SuSE stops international shipments of their 5.3 release after installation problems rotate up for a miniature percentage of users.

    [UDI] The Uniform Driver Interface (UDI) project bursts on the Linux scene with a suggestion that maybe Linux developers would fancy to relent lots of drivers for the UDI interface. A free reference implementation for Linux is promised, but enthusiasm among the Linux community seems low.

    SuSE announces their "Office Suite 99" product, which is a bundling of ApplixWare, KDE, and other auspicious stuff. This product gets a unbiased amount of attention as viable competition to Microsoft on the desktop.

    [DB2] IBM announces champion for DB2 under Linux. (Press release here).

    [Sybase] Sybase announces champion for linux (Information here). Sybase makes their database available for free download directly from the distribution vendors. With this announcement, Linux has an essentially complete portfolio of database products.

    Dell has been selling Linux-installed systems to great customers for some time reports Inter@ctive Week. This comes as a dumbfound to "small" customers who gain been trying to accumulate Dell to sell them Linux-installed (or at least non-Windows) machines.

    Neomagic allows the source for the driver for their video hardware to subsist released to the XFree86 project and freely distributed. This driver, developed by Precision Insight under the sponsorship of Red Hat, had previously been available in binary format only.

    The Open Group backs down and releases X11R6.4 under an open source license, thus ending a dour chapter in the history of free software. It is furthermore rumored that TOG has little, if any progress staff working on X at this point, import that it may not matter much which license they use.

    Microsoft lists Linux as a competitive threat in its annual SEC (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission) filing. Speculation abounds that their true purpose is to impress the upcoming antitrust trial.

    [CLUE] Canadian Linux Users hold a nationwide Installfest with mighty success. Summaries, pictures, etc. can subsist establish on the Installfest pages.

    Intel and Netscape (and two venture capital firms) declar minority [Intel] investments in Red Hat Software. The money is to subsist used to build an "enterprise champion division" within Red Hat. An unbelievable amount of press is generated by this event, which is seen as a big-business endorsement of Linux.

    Intel joins Linux International.

    Net pioneer Jonathan Postel dies, depriving the world of a much-needed leader in the middle of the domain appellation debate.

    The International Kernel Patch is introduced, providing cryptographic capabilities in a way that does not hasten afoul of obnoxious national crypto export laws.

    GNOME 0.30 is released; LWN published a review of this release.

    Linuxpower.org hits the web. This site has since become a auspicious source of Linux articles and tutorials.

    [eCos] Cygnus releases a real-time embedded operating system (eCos) under an open source license. (Press release here).

    Red Hat finds some security problems in CDE and drops it immediately as a supported product. The note they forward out makes a broad thing of the fact that CDE is not open source software, and thus not easily fixable.

    Caldera 1.3 is released. This version includes Sybase, KDE, and StarOffice 4.0, but sticks with libc5. Caldera furthermore announces Linux administration training courses.

    "Gateway Inc., which has been doing certification tests with Linux for six months, most likely will install Linux across its enterprise server line next year.... Red Hat's puerile expects six of the top 10 PC server makers to present Linux on their machines by next March."(PC Week, October 5).

    [LinuxToday] LinuxToday hits the web providing another source of constantly updated Linux news. This is the first of a number of recent Linux-related web publications that start up over the next month.

    Tensions explode on linux-kernel after Linus drops a few too many patches. Linus walks out in a huff and takes a vacation for a bit. Things revert to normal, of course, but some people accumulate talking. It becomes lucid once again that the Linux kernel is getting to subsist too broad for one person to retain on top of. Some ways of reducing the load on Linus are discussed, but nothing is really resolved.

    The "bootX" utility is released, and makes life much easier for PowerPC users.

    "For the moment, however, the company from Redmond, Washington, seems almost grateful for the rising profile of Linux, seeing it as an simple way of demonstrating that Windows is not a monopoly, ahead of its antitrust trial, scheduled to start on October 15th. That may subsist short-sighted. In the long run, Linux and other open-source programs could reason Mr Gates much grief."(The Economist, October 3)

    Oracle8 for Linux becomes available for downloading; at 142 MB it is not something to subsist done lightly.

    AFUL sponsors a French nationwide installation party, the reports indicate that it was highly successful.

    Microsoft presents Linux as evidence that it does not hold a monopoly in operating systems; their release furthermore claims that Linux was developed by "a lone individual."

    Larry Wall wins the first annual Free Software Foundation award. Larry, of course, is the developer of Perl and lots of other auspicious stuff.

    Debian decides to drop KDE from their distribution; their explanation cites worries about licensing issues.

    Novell announces that they will port NDS to Linux in cooperation with Caldera.

    [Allaire] Allaire announces that they will champion Linux with "a future version" of their accepted "Cold Fusion" product. (Press release here). This, evidently, is a product that quite a few people gain been waiting for.

    [Compaq] Compaq is reported to subsist ready to champion VARs installing Linux on their hardware, though it does not map to sell Linux-installed systems directly. [LinuxWorld]

    LinuxWorld goes online, signalling the arrival of the mainstream trade press. LinuxWorld is edited by Nicholas Petreley, a long time supporter of Linux in the trade press.

    Microsoft publishes an anti-Linux "open letter" in France in what was seen by some as a beta-test of a wider FUD strategy. The letter (in French) (or translated to English) went after Linux on several fronts, and was widely and easily refuted. The definitive refutation was probably this response from AFUL (also available in English).

    Debian 2.1 goes into feature freeze.

    France Telecom invests in Cobalt Networks.

    The Mexican ScholarNet project is announced; this project will install Linux-based computer labs in 140,000 schools. (LWN coverage here). The project will subsist using GNOME heavily, and expects to contribute to GNOME development.

    "What I saw at the Linux Showcase was enthusiasm, the likes of which I haven't seen in the PC industry for a long time. Sure, some of it was from guys in ponytails and T-shirts, but it was furthermore from guys in suits. Academics and scientists, but furthermore businessmen."(PC Week, October 26).

    The Atlanta Linux Showcase was a broad success. (LWN coverage here).

    Corel announces that Word flawless 8 for Linux will subsist downloadable for Free for "personal use." They furthermore declar a partnership with Red Hat to supply Linux for the Netwinder. [WineHQ]

    Corel furthermore commits to helping the WINE progress effort, a major boost for this long-awaited project. (Note from Corel here).

    [PHT] Pacific HiTech announces that they will bring TurboLinux to the U.S. market. They gain long claimed to subsist the most accepted distribution in Japan, and arbiter it's time to head into other pastures. (Press release here).

    Www.alphalinux.org goes live, providing a lone site for Alpha-related information for the first time.

    [AFUL] AFUL signs an agreement with the French Ministry of Education to champion the deployment of free software in French schools. (Information (in French) here).

    Kernel hacker David Miller gets married (pictures here).

    Two internal Microsoft memos on Linux and open source software are leaked to Eric Raymond; he promptly marks them up and makes them [ExtremeLinux] public. The memos acknowledge frankly the strengths of Linux and the sort of threat that it poses to Microsoft, and suggests some viable responses. The furor in the press was just as great as one might expect. (Eric's Halloween page has the memos, links to press coverage, and translations into a number of languages).

    Extreme Linux makes a splash at Supercomputing '98, as witnessed by this list of events at the conference.

    Linux has a lofty profile at COMDEX, though it was not the headquarters of the disclose as some pundits had expected.

    The "Eddie" software suite is released under an open source license; Eddie is a set of applications designed to befriend build high-availability clusters.

    The proprietary I2O bus specification is opened up, so that Linux champion can subsist implemented. One of the broad nondisclosure threats to Linux is thus removed. (Press release here).

    Red Hat 5.2 is released. This is reputed to subsist the last, stablest 5.x release before 6.0, which will accommodate the 2.2 kernel.

    LinuxPPC 5.0 is announced; the actual release is set for January 5, 1999. (Info here). [Ext2]

    Ext2 hits the net as another monthly Linux magazine.

    Informix and Apropos deploy Linux machines in over 100 Jay Jacobs clothing stores. (Press release here). Linux has truly arrived in the mainstream corporate world.

    Digital Creations releases Principia under an open source license; Principia is eventually rolled together with Bobo and Aqueduct to become Zope. An pitiful angle on this release is that it was recommended by Digital Creations' venture capital investor (LWN coverage here).

    The Silicon Valley Tea Party celebrates the opening of the Microsoft campus there. (Writeup here). [StarDivision]

    StarOffice 5 for Linux is released, freely downloadable for personal use. (Information here).

    Troll Tech announces that version 2.0 of the Qt library will subsist released under an open source license. This license does not satisfy everyone, since it leaves Troll Tech in a special position and requires that modifications subsist distributed as patches. As a result, though most acknowledge that the QPL is an "open source" license, the desktop wars fail to end.

    Stable kernel 2.0.36 is released. (Linus's announcement here, release notes here).

    OpenBIOS 0.0.1 is released (announcement here).

    Slackware distribution 3.6 is released

    Red Hat and SuSE both declar champion programs at COMDEX. Both are aiming at the big-ticket "enterprise support" market. (SuSE's announcement here, and Red Hat's here).

    Netscape buys the "NewHoo" web directory, and promises to compose its database available.

    Sunsite.unc.edu transforms into MetaLab.unc.edu to better reflect its purpose and to accumulate away from Sun's trademark. It remains one of the primary Linux repositories and the home of the Linux Documentation Project.

    The CLOWN project creates a 550-node cluster, aiming for a spot in the record books (Coverage here).

    A fight erupts over the ownership of the "open source" trademark. Both Eric Raymond, in the shape of the Open Source Initiative, and Software in the Public Interest title to own the trademark. SPI has called for a "public comment" term on who should control the trademark; that term remains open as this is written.

    [BSDI] BSDI announces the skill to hasten Linux binaries, giving users of Linux applications "a reliable, commercially supported operating system to hasten them on." The implication, of course, is that such a platform had not previously been available. The really pitiful point, though, is that Linux now has enough applications to compose other OS vendors envious.

    Linus and Tove are guests of honor at Finland's Independence Day celebration. They accumulate to meet the President and are voted "the most pitiful couple" at the event. (Coverage here, click on "��nestys" for pictures).

    Red Hat hacker (and RPM culprit) Eric Troan gets married, no pictures (yet) available.

    The Linux Kernel Archive Mirror System is established to better accumulate recent kernels out to the world. (Mirror page here).

    The Linux Kernel History is published due to the efforts of Riley Williams and others. An almost complete reconstruction of total the released Linux kernels has been done. (Kernel history page here).

    [Mandrake] [Gecko]

    Mandrake distribution 5.2 is released.

    Netscape's "Gecko" rendering engine is released. Gecko is the first high-profile product out of the Netscape/Mozilla open source progress effort; it is a leaner, meaner, faster, more standards-conformant web page layout engine. (Press release here).

    [YellowDog]

    The "Yellow Dog Linux" distribution for the PowerPC is announced. (Home page here).

    Corel announces a partnership with the KDE progress team which will provide the KDE interface for the Netwinder. (Press release here).

    IBM releases version 3.5 of the AFS filesystem for Linux (press release here). (An earlier version of AFS had been available before 1998, survey the Linux-AFS FAQ for more).

    Electric Lichen announces "Die Linuxbierwanderung" - the Linux Beer Hike, a Linux-training, Alps-walking, beer-drinking adventure in Bavaria next August. (Information here).

    GNOME 1.0 enters code freeze and 0.99 betas are released.

    Compaq releases a Linux driver for its PCI RAID controller, and it is under the GPL. (Press release here).

    LibGGI 2.0 (beta) released (Announcement here).

    IBM releases some software goodies under an open source license, including the Jikes Java compiler and Secure Mailer. They furthermore effect out the beta version of DB2 for free download. [Sun]

    Sun opens up the Java license. It's still not an open source license, but things are headed in the prerogative direction.

    Sun announces champion for Linux on UltraSparc systems

    "The question is how to effect it without exposing IBM and its partners," says one source confidential with IBM's plans. "With a generic public license, there are some exposures with liability and how open are the patents if you modify the code. The best way to unravel this is by cleaning up the license."(Sm@rt Reseller, December 18).

    Silicon Graphics joins Linux International and furthermore announces champion for Samba on their systems.

    KDE 1.1 goes into code freeze and beta releases are made available.

    IBM is said to subsist considering becoming a champion provider for Linux according to some reports. They are held back by fears about patent and liability issues.

    The first public beta of SuSE 6.0 is released (announcement here).

    Reports convey that Apple will start selling Power Macintoshes with Linux installed. [Corel]

    WordPerfect 8 becomes available for download; it proves to subsist popular. (Information here).

    The "LinuxPPC on the iMac HOWTO" is released, allowing users to accumulate Linux on those stylish blue boxes. (HOWTO here).

    The first pre-2.2 kernel is released.

    A report from IDC says that Linux shipments rose by more than 200% in 1998, and its market share rose by more than 150%. Linux has a 17% market share, and a growth rate unmatched by any other system on the market.

    Eklektix, Inc. Linux powered! Copyright © 1998 Eklektix, Inc., total rights reservedLinux ® is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds



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