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1Z0-879 exam Dumps Source : Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator(R) Certified Professional Upgrade

Test Code : 1Z0-879
Test designation : Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator(R) Certified Professional Upgrade
Vendor designation : Oracle
: 612 real Questions

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Oracle Oracle Solaris 10 System

replace to Oracle Solaris 10 focuses on ZFS File tackle | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

records centers | news

replace to Oracle Solaris 10 focuses on ZFS File system

Oracle has released Solaris 10 8/eleven, an supplant to the Solaris 10 operating device, designed to enhance Oracle Solaris ZFS and reside upgrade applied sciences, assist the latest SPARC and x86 techniques, and improve the performance of Oracle Database 11g.

many of the fresh points covered during this supplant headquarters of attention on advocate for the Oracle Solaris file gadget, ZFS, with the goal of easing the transition from united statesbased mostly device disks to Oracle Solaris ZFS, which Oracle touts as proposing superior management, information integrity, and developed-in data features. Oracle Solaris reside improve has also been enhanced to assist device renovation on ZFS-based file systems.

facets fresh to this version of Solaris encompass:

  • assist for setting up from a ZFS sparkle archive (flars);
  • assist for tackle upgrades from a ZFS root sparkle archive using Oracle Solaris are animate upgrade;
  • guide for migration from a u.s.a.or ZFS boot ambiance to a ZFS boot atmosphere with a separate /var file device, additionally through Oracle Solaris reside upgrade;
  • ZFS "diff" command to checklist the changes between two ZFS snapshots;
  • means to import a pool with a lacking log or import a pool in study-handiest mode, which allows improved flexibility in getting better from mistakes;
  • choice to pass the power-on self leer at various (submit) to pace up reboot on SPARC techniques;
  • support for diskset import in the course of the metaimport command when working an Oracle Solaris Cluster configuration;
  • sooner startup and shutdown of Oracle Database when the employ of Oracle Solaris Intimate Shared memory (ISM); and
  • ZFS efficiency improvements, including enhanced sequential examine/write I/O advancements.
  • Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 is attainable now. further tips may also subsist institute at oracle.com.

    in regards to the author

    Leila Meyer is a expertise writer primarily based in British Columbia. She can also subsist reached at leilameyer@gmail.com.

    Please enable JavaScript to view the feedback powered via Disqus.


    Toss Of Hewlett-Oracle IP travel well with explained In Written Ruling | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Law360 (February 7, 2019, 5:24 PM EST) -- A San Francisco federal determine on Wednesday issued a written ruling explaining a convene final month to toss out a application copyright lawsuit filed by Oracle Corp. towards Hewlett Packard enterprise Co., announcing...

    Oracle SPARC S7-2: Rack Server Overview and insight | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    See the entire listing of excellent rack server vendors

    bottom line:

    Oracle’s SPARC S7 servers are designed for weighty commercial enterprise use. Its architecture is constructed on per-core effectivity, which optimizes high-compute density for intensive workloads enjoy cloud purposes and information analytics. Given Oracle’s huge utilization for monetary database purposes, of direction mighty endemic security is included.

    With a wealth of tips safety facets, processor core efficiency, and efficiency acceleration aspects, Oracle has created these machines to hasten its own commercial enterprise Oracle functions, in addition to anything else involving Java, databases, and analytics.

    The unit's 1U kindhearted ingredient comprises quite a lot of storage, although it lags behind many of the different servers in this e book on memory. The S7 is not going to ever subsist used as a standard-aim server. but for anybody working Oracle purposes, it is tailor-made. in view that it presents excessive-class enterprise features at a decent fee, Oracle clients are not going to subsist tempted onto different hardware.

    Product description:

    The Oracle S7-2 servers knows its niche and is satisfied in it. as much as 1.7x more advantageous core efficiency than x86 systems capacity that it could actually reduce charges for working Java purposes and Oracle databases. Hardware acceleration of information analytics carry 10x quicker time to insight and allows for upright time in-reminiscence analytics to subsist performed on OLTP databases running Oracle Database 12c.

    The SPARC S7-2 is a 1U server is accessible with either one or two processors, as much as 1 TB of reminiscence, and as much as 9.6 TB of storage. built-in, no-cost virtualization expertise with Oracle VM Server for SPARC and Oracle Solaris Containers is a different plus that improves utilization and reduces operational overhead.

    The server also addresses the commonplace change-off between safety and excessive-efficiency. As such it offers lofty efficiency to these deploying blended workloads. it's according to the SPARC S7 processor, which extends the software in Silicon points of Oracle’s SPARC M7 processor onto scale-out kindhearted elements. The SPARC S7 - 2 server is a 1U system that favors compute density. For those desiring more storage, there is a 2U SPARC S7 - 2L version that presents multifarious storage options, together with a huge set of NVMe drives.

    features:

    variety of processors:

    Up to two

    Processors supported:

    Oracle SPARC S7 processor core handles as much as eight threads the usage of dynamic threading know-how. The processor is designed to maximise effectivity by integrating lots of the hardware interfaces on the processor itself, enabling the server to achieve lofty memory bandwidth and low latency.

    Cores per processor:

    Eight-cores, up to sixty four threads per processor (as much as eight threads per core); four information analytics accelerators per processor, each assisting 4 concurrent in-memory query operations with decompression

    highest processor frequency/cache:

    4.27 GHz

    level 1: 16 KB guideline and sixteen KB data per core

    stage 2: 256 KB per 4 cores

    degree 3: sixteen MB on chip

    I/O growth slots:

    Three low-profile PCIe three.0 x8 slots

    highest memory/# slots/pace:

    512 GB/6 DIMM slots/as much as 2666 Mhz

    highest Persistent memory:

    NA

    Storage controller:

    One 12 Gb/sec SAS-3 controller

    guide:

    Oracle Premier usher comprises 24/7 hardware carrier, professional technical support, proactive equipment, and updates to Oracle Solaris, Oracle VM, and built-in software (corresponding to firmware) for a single fee.

    “Our SPARC servers are essentially the most solid within their infrastructure. effortless implementation of this items and the supports that it offers," referred to a Server Analyst within the communications business.

    “we are satisfied with their SPARC servers and hasten commerce valuable functions on them with lofty availability. did not occupy any problem with infrastructure. it is in fact excellent hardware," spoke of a Senior programs Engineer within the Finance trade.

    Key markets and employ situations:

    web infrastructure, software construction database, commerce functions, and middleware application. and of course, any Oracle commercial enterprise purposes.

    rate:

    $eight,800

    Server

    Oracle SPARC S7

    Max Processor Frequency

    four.27 GHz (varies through level)

    Max Persistent reminiscence

    NA

    kind element

    1 U

    Max Processors

    2 SPARC S7

    Max memory

    1 TB

    Max Storage

    9.6 TB

    rate

    $8,800

    Key Differentiator

    superb for Oracle clients


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    Guide to vendor-specific IT security certifications | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Despite the wide selection of vendor-specific information technology security certifications, identifying which...

    ones best suit your educational or career needs is fairly straightforward.

    This usher to vendor-specific IT security certifications includes an alphabetized table of security certification programs from various vendors, a brief description of each certification and counsel for further details.

    Introduction: Choosing vendor-specific information technology security certifications

    The process of choosing the privilege vendor-specific information technology security certifications is much simpler than choosing vendor-neutral ones. In the vendor-neutral landscape, you must evaluate the pros and cons of various programs to select the best option. On the vendor-specific side, it's only necessary to result these three steps:

  • Inventory your organization's security infrastructure and identify which vendors' products or services are present.
  • Check this usher (or vendor websites, for products not covered here) to determine whether a certification applies to the products or services in your organization.
  • Decide if spending the time and money to obtain such credentials (or to fund them for your employees) is worth the resulting benefits.
  • In an environment where qualified IT security professionals can select from numerous job openings, the benefits of individual training and certifications can subsist arduous to appraise.

    Many employers pay certification costs to develop and retain their employees, as well as to boost the organization's in-house expertise. Most contemplate this as a win-win for employers and employees alike, though employers often require plenary or partial reimbursement for the related costs incurred if employees leave their jobs sooner than some specified payback age after certification.

    There occupy been quite a few changes since the eventual survey update in 2015. The Basic category saw a substantial jump in the number of available IT security certifications due to the addition of several Brainbench certifications, in addition to the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) Cyber Ops certification, the Fortinet Network Security Expert Program and fresh IBM certifications. 

    2017 IT security certification changes

    Certifications from AccessData, Check Point, IBM and Oracle were added to the Intermediate category, increasing the total number of certifications in that category, as well. However, the number of certifications in the Advanced category decreased, due to several IBM certifications being retired. 

    Vendor IT security certifications Basic information technology security certifications 

    Brainbench basic security certificationsBrainbench offers several basic-level information technology security certifications, each requiring the candidate to pass one exam. Brainbench security-related certifications include:

  • Backup Exec 11d (Symantec)
  • Check Point FireWall-1 Administration
  • Check Point Firewall-1 NG Administration
  • Cisco Security
  • Microsoft Security
  • NetBackup 6.5 (Symantec)
  • Source: Brainbench Information Security Administrator certifications

    CCNA Cyber OpsPrerequisites: not a soul required; training is recommended.

    This associate-level certification prepares cybersecurity professionals for labor as cybersecurity analysts responding to security incidents as piece of a security operations headquarters team in a great organization.

    The CCNA Cyber Ops certification requires candidates to pass two written exams.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Cyber Ops

    CCNA SecurityPrerequisites: A cogent Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching, Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician or Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification.

    This credential validates that associate-level professionals are able to install, troubleshoot and monitor Cisco-routed and switched network devices for the purpose of protecting both the devices and networked data.

    A person with a CCNA Security certification can subsist expected to understand core security concepts, endpoint security, web and email content security, the management of secure access, and more. He should also subsist able to demonstrate skills for edifice a security infrastructure, identifying threats and vulnerabilities to networks, and mitigating security threats. CCNA credential holders also possess the technical skills and expertise necessary to manage protection mechanisms such as firewalls and intrusion prevention systems, network access, endpoint security solutions, and web and email security.

    The successful completion of one exam is required to obtain this credential.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Security

    Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80Prerequisites: Basic erudition of networking; CCSA training and six months to one year of suffer with Check Point products are recommended.

    Check Point's foundation-level credential prepares individuals to install, configure and manage Check Point security system products and technologies, such as security gateways, firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs). Credential holders also possess the skills necessary to secure network and internet communications, upgrade products, troubleshoot network connections, configure security policies, protect email and message content, protect networks from intrusions and other threats, analyze attacks, manage user access in a corporate LAN environment, and configure tunnels for remote access to corporate resources.

    Candidates must pass a single exam to obtain this credential.

    Source: Check Point CCSA Certification

    IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0Prerequisites: IBM suggests that candidates subsist highly close with the IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 console. They should occupy suffer taking actions; activating analyses; and using Fixlets, tasks and baselines in the environment. They should also understand patching, component services, client log files and troubleshooting within IBM Endpoint Manager.

    This credential recognizes professionals who employ IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 daily. Candidates for this certification should know the key concepts of Endpoint Manager, subsist able to picture the system's components and subsist able to employ the console to accomplish routine tasks.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Editor's note: IBM is retiring this certification as of May 31, 2017; there will subsist a follow-on test available as of April 2017 for IBM BigFix Compliance V9.5 Fundamental Administration, Test C2150-627.

    Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0

    IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud ProtectionPrerequisites: IBM recommends that candidates occupy suffer with network data communications, network security, and the Windows and Mac operating systems.

    This credential pertains mainly to sales engineers who advocate the Trusteer Fraud product portfolio for web fraud management, and who can implement a Trusteer Fraud solution. Candidates must understand Trusteer product functionality, know how to deploy the product, and subsist able to troubleshoot the product and analyze the results.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud Protection

    McAfee Product SpecialistPrerequisites: not a soul required; completion of an associated training course is highly recommended.

    McAfee information technology security certification holders possess the erudition and technical skills necessary to install, configure, manage and troubleshoot specific McAfee products, or, in some cases, a suite of products.

    Candidates should possess one to three years of direct suffer with one of the specific product areas.

    The current products targeted by this credential include:

  • McAfee Advanced Threat Defense products
  • McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator and VirusScan products
  • McAfee Network Security Platform
  • McAfee Host Intrusion Prevention
  • McAfee Data Loss Prevention Endpoint products
  • McAfee Security Information and Event Management products
  • All credentials require passing one exam.

    Source: McAfee Certification Program

    Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA)Prerequisites: None; training recommended.

    This credential started as an academic-only credential for students, but Microsoft made it available to the general public in 2012.

    There are 10 different MTA credentials across three tracks (IT Infrastructure with five certs, Database with one and evolution with four). The IT Infrastructure track includes a Security Fundamentals credential, and some of the other credentials comprehend security components or topic areas.

    To win each MTA certification, candidates must pass the corresponding exam. 

    Source: Microsoft MTA Certifications

    Fortinet Network Security Expert (NSE)Prerequisites: Vary by credential.

    The Fortinet NSE program has eight levels, each of which corresponds to a separate network security credential within the program. The credentials are:

  • NSE 1 -- Understand network security concepts.
  • NSE 2 -- Sell Fortinet gateway solutions.
  • NSE 3 (Associate) -- Sell Fortinet advanced security solutions.
  • NSE 4 (Professional) -- Configure and maintain FortiGate Unified Threat Management products.
  • NSE 5 (Analyst) -- Implement network security management and analytics.
  • NSE 6 (Specialist) – Understand advanced security technologies beyond the firewall.
  • NSE 7 (Troubleshooter) -- Troubleshoot internet security issues.
  • NSE 8 (Expert) -- Design, configure, install and troubleshoot a network security solution in a live environment.
  • NSE 1 is open to anyone, but is not required. The NSE 2 and NSE 3 information technology security certifications are available only to Fortinet employees and partners. Candidates for NSE 4 through NSE 8 should recall the exams through Pearson VUE.

    Source: Fortinet NSE

    Symantec Certified Specialist (SCS)This security certification program focuses on data protection, lofty availability and security skills involving Symantec products.

    To become an SCS, candidates must select an zone of focus and pass an exam. entire the exams cover core elements, such as installation, configuration, product administration, day-to-day operation and troubleshooting for the selected focus area.

    As of this writing, the following exams are available:

  • Exam 250-215: Administration of Symantec Messaging Gateway 10.5
  • Exam 250-410: Administration of Symantec Control Compliance Suite 11.x
  • Exam 250-420: Administration of Symantec VIP
  • Exam 250-423: Administration of Symantec IT Management Suite 8.0
  • Exam 250-424: Administration of Data Loss Prevention 14.5
  • Exam 250-425: Administration of Symantec Cyber Security Services
  • Exam 250-426: Administration of Symantec Data headquarters Security -- Server Advanced 6.7
  • Exam 250-427: Administration of Symantec Advanced Threat Protection 2.0.2
  • Exam 250-428: Administration of Symantec Endpoint Protection 14
  • Exam 250-513: Administration of Symantec Data Loss Prevention 12
  • Source: Symantec Certification

    Intermediate information technology security certifications 

    AccessData Certified Examiner (ACE)Prerequisites: not a soul required; the AccessData BootCamp and Advanced Forensic Toolkit (FTK) courses are recommended.

    This credential recognizes a professional's proficiency using AccessData's FTK, FTK Imager, Registry Viewer and Password Recovery Toolkit. However, candidates for the certification must also occupy qualify digital forensic erudition and subsist able to interpret results gathered from AccessData tools.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one online exam (which is free). Although a boot camp and advanced courses are available for a fee, AccessData provides a set of free exam preparation videos to attend candidates who prefer to self-study.

    The certification is cogent for two years, after which credential holders must recall the current exam to maintain their certification.

    Source: Syntricate ACE Training

    Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) Security Prerequisites: CCNA Security or any CCIE certification.

    This Cisco credential recognizes professionals who are answerable for router, switch, networking device and appliance security. Candidates must also know how to select, deploy, advocate and troubleshoot firewalls, VPNs and intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system products in a networking environment.

    Successful completion of four exams is required.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNP Security

    Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE)Prerequisite: CCSA certification R70 or later.

    This is an intermediate-level credential for security professionals seeking to demonstrate skills at maximizing the performance of security networks.

    A CCSE demonstrates a erudition of strategies and advanced troubleshooting for Check Point's GAiA operating system, including installing and managing VPN implementations, advanced user management and firewall concepts, policies, and backing up and migrating security gateway and management servers, among other tasks. The CCSE focuses on Check Point's VPN, Security Gateway and Management Server systems.

    To acquire this credential, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: Check Point CCSE program

    Cisco Cybersecurity SpecialistPrerequisites: not a soul required; CCNA Security certification and an understanding of TCP/IP are strongly recommended.

    This Cisco credential targets IT security professionals who possess in-depth technical skills and erudition in the field of threat detection and mitigation. The certification focuses on areas such as event monitoring, event analysis (traffic, alarm, security events) and incident response.

    One exam is required.

    Source: Cisco Systems Cybersecurity Specialist

    Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)Prerequisites: not a soul required; training is recommended.

    The CSSA exam covers basic administration of SonicWall appliances and the network and system security behind such appliances.

    Classroom training is available, but not required to win the CSSA. Candidates must pass one exam to become certified.

    Source: SonicWall Certification programs

    EnCase Certified Examiner (EnCE)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend 64 hours of authorized training or occupy 12 months of computer forensic labor experience. Completion of a formal application process is also required.

    Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the employ of Guidance Software's EnCase computer forensics tools and software.

    Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a practical component.

    Source: Guidance Software EnCE

    EnCase Certified eDiscovery Practitioner (EnCEP)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend one of two authorized training courses and occupy three months of suffer in eDiscovery collection, processing and project management. A formal application process is also required.

    Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the employ of Guidance Software's EnCase eDiscovery software, and it recognizes their proficiency in eDiscovery planning, project management and best practices, from legal hold to file creation.

    EnCEP-certified professionals possess the technical skills necessary to manage e-discovery, including the search, collection, preservation and processing of electronically stored information in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

    Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a scenario component.

    Source: Guidance Software EnCEP Certification Program

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium V10.0Prerequisites: IBM recommends basic erudition of operating systems and databases, hardware or virtual machines, networking and protocols, auditing and compliance, and information security guidelines.

    IBM Security Guardium is a suite of protection and monitoring tools designed to protect databases and Big data sets. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium credential is aimed at administrators who plan, install, configure and manage Guardium implementations. This may comprehend monitoring the environment, including data; defining policy rules; and generating reports.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: IBM Security Guardium Certification

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6Prerequisites: IBM recommends a working erudition of IBM Security QRadar SIEM Administration and IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager, as well as general erudition of networking, risk management, system administration and network topology.

    QRadar Risk Manager automates the risk management process in enterprises by monitoring network device configurations and compliance. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6 credential certifies administrators who employ QRadar to manage security risks in their organization. Certification candidates must know how to review device configurations, manage devices, monitor policies, schedule tasks and generate reports.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager Certification

    IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1Prerequisites: IBM recommends a basic erudition of the IBM Security Network Intrusion Prevention System (GX) V4.6.2, IBM Security Network Protection (XGS) V5.3.1, Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Server operating system administration and network security.

    The Security SiteProtector System enables organizations to centrally manage their network, server and endpoint security agents and appliances. The IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1 credential is designed to certify security analysts who employ the SiteProtector System to monitor and manage events, monitor system health, optimize SiteProtector and generate reports.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Security SiteProtector Certification

    Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Certified Security AdministratorPrerequisite: Oracle Certified Professional, Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator.

    This credential aims to certify experienced Solaris 10 administrators with security interest and experience. It's a midrange credential that focuses on general security principles and features, installing systems securely, application and network security, principle of least privilege, cryptographic features, auditing, and zone security.

    A single exam -- geared toward the Solaris 10 operating system or the OpenSolaris environment -- is required to obtain this credential.

    Source: Oracle Solaris Certification

    Oracle Mobile SecurityPrerequisites: Oracle recommends that candidates understand enterprise mobility, mobile application management and mobile device management; occupy two years of suffer implementing Oracle Access Management Suite Plus 11g; and occupy suffer in at least one other Oracle product family.

    This credential recognizes professionals who create configuration designs and implement the Oracle Mobile Security Suite. Candidates must occupy a working erudition of Oracle Mobile Security Suite Access Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Administrative Console, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Notification Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Containerization and Oracle Mobile Security Suite Provisioning and Policies. They must also know how to deploy the Oracle Mobile Security Suite.

    Although the certification is designed for Oracle PartnerNetwork members, it is available to any candidate. Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: Oracle Mobile Security Certification

    RSA Archer Certified Administrator (CA)Prerequisites: not a soul required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product suffer as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, administer, maintain and troubleshoot the RSA Archer Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) platform.

    Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on integration and configuration management, security administration, and the data presentation and communication features of the RSA Archer GRC product.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Archer Certification

    RSA SecurID Certified Administrator (RSA Authentication Manager 8.0)Prerequisites: not a soul required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product suffer as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, maintain and administer enterprise security systems based on RSA SecurID system products and RSA Authentication Manager 8.0.

    RSA SecurID CAs can operate and maintain RSA SecurID components within the context of their operational systems and environments; troubleshoot security and implementation problems; and labor with updates, patches and fixes. They can also accomplish administrative functions and populate and manage users, set up and employ software authenticators, and understand the configuration required for RSA Authentication Manager 8.0 system operations.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Authentication Manager Certification

    RSA Security Analytics CAPrerequisites: not a soul required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product suffer as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    This Dell EMC certification is aimed at security professionals who configure, manage, administer and troubleshoot the RSA Security Analytics product. erudition of the product's features, as well the capacity to employ the product to identify security concerns, are required.

    Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on RSA Security Analytics functions and capabilities, configuration, management, monitoring and troubleshooting.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Security Analytics

    Advanced information technology security certifications 

    CCIE SecurityPrerequisites: not a soul required; three to five years of professional working suffer recommended.

    Arguably one of the most coveted certifications around, the CCIE is in a league of its own. Having been around since 2002, the CCIE Security track is unrivaled for those interested in dealing with information security topics, tools and technologies in networks built using or around Cisco products and platforms.

    The CCIE certifies that candidates possess expert technical skills and erudition of security and VPN products; an understanding of Windows, Unix, Linux, network protocols and domain designation systems; an understanding of identity management; an in-depth understanding of Layer 2 and 3 network infrastructures; and the capacity to configure end-to-end secure networks, as well as to accomplish troubleshooting and threat mitigation.

    To achieve this certification, candidates must pass both a written and lab exam. The lab exam must subsist passed within 18 months of the successful completion of the written exam.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCIE Security Certification

    Check Point Certified Managed Security Expert (CCMSE)Prerequisites: CCSE certification R75 or later and 6 months to 1 year of suffer with Check Point products.

    This advanced-level credential is aimed at those seeking to learn how to install, configure and troubleshoot Check Point's Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension.

    Professionals are expected to know how to migrate physical firewalls to a virtualized environment, install and manage an MDM environment, configure lofty availability, implement global policies and accomplish troubleshooting.

    Source: Check Point CCMSE

    Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM)Prerequisites: CCSE R70 or later and suffer with Windows Server, Unix, TCP/IP, and networking and internet technologies.

    The CCSM is the most advanced Check Point certification available. This credential is aimed at security professionals who implement, manage and troubleshoot Check Point security products. Candidates are expected to subsist experts in perimeter, internal, web and endpoint security systems.

    To acquire this credential, candidates must pass a written exam.

    Source: Check Point CCSM Certification

    Certified SonicWall Security Professional (CCSP)Prerequisites: Attendance at an advanced administration training course.

    Those who achieve this certification occupy attained a lofty flat of mastery of SonicWall products. In addition, credential holders should subsist able to deploy, optimize and troubleshoot entire the associated product features.

    Earning a CSSP requires taking an advanced administration course that focuses on either network security or secure mobile access, and passing the associated certification exam.

    Source: SonicWall CSSP certification

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Tivoli Monitoring V6.3Prerequisites: Security-related requirements comprehend basic erudition of SSL, data encryption and system user accounts.

    Those who attain this certification are expected to subsist capable of planning, installing, configuring, upgrading and customizing workspaces, policies and more. In addition, credential holders should subsist able to troubleshoot, administer and maintain an IBM Tivoli Monitoring V6.3 environment.

    Candidates must successfully pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Tivoli Certified Administrator

    Master Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)The Master CSSA is an intermediate between the base-level CSSA credential (itself an intermediate certification) and the CSSP.

    To qualify for Master CSSA, candidates must pass three (or more) CSSA exams, and then email training@sonicwall.com to request the designation. There are no other charges or requirements involved.

    Source: SonicWall Master CSSA

    Conclusion 

    Remember, when it comes to selecting vendor-specific information technology security certifications, your organization's existing or planned security product purchases should prescribe your options. If your security infrastructure includes products from vendors not mentioned here, subsist confident to check with them to determine if training or certifications on such products are available.

    About the author:Ed Tittel is a 30-plus year IT veteran who's worked as a developer, networking consultant, technical trainer, writer and expert witness. Perhaps best known for creating the Exam Cram series, Ed has contributed to more than 100 books on many computing topics, including titles on information security, Windows OSes and HTML. Ed also blogs regularly for TechTarget (Windows Enterprise Desktop), Tom's IT Pro and GoCertify.


    Creating fresh Resource Types | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    As described in the section "Data Service and Application Agents" in Chapter 2, "Oracle Solaris Cluster: Features and Architecture," Oracle has a substantial list of supported agents that cover most of the applications in your data center. These application agents are maintained by Oracle and are extensively tested on each fresh release of both the Solaris Cluster software and the application itself. Even so, inevitably you will occupy an application that is not piece of the existing agent portfolio.

    Application Suitability

    Before creating a resource sort for your application, you must determine whether the application meets the criteria for being made highly available. The following list highlights the main points you must consider. For a complete list contemplate "Analyzing the Application for Suitability" in [SCDevGuide].

  • Is your application crash-tolerant? This is valuable because in a highly available environment your application must subsist able to retrieve its data consistency without requiring manual intervention. If the application did require such intervention, then most of the benefits of a high-availability framework would subsist lost.
  • Does your application reckon on the physical node designation of the machine, such as that resulting from calls to uname, gethostbyname, or equivalent interfaces? If so, then when the application moves to another cluster node, the dependency on the physical hostname will probably reason the application to fail. There is a work-around to this problem, which is to interpose the libschost.so.1 library. However, this work-around can sometimes raise advocate issues with application vendors.
  • Can your application hasten on a multihomed system, that is, one with several public networks? Your application must subsist able to manipulate situations where IP addresses are configured and unconfigured from network adapters as services saunter around the cluster. This has consequences for the passage your application binds to the network.
  • Does your application employ hard-coded path names for the location of its data? If so, then symbolic links might not subsist adequate to ensure that the data is stored in a location that is compatible with using a failover or global file system. If the application renames a data file, it can demolish the symbolic links.
  • After you occupy determined that your application is suitable for being made highly available, you occupy several ways to achieve the necessary integration:

  • You can employ the Generic Data Service (GDS) directly and just supply the required parameters. Although you cannot define any fresh extension properties for the resource sort you create, it is by far the simplest option.
  • You can create a subclass of the GDS to create a completely fresh resource type. This option enables you to define one or more extension properties for your fresh resource type. This option is relatively simple and yet provides considerable flexibility.
  • You can extend the GDS using the Advanced Agent Toolkit. Although this option does not create a fresh resource type, it does enable you to define one or more extension properties. This option is also relatively simple and provides considerable flexibility.
  • You can employ the GUI scdsbuilder appliance and customize the resulting shell script or C source using the Resource Management API (RMAPI) and the Data Service evolution Library (DSDL) APIs. If significant customization labor is needed, this option might result in an increased maintenance burden.
  • You can employ the RMAPI or DSDL APIs directly to develop your resource sort from scratch. This option trades the evolution and maintenance costs for ultimate flexibility and performance.
  • Each option is discussed in more detail in the following sections.

    Generic Data Service

    The Generic Data Service (GDS) is provided with the Solaris Cluster software. The SUNW.gds agent is packaged in the SUNWscgds package, which is installed as touchstone by the Solaris Cluster software installer program. The SUNW.gds agent is considered the preferred passage to create both failover and scalable resources. The GDS is supported by Oracle, but you must advocate the script that you provide for the Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command methods.

    By default, the SUNW.gds resource sort is not registered, so you must register it before attempting to create a resource of that type. The commands in the following specimen present how to determine if the resource sort is registered and then how to register it, if it is not already present.

    Example 4.13. Registering the SUNW.gds Resource Type

    Use the clresourcetype command to determine whether the SUNW.gds resource sort needs to subsist registered.

    # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds # clresourcetype register SUNW.gds # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds SUNW.gds:6

    In addition to the touchstone resource properties, the GDS agent has four properties to enable you to integrate your application: Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command. These properties are described in "Integrating Your Application-Specific Logic." By using the GDS as the basis for your application, you automatically benefit from entire the patches and feature upgrades that the GDS receives.

    Example 4.14 shows how you can employ the GDS to fabricate the X11 program xeyes highly available. You launch by creating a Start_command program. In this example, a script calls the plenary path designation of the program with a parameter that is passed to the shell script. This script must exist on entire the cluster nodes on which the application is intended to run.

    Next, having checked that the SUNW.gds resource sort is registered, you create the resource group. In this example, you allow the resource group's node list to default to entire the cluster nodes.

    Next, you create a resource to depict your program. In the example, the Start_command property is specified by the script you wrote (and which must exist on entire nodes). The panoply parameter to employ is also specified. Because this program does not listen on any network ports, you set the network_aware property to false. This means that the probe mechanism used will subsist the continued being of the xeyes process that the Start_command program leaves running in the background. By default, any resource you create is enabled so that when the resource group is brought online, the resource is automatically started. To change the default, you can specify the -d dispute to the clresource create command.

    The eventual two steps instruct the RGM that it needs to control or manage the xeyes-rg resource group and then to bring that resource group online. The action of bringing the resource group online starts the resource because it was created in an enabled state.

    Assuming you occupy allowed remote X11 clients to panoply on your X server using xhost and you occupy specified the correct X panoply to employ (substitute a value suited to your environment for myhost:1.0), then the xeyes program will issue on your display. You can switch the resource group between nodes and the RGM will murder the xeyes process and restart it on the fresh node, phys-summer2, as the specimen shows.

    Example 4.14. Creating a Simple, Highly Available xeyes Service

    List the script that will subsist used to start the xeyes command.

    # cat /tmp/start_xeyes #!/bin/ksh /usr/openwin/demo/xeyes -display $1 & exit 0

    Check that the SUNW.gds resource sort is registered, and then create the resource group and resource that will control the xeyes service.

    # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds SUNW.gds:6 # clresourcegroup create xeyes-rg # clresource create -t SUNW.gds > -p start_command="/tmp/start_xeyes myhost:1.0" > -p network_aware=false > -g xeyes-rg xeyes-rs

    Use the clresourcegroup command to bring the xeyes-rg resource group online.

    # clresourcegroup manage xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup online xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup status xeyes-rg === Cluster Resource Groups === Group designation Node designation Suspended Status ---------- --------- --------- ------ xeyes-rg phys-summer1 No Online phys-summer2 No Offline # clresourcegroup switch -n phys-summer2 xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup status xeyes-rg === Cluster Resource Groups === Group designation Node designation Suspended Status ---------- --------- --------- ------ xeyes-rg phys-summer1 No Offline phys-summer2 No Online

    To demonstrate how the GDS handles application failure, quit the xeyes program from your X display. You will notice that the RGM restarts the application almost instantaneously. The messages in /var/adm/messages (see specimen 4.15) bespeak that the RGM recognized the failure and restarted the service.

    After the weakness probe determines that the service is online, indicated by Service is online in /var/adm/messages, murder the process again. The resource has two properties that determine how many times it is restarted by the RGM within a certain time period. These properties are Retry_count and Retry_interval (see specimen 4.16). After the specified number of failures, the built-in logic of the GDS determines that the current node is unhealthy and releases the service so that it can subsist started on another node. If the service also experiences problems on this node, then the RGM will not fail the service back to its original node unless the time period, in seconds, as defined by the resource group's Pingpong_interval property, has passed. Instead, the GDS attempts to advocate the service running on the remaining node. This conduct is governed by another property called Failover_mode.

    The purpose of the Pingpong_interval property is to prevent a service that fails to start from endlessly looping, resulting in the service migrating back and forth between cluster nodes. In a test environment, you might necessity to reset the value of Pingpong_interval to a lower value. Doing so enables you to restart your service once you occupy corrected any problems you encountered.

    Example 4.15. Sample RGM Messages

    The /var/adm/messages file contains information on the situation changes of the resource groups and resources in the cluster.

    Nov 23 04:00:23 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 529407 daemon.notice] resource group xeyes-rg situation on node phys-summer2 change to RG_ONLINE Nov 23 04:01:23 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 922363 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status msg on node phys-summer2 change to <Service is online.> Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.PMF.pmfd: [ID 887656 daemon.notice] Process: tag="xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,0.svc", cmd="/bin/sh -c /tmp/start_xeyes myhost:1.0", Failed to stay up. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 784560 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status on node phys-summer2 change to R_FM_FAULTED Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 922363 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status msg on node phys-summer2 change to <Service daemon not running.> Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 423137 daemon.error] A resource restart attempt on resource xeyes-rs in resource group xeyes-rg has been blocked because the number of restarts within the past Retry_ interval (370 seconds) would exceed Retry_count (2) Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 874133 daemon.notice] Issuing a failover request because the application exited. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 494478 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs in resource group xeyes-rg has requested failover of the resource group on phys-summer2. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 423291 daemon.error] RGM isn't failing resource group <xeyes-rg> off of node <phys-summer2>, because there are no other current or potential masters Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.RGM.global.rgmd: [ID 702911 daemon.error] Resource <xeyes-rs> of Resource Group <xeyes-rg> failed pingpong check on node <phys- summer1>. The resource group will not subsist mastered by that node. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 969827 daemon.error] Failover attempt has failed. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 670283 daemon.notice] Issuing a resource restart request because the application exited. Example 4.16. Retry, Failover Mode, and Ping-pong Interval Properties

    Use the clresource command to determine the property values of the xeyes-rs resource.

    # clresource present > -p retry_count,retry_interval,failover_mode xeyes-rs === Resources === Resource: xeyes-rs --- touchstone and extension properties --- Retry_interval: 370 Class: standard Description: Time in which monitor attempts to restart a failed resource Retry_count times. Type: int Retry_count: 2 Class: standard Description: Indicates the number of times a monitor restarts the resource if it fails. Type: int Failover_mode: SOFT Class: standard Description: Modifies recovery actions taken when the resource fails. Type: enum # clresourcegroup present -p pingpong_interval xeyes-rg === Resource Groups and Resources === Resource Group: xeyes-rg Pingpong_interval: 3600

    In the preceding example, the panoply variable property can subsist changed only by stopping the resource and modifying the Start_command property. Although of diminutive consequence here, because the xeyes program must subsist restarted to change the target X server on which it displays, it does fabricate a dissimilarity in instances where a variable can subsist changed while a service is running. Examples comprehend changing debugging levels to employ and changing directories for log files.

    To create a resource sort that has fresh extension properties that can subsist changed when you necessity to change them, you necessity to either write your resource sort from scratch or create a subclass of the GDS, as described in a later section.

    Supporting fresh Applications Using the Advanced Agent Toolkit

    Many application agents in the current Solaris Cluster software release are derived from the Advanced Agent Toolkit methodology [AdvGDSTlkit]: HA-PostgreSQL, HA-MySQL, and HA containers, to designation three. entire three employ the SUNW.gds agent as their basis. However, in its raw form, the SUNW.gds agent has some limitations.

    The rationale behind the toolkit is that entire fresh application agents occupy many common requirements:

  • They might require one or more extension properties.
  • They must provide debugging information.
  • They might necessity to disable the process-monitoring facility (pmfadm) for applications that leave no obvious child processes to monitor.
  • They must supply a Start_command script, as a minimum, and possibly Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command scripts.
  • The toolkit also simplifies much of the labor needed to manipulate Oracle Solaris Zones and SMF. Thus, providing this extended framework enables your developers to focus on the application-specific integration labor rather than on debugging the framework itself. After the labor is complete, the fresh resource sort is registered using a registration script.

    Developing Resource Types by Creating a Subclass of the GDS

    The handicap of creating a subclass of the GDS, rather than writing a fresh resource sort from scratch, is that the fresh resource sort inherits entire the best practices that are already piece of the touchstone GDS code. In addition, creating a subclass of the GDS enables you to create your own resource sort extension properties while retaining the identical flat of flexibility as if you had started from scratch. Finally, your fresh resource type, which is a subclass of the GDS, has a several name, enabling you to easily distinguish resources of the fresh resource type. If you instead used the Advanced Agent Toolkit or the SUNW.gds agent, then you would occupy to determine what the resource is by examining the extension properties or reviewing the code. This step would subsist necessary because the resource sort would subsist set to SUNW.gds, rather than MYCORP.appsvr, for example.

    You create a subclass of the GDS by creating a resource sort registration (RTR) file where the RT_basedir parameter is set to the directory containing binaries used by the touchstone GDS methods: Start, Stop, Validate, and so on. You then extend the RTR file by defining your own resource sort extension properties. Finally, you set the manner parameters in the RTR file to point to your scripts that override the touchstone GDS behavior.

    Several existing Sun resource types are implemented this way, including the HA-Logical Domain agent (SUNW.ldom), which was covered in the section "Failover Guest Domains" in Chapter 3, "Combining Virtualization Technologies with Oracle Solaris Cluster Software."

    The RTR file for the SUNW.ldom resource sort is shown in specimen 4.17. In this RTR file, the RT_basedir parameter is set to the touchstone directory for the GDS package, that is, /opt/SUNWscgds/bin. Of the touchstone methods, only Init, Boot, and Validate occupy been overridden using programs that are located in the ../../SUNWscxvm/bin directory. Unlike a touchstone GDS resource type, the Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command properties are assigned fixed values and cannot subsist changed. This is indicated by the Tunable = not a soul settings. Furthermore, each command, apart from validate_command, is called with a consistent set of arguments, namely, -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME. The %variable construct is similar to the $variable syntax institute in shell scripts. It means that when a resource of this sort is instantiated, employ the names you assigned it as arguments. For example, if you wrote a resource sort called FOO.bar and then created a resource group called whizz-rg containing a resource called bang-rs of this type, the dispute passed would subsist -R bang-rs -T FOO.bar -G whizz-rg. With these arguments, you can then fabricate calls to the RMAPI or DSDL APIs to retrieve or set properties.

    In contrast to the Start_command, Stop_command, and Probe_command properties, the Validate_command property does not employ this construct. Instead, the RGM passes the validate command entire the properties listed for the resource sort on the command line. Then the validate command parses this list and determines whether the configuration is valid.

    Example 4.17. RTR File for the SUNW.ldom Resource Type

    The following text shows some of the key parts of the RTR file for the SUNW.ldom resource type:

    . . . RESOURCE_TYPE = "ldom"; VENDOR_ID = SUNW; RT_DESCRIPTION = "Sun Cluster HA for xVM Server SPARC Guest Domains"; RT_version ="1"; API_version = 10; RT_basedir=/opt/SUNWscgds/bin; Init = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/init_xvm; Boot = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/boot_xvm; Start = gds_svc_start; Stop = gds_svc_stop; Validate = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/validate_xvm; Update = gds_update; Monitor_start = gds_monitor_start; Monitor_stop = gds_monitor_stop; Monitor_check = gds_monitor_check; Init_nodes = RG_PRIMARIES; Failover = FALSE; # The paramtable is a list of bracketed resource property declarations # that near after the resource-type declarations # The property-name declaration must subsist the first attribute # after the open curly of a paramtable entry # # The following are the system defined properties. Each of the system defined # properties occupy a default value set for each of the attributes. leer at # man rt_reg(4) for a particular explanation. # { PROPERTY = Start_timeout; MIN = 60; DEFAULT = 300; } { PROPERTY = Stop_timeout; MIN = 60; DEFAULT = 300; } . . . # This is an optional property. Any value provided will subsist used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to validate the application. # If no value is provided, The validation will subsist skipped. # { PROPERTY = Validate_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to validate the application"; } # This property must subsist specified, since this is the only mechanism # that indicates how to start the application. Since a value must # subsist provided, there is no default. The value must subsist an absolute path. { PROPERTY = Start_command; EXTENSION; STRINGARRAY; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm start -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to start application"; } # This is an optional property. Any value provided will subsist used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to discontinue the application. # If no value is provided, signals will subsist used to discontinue the application. # # It is assumed that Stop_command will not recur until the # application has been stopped. { PROPERTY = Stop_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm discontinue -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to discontinue application"; } # This is an optional property. Any value provided will subsist used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to probe the application. # If no value is provided, the "simple_probe" will subsist used to probe # the application. # { PROPERTY = Probe_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm probe -R %RS_NAME -G %RG_NAME -T %RT_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to probe application"; } # This is an optional property. It determines whether the application # uses network to communicate with its clients. # { PROPERTY = Network_aware; EXTENSION; BOOLEAN; DEFAULT = FALSE; TUNABLE = AT_CREATION; DESCRIPTION = "Determines whether the application uses network"; } # This is an optional property, which determines the signal sent to the # application for being stopped. # { PROPERTY = Stop_signal; EXTENSION; INT; MIN = 1; MAX = 37; DEFAULT = 15; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "The signal sent to the application for being stopped"; } # This is an optional property, which determines whether to failover when # retry_count is exceeded during retry_interval. # { PROPERTY = Failover_enabled; EXTENSION; BOOLEAN; DEFAULT = TRUE; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "Determines whether to failover when retry_count is exceeded during retry_interval"; } # This is an optional property that specifies the log flat GDS events. # { PROPERTY = Log_level; EXTENSION; ENUM { NONE, INFO, ERR }; DEFAULT = "INFO"; TUNABLE = ANYTIME; DESCRIPTION = "Determines the log flat for event based traces"; } { Property = Debug_level; Extension; Per_node; Int; Min = 0; Max = 2; Default = 0; Tunable = ANYTIME; Description = "Debug level"; } { Property = Domain_name; Extension; String; Minlength = 1; Tunable = WHEN_DISABLED; Description = "LDoms Guest Domain name"; } { Property = Migration_type; Extension; Enum { NORMAL, MIGRATE }; Default = "MIGRATE"; Tunable = ANYTIME; Description = "Type of guest domain migration to subsist performed"; } { PROPERTY = Plugin_probe; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = ANYTIME; DESCRIPTION = "Script or command to check the guest domain"; } { PROPERTY = Password_file; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "The complete path to the file containing the target host password"; } scdsbuilder GUI

    To customize an agent beyond what is permitted by the GDS, you can employ the Agent Builder command, scdsbuilder (see the scdsbuilder(1HA) man page). This command has three code generation options, and the resulting files are wrapped in a Solaris package that you can install on your cluster nodes:

  • DSDL code (see the section "Data Service evolution Library").
  • ksh code, including entire the necessary scha_control commands (see the section "Resource Management API"). With the ksh code, you are creating your own resource type.
  • A ksh registration script for a GDS agent. Here, the code generates the confiscate clresource create command.
  • You can customize the resulting code to your specific needs. However, with the ksh registration script for the GDS agent, the scope for modification is limited. The specimen in figure 4.7 shows the employ of the third option.

    Figure 4.7

    Figure 4.7 Using the scdsbuilder GUI to create a fresh resource type

    The scdsbuilder command starts the Solaris Cluster Agent Builder GUI, as shown in figure 4.7. In this example, data has already been specified for each field available to the user. A short code of SUNW is specified for the vendor name, and tstgds is specified for the application name. This data is then used to generate both the designation of the package that Agent Builder creates for you and the designation of the resource sort that you will subsequently use.

    The information you provide in the other fields is used as follows:

  • The RT version enables you to specify a version number for this resource type. You can identify which version of the agent you are running when it is placed into production.
  • The working directory is used by Agent Builder as a working zone in which it can create your package and write other associated, intermediate files.
  • Your target application determines whether you select the scalable or failover option. If a particular instance of an application can hasten on multiple nodes at once without corrupting any of its data files, then you can select the scalable option. A excellent specimen of such an application is a web server. For entire other applications, such as databases and file services, select the failover option.
  • The Network conscious check box is used to determine whether any resource created using this resource sort needs to occupy the port_list property set. The port_list property is then used by the GDS service to provide a simple probe mechanism.
  • The source sort option determines whether the resulting code uses the C programming language, ksh, or the GDS (see the section "SUNW.gds" in Chapter 2, "Oracle Solaris Cluster: Features and Architecture") to create the data service. To employ the C option, you must occupy a C compiler installed on your system.
  • After you occupy entered the data and clicked on the Next button, you are presented with the screen shown in figure 4.8.

    Figure 4.8

    Figure 4.8 Completing the resource sort definition using scdsbuilder

    Integrating Your Application-Specific Logic

    You employ the fields in this second screen to provide the location of the programs (which can subsist compiled executables or scripts) and their associated arguments that will subsist used to start, stop, probe, and validate your data service when it is installed on the target cluster nodes. For each program, you can set a time confine on how long it can recall for the program to complete. If the program does not complete within the allocated time period, then the resource is placed into a failed state, such as STOP_FAILED.

    You are required to provide a value only for the start program. entire the other programs are optional. Any programs specified must exit with a recur code of zero only when they occupy successfully completed their work. If they fail to accomplish their allotted task, they must recur a value greater than 100. Values below that are used by the Solaris Cluster commands and occupy specific meanings (see the intro(1CL) man page).

    The programs you apportion to the start and discontinue commands must recur successfully only when your target application has actually completed the material operation. If the discontinue command leaves the application under its control running, or not completely stopped, but the discontinue command returns successfully, then the cluster framework erroneously determines that it is safe to start the resource group on another cluster node. In some instances, particularly when the application uses a global file system, this outcome could result in data corruption because the two instances of the application could write to their data files in an uncontrolled fashion.

    If no discontinue command is provided, the process tree that results from the start command is terminated using the murder command.

    The validate command enables you to check that your application is correctly configured on entire the potential nodes on which it can run. Again, if the program determines that your application is misconfigured, the validate program must exit with a nonzero exit code.

    The capability to incorporate a probe command is one of the key benefits of using the Solaris Cluster framework. A probe command enables you to write a program that determines the health of your application. As an example, if you are writing a probe for a database, you could test whether it can execute basic SQL statements, such as creating or deleting a table, or adding or deleting a record. If you accomplish not provide a probe script, then default methods are used instead.

    For non-network-aware applications, the process-monitoring command pmfadm (see the pmfadm(1M) man page) monitors the process tree spawned by your start command. Only if entire the processes occupy failed will the cluster framework attempt to restart the service. Therefore, if your service consists of multiple processes and only one process fails, then pmfadm will not recognize this weakness unless it causes entire the other processes to fail as well. Consequently, if you necessity to monitor your application with a higher degree of granularity, you must provide a custom weakness probe.

    If the application is network-aware, then the default probe tries to open the port listed in the port_list property. Because this is a simple probe, it makes no attempt to retrieve any data. Even if the default probe successfully opens the ports, that does not necessarily bespeak overall application health.

    In the preceding example, you would install the package generated by scdsbuilder on entire your cluster nodes. You would then register the fresh resource sort so that you could create fresh resources of this type. When the RGM is requested to create a resource, it calls the validate command: /usr/local/bin/my_validate -o some_param. If that command succeeds and you enable the resource, the RGM calls the /usr/local/bin/my_start -r foo-rs -g bar-rg command. In both cases, the initial arguments are fixed, but you can modify them subsequently using the clresource command.

    Resource sort Registration File

    If you determine to write an agent from scratch using either the RMAPI or DSDL APIs, you must first picture the properties of your proposed resource sort in a file known as the resource sort registration (RTR) file. This file provides the RGM with details on which programs to convene and which variables are required to control the particular application.

    Example 4.18 shows an extract from the SUNW.LogicalHostname RTR file. As the specimen shows, entire the programs for this resource sort are located in the directory defined by RT_BASEDIR. The RTR file also defines programs that will, among other tasks, start, stop, and probe (Monitor_start) the analytic IP address that the resource plumbs. These addresses are, in turn, defined in the HostnameList property.

    The extension properties you define are entire application-specific. They could, for example, refer to the location of the software binaries, that is, the application home directory. If a property has a default value, then you can define it in the RTR file to deliver your system administrator from having to override it each time he or she creates a resource of this type. Furthermore, you can station limits on what values certain properties can recall and when they can subsist changed.

    Example 4.18. Extract from the SUNW.LogicalHostname RTR File

    The following text shows some of the key parts of the RTR file for the SUNW.LogicalHostname resource type:

    # # Copyright 1998-2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc. entire rights reserved. # employ is subject to license terms. # #ident "@(#)SUNW.LogicalHostname 1.20 08/05/20 SMI" # Registration information and Paramtable for HA Failover IPaddress # # NOTE: Keywords are case insensitive, i.e. users may employ any # capitalization style they wish # RESOURCE_TYPE ="LogicalHostname"; VENDOR_ID = SUNW; RT_DESCRIPTION = "Logical Hostname Resource Type"; SYSDEFINED_TYPE = LOGICAL_HOSTNAME; RT_VERSION ="3"; API_VERSION = 2; INIT_NODES = RG_PRIMARIES; RT_BASEDIR=/usr/cluster/lib/rgm/rt/hafoip; FAILOVER = TRUE; # To enable Global_zone_override GLOBAL_ZONE = TRUE; START = hafoip_start; STOP = hafoip_stop; PRENET_START = hafoip_prenet_start; VALIDATE = hafoip_validate; UPDATE = hafoip_update; MONITOR_START = hafoip_monitor_start; MONITOR_STOP = hafoip_monitor_stop; MONITOR_CHECK = hafoip_monitor_check; PKGLIST = SUNWscu; # # Upgrade directives # #$upgrade #$upgrade_from "1.0" anytime #$upgrade_from "2" anytime # The paramtable is a list of bracketed resource property declarations # that near after the resource-type declarations # The property-name declaration must subsist the first attribute # after the open curly of a paramtable entry # # The Paramtable cannot contain TIMEOUT properties for methods # that aren't in the RT { PROPERTY = Start_timeout; MIN=360; DEFAULT=500; } . . . # HostnameList: List of hostnames managed by this resource. entire must be # on the identical subnet. If necessity > 1 subnet with a RG, create as many # resources as there are subnets. { PROPERTY = HostnameList; EXTENSION; STRINGARRAY; TUNABLE = AT_CREATION; DESCRIPTION = "List of hostnames this resource manages"; } . . . Resource Management API

    The Resource Management API (RMAPI) is a set of low-level functions contained in the libscha.so library with both C and shell interfaces. entire the role names provided by this interface are prefixed with scha_. The shell interfaces are listed in section 1HA of the Solaris Cluster manual pages.

    The ksh scripts generated by the Agent Builder are built using these commands, so you can insert additional lines in this code where the comments indicate. However, for greater control over the logic imposed on your application you must write your application agent from scratch.

    Data Service evolution Library

    The Data Service evolution Library (DSDL) is a set of higher-level functions encapsulated in the libdsdev.so library that builds on the RMAPI functionality. This library can only subsist accessed using a C programming language interface. Consequently, it is potentially more time-consuming to write a complete application agent using this approach, although it does proffer the greatest flat of performance and flexibility.

    If you used Agent Builder to create a resource type, you can customize it by inserting extra DSDL code where the comments indicate. Otherwise, you must write your agent from scratch.

    All the role names provided by the library are prefixed with scds_ and are documented in section 3HA of the Solaris Cluster manual pages. The NFS agent source code [NFSAgent] serves as a excellent specimen of how these APIs are used. Using the nfs_svc_start.c source as a specific example, the library is initialized with scds_initialize(). Resource and resource group names are then retrieved using scds_get_resource_name() and scds_get_resource_group_name() calls, respectively. Finally, the status of the resource is set by the RMAPI scha_resource_setstatus() call. Most of the coding ail involved with using these interfaces is consumed by the logic that describes how the agent should behave in various failure scenarios. For example, how many times should the agent attempt to restart the service before giving up and potentially failing over? What should the agent accomplish in response to a network failure?

    One handicap of using the GDS is that entire the best practices for service conduct are already in the logic of the code that makes up the agent, saving you from re-creating that code.

    Useful Utilities for edifice Custom Data Services

    The Solaris Cluster software comes with two programs that you will find very useful if you create your resource sort from scratch: hatimerun (see the hatimerun(1M) man page) and pmfadm.

    hatimerun Command

    Throughout the Start, Stop, Monitor_start, and Validate methods of your resource type, you will necessity to hasten various programs to accomplish the required logic steps. Because your goal is lofty availability, you cannot wait for a program that might never respond or return, whether that program has gone into a loop or is unable to retrieve some valuable data from the network, disk, or other program. Consequently, you must station time constraints on the duration of the program's execution. This is the role of the hatimerun command. It enables you to execute a program under its control and set a confine on the time it can recall to respond. If the program in question fails to respond in a timely fashion, it is terminated by default.

    The hatimerun command also enables you to leave the program running asynchronously in the background, change the exit code returned after a timeout, or employ a particular signal to terminate your program.

    The most common usage of this command is in your probe commands or in the steps leading up to stopping or starting your application.

    pmfadm Command

    If you write a custom probe for your service, you determine what constitutes a healthy service. The criteria might comprehend application-specific checks to determine if the data it is delivering to potential clients is cogent or timely. If the application consists of multiple processes, you might want to check that each process is running, using the ps command. entire of these tests combine to give you the best assessment of your application's current health. However, your probe is scheduled to fabricate its checks only at regular intervals. Even though you can tune these checks to occur at shorter intervals, doing so results in a greater load on your system. Consequently, you must wait, on average, half the probe age before your probe detects a situation where your application has completely failed, significance that entire the processes occupy exited. Once again, this does not attend much toward your goal of lofty availability.

    The solution is to employ pmfadm, the process-monitoring facility command. When you start your application under pmfadm, it monitors entire the processes your application spawns to a flat that you determine. By default, it monitors entire the application's child processes. If they entire exit, pmfadm immediately restarts your application for you on the condition that it has not already exceeded a preset number of restarts within a certain time interval.

    The most common usage of this command is in your start command to ensure that your key application processes are monitored and that complete failures are reacted to immediately.

    libschost.so Library

    Some applications store or fabricate employ of configuration information about the physical hostname of the server on which the application is running. Such applications will most likely fail when the application is placed in a resource group and moved between the nodes of a cluster. This failure occurs because calls to uname or gethostbyname bear different responses on the global zone of each cluster node. Oracle Application Server and the Oracle E-Business Suite are two examples of programs that risk such failures [LibHost].

    To overcome this limitation, you employ the LD_PRELOAD feature to enable the runtime linker to interpose the libschost.so.1 library in the dynamic linking process. The following specimen shows how this is done. You can employ the identical construct within your resource Start or Monitor_start (probe) methods, as required.

    Example 4.19. How to employ the sclibhost.so.1 Library to Change the String Returned as the Hostname

    Use the uname command to panoply the current hostname.

    # uname -n phys-winter1

    Set the LD_PRELOAD_32, LD_PRELOAD_64 and SC_LHOSTNAME environment variables, and then rerun the uname command.

    # LD_PRELOAD_32=$LD_PRELOAD_32:/usr/cluster/lib/libschost.so.1 # LD_PRELOAD_64=$LD_PRELOAD_64:/usr/cluster/lib/64/libschost.so.1 # SC_LHOSTNAME=myhost # export SC_LHOSTNAME LD_PRELOAD_32 LD_PRELOAD_64 # uname -n myhost

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