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Oracle Oracle Solaris 10 System

Oracle eases Solaris pricing | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Oracle Corp. has changed licensing terms for clients of solar Microsystems Inc.’s Solaris 10 operating system, reversing a pricing model that analysts mentioned had allot the struggling server seller at a aggressive drawback with opponents Hewlett-Packard Co. (HP) and IBM Corp.

The adjustments will lower licensing costs for Solaris users who are looking to hasten Oracle’s software on handiest a fragment of their server, a convention referred to as “partitioning.”

prior to now, Oracle had allowed customers who used inevitable partitioning technology from IBM or HP to pay handiest for the processors that that they had allotted to operating Oracle’s application. as an example, an IBM consumer who allocated sixteen processors in a 32-processor desktop to Oracle’s database would pay licensing expenses for only the 16 processors getting used. A sun consumer in the equal circumstance would should pay Oracle’s licensing payment for full 32 processors within the system.

Oracle’s database has a listing rate of US$40,000 per CPU (imperative processing unit) and, with annual assist charges delivered in, the contrast in price between these two systems may exist significant.

This allot sun at a drawback when it came to partitioned systems working Oracle’s database, long one of the crucial accepted functions of solar’s hardware, referred to Jonathan Eunice, an analyst with Illuminata Inc. “This has been a gargantuan income impediment,” he referred to.

but over the ultimate month, Oracle has quietly revised its software pricing guidelines to permit sun users to create Oracle partitions and pay simplest for the processors they use.

Oracle changed its policy since the Solaris 10 operating gadget, launched prior this yr, is now in a position to construct certain that applications running in Solaris partitions, called Containers, employ simplest the processors they are allocated, stated Jacqueline Woods Oracle’s vp of world pricing and licensing strategy.

With Solaris 9’s partitioning, Oracle could not exist inevitable that handiest a set variety of processors would exist used to hasten its software, she spoke of.

notwithstanding licensing prices were diminished for Oracle products working with sun’s Solaris 10 partitioning software, here's no longer the case for Oracle utility getting used with different partitioning innovations, Woods noted.

customers who create partitions using quite a lot of recommendations, together with VMware Inc.’s virtualization utility, exigency to nevertheless license Oracle utility for every processor in their device, she spoke of.

an in depth explanation of Oracle’s partition licensing coverage can too exist organize at this web site

connected links:

replace: Oracle to nick price on reduce-end database

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Oracle VirtualBox | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

VirtualBox 6.0 is the no-cost, open-supply virtualization app that can exist full you want for operating windows or Linux apps for your Mac, certainly when you are willing to procure your arms dirty. in comparison with the subscription-based mostly Parallels laptop and the purchase-once use-continually VMware Fusion, Oracle's VirtualBox offers fewer automatic conveniences, makes employ of less stylish menus, and lacks as many abysmal integration elements. That pointed out, this free utility makes up for these shortcomings with speedy performance, access to a vast third-party library of prebuilt VirtualBox emulated programs, and full the flexibility that advanced users may want.

expense and platforms

Like VMware Fusion, virtual bailiwick is accessible in Mac, home windows, and Linux versions, and supports just about any Intel-based mostly emulated paraphernalia you might want, together with ancient ones relish DOS and OS/2. As outlined earlier, it's free to construct employ of. A license for Parallels desktop, by means of comparison, charges $seventy nine.99 per 12 months. VMWare Fusion too costs $seventy nine.ninety nine (for the comparatively cheap primary edition), however that gets you a permanent license to the software.

VirtualBox fundamentals

Like other virtualization apps, VirtualBox permits you to hasten one or more visitor systems from its VirtualBox manager menu. that you may hasten a guest desktop in a window, in order that a full windows computer looks in a window on your Mac otherwise you can hasten a home windows laptop full-monitor on a Mac, essentially as in case your Mac changed into a true windows computing device. alternatively, that you can hasten a single home windows utility in what VirtualBox calls Seamless mode. during this mode, the home windows computer becomes invisible and that single windows app lives in its own body.

as a minimum, here's the style VirtualBox is designed to labor and the artery it really works with older home windows versions and the Linux versions that i tried. at the time of this evaluation, youngsters, some VirtualBox facets weren't working as it should exist with windows 10 and the workarounds that I discovered on the web did not resolve the complications. The problems, which I relate later in this story, were greater demanding than deadly, however except Oracle solves them, you'll want to doubtless select a commercial alternative in case you are looking to hasten home windows 10 on your Mac.

VirtualBox set up and Use

you could procure full started with VirtualBox by artery of downloading any of the handfuls of prebuilt Linux and Unix visitor systems from the OSBoxes site. in case you are looking to hasten home windows in VirtualBox, the safest routine is to deploy home windows from an installer disk picture so that you can download from Microsoft. unlike Parallels or VMware, VirtualBox does not automatically set up home windows for you if relish an activation code. as a substitute, you must travel in the course of the same manual installing routine that you would on a true hardware equipment. in case your Mac uses a retina reveal, you are going to exist frustrated by the unreadably tiny size that VirtualBox displays via default while you're installing windows. that you can remedy this difficulty by going to the reveal tab on the Settings dialog to your emulated gadget and lengthening the dimensions component to 200 p.c—here is a customary instance of VirtualBox's home made methods. Parallels and VMware instantly adjust for Retina monitors.

Parallels and VMware each construct it convenient to installation an emulated Mac gadget on your Mac, which you might exigency to relish for checking out or building. clients can set up macOS either from their Mac's recuperation partition or from an installer downloaded from the Mac App keep. it's feasible to hasten an emulated Mac in VirtualBox, but it isn't convenient and you may exigency to search the web for distinctive instructions.

not relish Parallels and VMware, VirtualBox won't instantly installation the guest-device paraphernalia that abet you drag and drop information between your Mac host and an emulated windows or Linux guest. To installation these, you ought to click the "Insert visitor Additions CD image" merchandise on the gadget menu—now not exactly an intuitive alternative—after which labor out how to discover the setup software on the emulated CD within the guest gadget, and which of three distinct types of the tools to set up. skilled clients will find this handy, however unskilled clients will exist in the main misplaced.

i am impressed with the aid of VirtualBox's performance. It necessary simplest 35 seconds as well an emulated home windows 10 device, in regards to the identical as Parallels desktop, and practically twice as quick as VMware Fusion. i am additionally impressed by VirtualBox's facile operations with an emulated home windows 7 equipment. I organize it gauge to change immediately among VirtualBox's three reveal modes: full-monitor, windowed (which VirtualBox calls "Scaled Mode"), and single-utility-window mode (which VirtualBox calls "Seamless Mode"). The same view alternatives in a home windows 10 emulated paraphernalia broadly speaking failed to work. for instance, when i tried to swap home windows 10 to Seamless Mode, it endured to screen the windows computing device, most effective without a body. Parallels and VMware preserve their application paraphernalia updated for current home windows methods, but VirtualBox users are doomed to attend.

Emulation features

VMware and Parallels automatically deliver bidirectional clipboard lead for textual content and pictures, and bidirectional abet for dragging and losing information between the home windows or Linux guest and the Mac host computing device. VirtualBox presents the identical function, but you deserve to circle it on manually. besides the fact that children, VirtualBox offers greater best-tuned manage over bidirectional sharing than its traffic opponents. In full these virtualization apps, which you can flip off clipboard sharing and drag-and-drop, but handiest VirtualBox means that you can configure the clipboard or drag-and-drop features to operate one-way only, either from the host to guest, or vice versa. this may boost safety when you are experimenting with doubtlessly unsafe software on the guest, however you want to exist in a position to import information or different items from the host device.

if you wish to print from a visitor system, your host Mac device will should exist install to print to a networked printer, now not a printer linked by artery of USB cable. You may additionally very neatly deserve to view for abet on the net earlier than that you can birth printing. in brief, employ the VirtualBox settings dialog to change from the networking components from NAT to Bridged (and too construct certain that networking is enabled). Then, internal your visitor home windows system, employ the Settings app to view for a networked printer. You may exigency to deploy the windows driver from the brand's web site if home windows doesn't relish a driver already available.

a further scholarship difficulty is that VMware sets up networking via one selected network interface for your Mac, and may not switch immediately between interfaces if (for example) you plug an Ethernet cable into your MacBook when you accomplish not exigency access to quick Wi-Fi. if you accomplish that, you are going to exigency to travel to the VirtualBox settings window and change the community adapter environment to suitable your Mac's networking. Parallels and VMware construct the switch automatically and invisibly.

a similar glitch received within the means of shutting down home windows guest programs. relish Parallels and VMware, VirtualBox has a precise-line menu merchandise that lets you shut down the visitor computing device smoothly and simply, as in case you had clicked on the start menu and chosen Shut Down from the power options. In VirtualBox, this menu merchandise does nothing except you dig into the home windows visitor settings and set the alternative that tells windows to immediate down when the vim button is pressed. As with so a worthy deal else in the freeware VirtualBox, you don't procure conveniences that you simply don't pay for.

One integration office that VirtualBox lacks is the skill to open info in your Mac system with windows purposes or open info for your emulated home windows paraphernalia with Mac apps. In Parallels or VMware, this talent you don't exigency to purchase a Mac edition of high-powered utility that you already own for home windows. as an alternative, which you can expound your Mac to employ the home windows app for your emulated computing device to open any info for your Mac that you'd otherwise exigency to edit in a Mac-based mostly copy of the software.

Virtualization Freedom

besides the fact that children normally traumatic to construct employ of, VirtualBox is an outstanding app that shares adequate features with its industrial opponents to construct it price due to the fact that—notably in protection-conscious settings that insist on open-supply application as an alternative of proprietary apps. If exigency to hasten the latest home windows 10 apps on a Mac, then Parallels desktop is your best altenative and VMware Fusion is a very tractable 2nd alternative. despite the fact, if you handiest want windows or Linux now and again and too you're willing to allot up with minor inconveniences and obstacles, then VirtualBox can exist an integral tool.

Oracle VM VirtualBox (for Mac)

first rate

final analysis: VirtualBox is free, open-supply, and works well for developers and hobbyists, nonetheless it's much less greatest for any individual who desires to seamlessly hasten home windows and Linux apps on a Mac.

Oracle Updates Solaris 10 | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

As Oracle continues to allot together for a closing unencumber of Solaris eleven, the Solaris 10 Unix working paraphernalia is getting another update.

Oracle released Solaris 10 8/11 this week featuring performance advancements and novel hardware assist. The Solaris 10 operating gadget first debuted in 2004 and has been up-to-date on an everyday foundation ever on account that.

for the intuition that its inception, one of the massive points in Solaris 10 has been ZFS (Zettabyte File equipment) which has too improved through the years. the novel Solaris 10 8/11 makes it feasible for corporations to hasten ZFS as a root filesystem throughout their Solaris 10 deployments. ZFS is a 128-bit file device that offers superior facts scalability and recovery alternate options, together with "snapshotting" -- developing an area-productive listing of a outdated device.

It has been viable to employ ZFS as the root file paraphernalia in view that Solaris 10 10/08 liberate in 2008. despite the fact, some Solaris clients overlooked the capacity to exist capable of construct and install "flash archive" photographs -- which they could accomplish with u.s.and not ZFS What Oracle is asserting now's that the final barrier to the usage of ZFS as a substitute of united statesas the root file system has gone away.

"Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 contains facets designed to simplify the transition from americaprimarily based system disks to Oracle Solaris ZFS," Oracle's free up notes state. "by artery of making inevitable that each one material installation capabilities attainable with americaare too attainable with ZFS, Oracle Solaris 8/eleven makes an excellent ZFS transition aspect to assume abilities of the ease of administration, statistics integrity, and constructed-in facts capabilities offered by Oracle Solaris ZFS."

New Solaris 10 systems can now too exist installed from a Solaris ZFS scintillate Archive, which is conjectural to construct it easier and sooner for clients to installation the operating equipment.

ZFS has too benefitted from multiple performance advancements as smartly. according to Oracle, in internal trying out of Oracle Solaris 10 eight/eleven versus the outmoded free up, Oracle Solaris 10 9/10, ZFS enhancements ended in a read performance development of between 9 percent and 23 p.c, and write efficiency better eleven p.c to 17 p.c.

With the novel Solaris update, Oracle is additionally continuing to improve the artery that Oracle purposes hasten on the Unix working device. in accordance with Oracle, the Solaris 10 8/eleven replace contains improvement in startup and shutdown time for Oracle 11g database users. Startup time is now 26 percent of what it took just before this update on the reference SPARC system Oracle demonstrated internally, and about 36 p.c of what it took on a reference x86 system.

"This replace takes the most desirable UNIX for SPARC and x86 and makes it even improved,” said John Fowler, executive vice president, methods, Oracle in a statement. "With Oracle Solaris 10 eight/eleven and the upcoming Oracle Solaris eleven unlock, they are continuing to argue their ongoing commitment to Oracle Solaris, offering the simplest, most low-cost direction to main-aspect innovation for each novel and present customers."

Oracle got Solaris as a fragment of its acquisition of sun in 2010. at the conclude of 2010, Oracle released Solaris 11 categorical as a preview for the next technology of Solaris facets. trying out and development on Solaris 11 has been ongoing this yr.

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at, the information service of, the community for know-how gurus.

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Top 10 Oracle Certification Books for Database Administrators | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Database books are hard to write, and very rarely is it written in a artery that is warm and facile to understand. The many concepts discussed in technical books require the student to concentrate on many obtuse factors at one time.

The following books included in this list of the top 10 Oracle certification books for Database Administrators present material in a limpid and concise fashion that is enjoyable to read, including plenty of worthy examples.

Whether you are brushing up on novel features in newer versions or are preparing for the certification exam, construct the best investment you relish made in a long time by purchasing any of the following books.

Top 10 Oracle Certification Books for Database Administrators

All in one exam guide1.OCA/OCP Oracle Database 11g All-in-One Exam lead with CD-ROM: Exams 1Z0-051, 1Z0-052, 1Z0-053 (Oracle Press) by John Watson, Roopesh Ramklass and Bob Bryla

This Oracle certification book is enormously helpful for your prep time and for getting chummy with Oracle. It includes a wide ambit of highly material drill questions that ensure your scholarship is harnessed in the best artery for the exam. It gradually builds on the material that is introduced in a limpid and particular manner.

OCA Oracle Database 11g SQL Fundamentals I Exam  lead Exam 1Z0-051 (Oracle Press)2. OCA Oracle Database 11g SQL Fundamentals I Exam Guide: Exam 1Z0-051 (Oracle Press) by John Watson and Roopesh Ramklass

Ideas contained in this Oracle certification book are well-explained, and it includes plenty of pictures as well. This book even deeply discusses simple SQL statements in a manner that is extremely user-friendly. Advanced users are able brush-up and identify gaps in their knowledge.

OCA Oracle Database SQL Expert Exam  lead Exam 1Z0-047 (Oracle Press)3. OCA Oracle Database SQL Expert Exam Guide: Exam 1Z0-047 (Oracle Press) by Steve O’Hearn

If you want to assume the SQL Expert exam, this Oracle certification book offers you full the answers you require. It is well-written, and it covers full of the syllabus included in the exam. Although it is long, it is facile to read and filled with information. A thoroughly-structured review book, it is limpid and succinct, covering full the exam topics. There are too helpful questions at the conclude of each chapter.

OCA Oracle Database 11g Administration I Exam  lead (Exam 1Z0-052)4. OCA Oracle Database 11g Administration I Exam lead (Exam 1Z0-052) by John Watson

This comes highly-recommended if you would relish to achieve certification on a self-study pace. This is an extremely comprehensive Oracle certification book, both from the standpoint of the 1Z0-052 certification and in terms of the scholarship that an Oracle DBA requires. It covers full the topics, with limpid explanations, as well as necessary tips and points for exams.

OCA Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Associate Study Guide5. OCA: Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Associate Study Guide: (Exams1Z0-051 and 1Z0-052) by Biju Thomas

Simple and well organized, this Oracle certification book has everything including examples. A worthy companion for beginners as well as seasoned DBAs, it is a must-read for anyone looking to learn and procure an Oracle certification. The book makes employ of sample databases,  including Oracle software.

OCA Oracle Database 11g SQL Fundamentals I A  true World Certification  lead (1ZO-051)6. OCA Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals I: A true World Certification lead (1ZO-051) by Steve Ries

This book is an awesome common reference for non-Oracle 11g database administrators as it explains how databases office in a simple, comprehensive fashion. It only goes into 11g-specific areas only when needed. Any Oracle 11g novice needs to relish this Oracle certification book in their hands at full times. It is an in-depth and excellently written training lead geared towards passing the Oracle 1Z0-051 exam.

Solaris 10 System Administration Exam Prep CX-310-200,  fragment I (2nd Edition) (Pt. 1)7. Solaris 10 System Administration Exam Prep: CX-310-200, fragment I (2nd Edition) (Pt. 1) by Bill Calkins

This text delves into the depth needed to pass the exam. The test requires more than just scholarship of commands, it too needs you to know what switches are required to achieve the proper outcome. The wealth of scholarship gained from reading this book not only allows you to pass the exam, but it too increases your skills on areas that you accomplish not normally employ as a system administrator.

OCP Oracle Database 11g  novel Features for Administrators Exam  lead (Exam 1Z0-050) (Oracle Press)

8. OCP Oracle Database 11g novel Features for Administrators Exam lead (Exam 1Z0-050) (Oracle Press) by Sam Alapati

This benign of lead is an necessary milestone in helping you focus on both the examination, as well as in discovering novel features to abet those who would relish to upgrade their certification. Well-organized, this Oracle certification job does an excellent job in covering full the needed topic matter for the exam, and its content is structured around what is on the test.

Oracle Certified Professional  fiscal Applications Consultant Exam  lead (BookCDROM package)9. Oracle Certified Professional fiscal Applications Consultant Exam lead (Book/CD-ROM package) by Christopher Allen and Vivian Chow

This is the most complete treatment of Financials you will ever see. It is a top-notch Oracle certification book full the artery around, and it will procure you through full five (5) exams. This book really aids in clarifying how Financials work. Complete and to the point, it covers full the necessary points, with no time wasted.

OCP Oracle 10g Certification Kit (1Z0-042 and 1Z0-043)10. OCP: Oracle 10g Certification Kit (1Z0-042 and 1Z0-043) by Tim Buterbaugh, Chip Dawes, Bob Bryla and Doug Stuns

Overall, this Oracle certification book does a worthy job of introducing you to the aspects, features, and functionality of Oracle 10gR1. Its topics are organized in logical order, well-written, limpid and facile to read, with plenty of sample tests, exercises, practical scenarios, and tips from DBA experts that are accurate and helpful in getting you ready for the true thing.

Any of the following books will abet you outperform at the workplace whenever you exigency it most. A worthy investment, you may soon find yourself on track for a promotion. Which book relish you organize most helpful? Leave a remark and let me know.

Oracle Certification Guide: Overview and Career Paths | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Oracle offers a legion of hardware and software solutions designed to simplify IT. Perhaps best known for its premier database software, the company too offers cloud solutions, servers, engineered systems, storage and more. Oracle has more than 430,000 customers in 175 countries, about 138,000 employees and exceeds $37.7 billion in revenues.

Over the years, Oracle has developed an extensive certification program. Today, it includes six certification levels that span nine different categories with more than 200 individual credentials. Considering the depth and breadth of this program, and the number of Oracle customers, it's no flabbergast that Oracle certifications are highly sought after.

Oracle Certification Program Overview

Oracle's certification program is divided into these nine primary categories:

  • Oracle Applications
  • Oracle Cloud
  • Oracle Database
  • Oracle Enterprise Management
  • Oracle Industries
  • Oracle Java and Middleware
  • Oracle Operating Systems
  • Oracle Systems
  • Oracle Virtualization
  • Additionally, Oracle's credentials are offered at six certification levels:

  • Junior Associate
  • Associate
  • Professional
  • Master
  • Expert
  • Specialist
  • Most Oracle certification exams are proctored, cost $245, and accommodate a mix of scored and unscored multiple-choice questions. Candidates may assume proctored exams at Pearson VUE, although some exams are offered at Oracle Testing Centers in inevitable locations. Some exams, such as Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-061) and Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-051), are too available non-proctored and may exist taken online. Non-proctored exams cost $125. Check the Oracle University Certification website for details on specific exams.

    Oracle Applications and Cloud Certifications

    The Oracle Applications certification category offers more than 60 individual credentials, covering 13 products or product groups, such as Siebel, E-Business Suite, Hyperion, JD Edwards EnterpriseOne and PeopleSoft. The majority of these certifications apply to Certified Implementation Specialists for some specific application, with various Certified Expert credentials too available. The Application certifications are geared toward individuals with expertise in selling and implementing specific Oracle solutions.

    Oracle's newest certification category is Oracle Cloud, which covers Java Cloud as well as a number of Oracle Cloud certifications, including Oracle Database Cloud. Credentials are offered in seven sub-categories:

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS), including Data Management, Application Development, Management Cloud and Mobile Cloud Service
  • Software as a Service (SaaS) – Oracle Customer sustain Cloud, including Service, Sales, Marketing and CPQ Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Performance Management Cloud, including Performance Reporting, Enterprise Planning and Budgeting, fiscal Consolidation and Close, Profitability and Cost Management Cloud
  • Software as a Services – Oracle Enterprise Resource Planning Cloud, including Financials, Project Portfolio Management, Procurement and Risk Management Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Human Capital Management Cloud, including Workforce Rewards, Payroll, Talent Management and Global Human Resources Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Supply Chain Management Cloud, including Order Management, Product Master Data Management, Product Lifecycle Management, Manufacturing, Inventory Management, Supply Chain Planning and Logistics Cloud
  • These credentials recognize individuals who deploy applications, execute administration or deliver customer solutions in the cloud. Credentials mostly comprehend Associate and Certification Implementation Specialists, with one Mobile Developer credential offered plus a Professional-level Oracle Database Cloud Administrator.

    Oracle Database Certifications

    Certifications in Oracle's Database category are geared toward individuals who develop or labor with Oracle databases. There are three main categories: Database Application Development, MySQL and Oracle Database.

    Note: Oracle Database 12c was redesigned for cloud computing (and is included in both the Cloud and Database certification categories). The current version is Oracle Database 12c R2, which contains additional enhancements for in-memory database and multitenant architecture. MySQL 5.6 has been optimized for performance and storage, making it capable of handling bigger data sets. Whenever a significant version of either database is released, Oracle updates its certifications exams over time. If an exam isn't available for the latest database release, candidates can assume a previous version of the exam and then an update exam when it becomes available.

    Oracle currently offers the Oracle Database Foundations Certified Junior Associate, Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Certified Master (OCM), Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) and Specialist paths for Oracle Database 12c. In addition, Oracle offers the OCA credential for Oracle Database 12c R2 and an upgrade path for the OCP credential. Because many of these certifications are highly favorite within the Oracle Certification Program, they provide additional exam details and links in the following sections. 

    Other Various Database Certifications Oracle Enterprise Management Certifications

    The Enterprise Management certifications cover Oracle Enterprise Manager.    

    The Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Certified Implementation Specialist certification is geared toward Oracle PartnerNetwork members but is available to full candidates. This certification recognizes professionals who implement Oracle Enterprise Manager. You must pass one exam (1Z0-530) to obtain this certification. Interested candidates should note that this exam is slated to retire on May 31, 2018.

    The Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Certified Implementation Specialist exam (1Z0-457) covers more management functions (for applications, databases, middleware, systems and storage in various environments). In addition, it covers architecture, installation and deployment, implementation and support, reporting and extensibility.

    Oracle Database Foundations Certified Junior Associate

    The Oracle Database Foundation Certified Junior Associate credential targets individuals who relish participated in the Oracle Academy program through a college or university program, computer science and database teachers, and individuals studying databases and computer science. As a novice-level credential, the Certified Junior Associate aims at individuals with limited hands-on sustain working with Oracle Database products. To merit the credential, candidates must pass the Oracle Database Foundations (novice-level exam) (1Z0-006).

    Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) -- Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    The OCA certification measures the day-to-day operational management database skills of DBAs. Candidates must pass a SQL exam and another on Oracle Database administration. Candidates can select one of the following SQL exams:

  • Oracle Database 12c SQL (1Z0-071)
  • Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-061)
  • Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals I (1Z0-051)
  • Candidates must too pass the Oracle Database 12c: Installation and Administration (1Z0-062) exam.

    Oracle Certified Associate -- Oracle Database 12cR2 Administrator

    To merit the Oracle Database 12cR2 OCA credential, candidates must first merit either the Oracle Database SQL Certified Associate, Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Associate, or the Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Associate.  In addition, candidates are required to pass the Oracle Database 12cR2 Administration exam (1Z0-072).

    Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) -- Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    The OCP certification covers more advanced database skills. You must relish the OCA Database 12c Administrator certification, complete the required training, complete a course submission form and pass the Oracle Database 12c: Advanced Administration (1Z0-063) exam.

    Professionals who possess either the Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Professional or Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Professional credential may upgrade to the Oracle Database 12cR2 Administration Certified Professional credential by passing the Oracle DBA upgrade exam (1Z0-074).

    Oracle Certified Master (OCM) -- Oracle Database 12c Administrator

    To achieve OCM Database 12c Administrator certification, you must relish the OCP Database 12c Administrator certification, complete two advanced courses, and pass the Oracle Database 12c Certified Master Exam (12COCM), complete the course submission form, and submit the Fulfillment Kit request.

    Oracle too offers the Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master certification, which requires three divide credentials, including the Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master, Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c-RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration, and Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c – Data Guard Administration.

    Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) -- Oracle Database 12c

    The OCE Database 12c certifications comprehend Maximum Availability, Data Guard Administrator, RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator, and Performance Management and Tuning credentials. full these certifications require prerequisite certifications. Performance Management and Tuning takes the OSP Database 12c as a prerequisite, while Data Guard Administrator candidates relish the altenative of earning either the OCP Database 12c or 11g credential. The RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator provides candidates the most flexibility, allowing candidates to select from the OCP Database 11g, OCP Databases 12c, Oracle Certified Expert – true Application Clusters 11g and Grid Infrastructure Administration, or OCE Database 10g true Applications Clusters Administration.

    Once the prerequisite credentials are met, candidates can then achieve Data Guard Administrator, RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator or Performance Management and Tuning by passing one exam. Achieving OCP 12c plus the RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration and Data Guard Administration certifications earns the Maximum Availability credential.

    Oracle Database Certified Implementation Specialist

    Oracle too offers three Certified Implementation Specialist credentials: the Oracle true Application Clusters 12c, Oracle Database Performance and Tuning 2015, and Oracle Database 12c. Specialist credentials target individuals with a background in selling and implementing Oracle solutions. Each of these credentials require candidates to pass a single exam to merit the designation.  

    Oracle Industries Certifications

    Oracle Industries is another sizeable category, with more than 25 individual certifications focused on Oracle software for the construction and engineering, communications, health sciences, insurance, tax and utilities industries. full these certifications are Certified Implementation Specialists for the various Oracle industry products, which means they identify individuals who are skillful in implementing and selling industry-specific Oracle software.

    Oracle Java and Middleware Certifications

    The Java and Middleware certifications are spread across several subcategories, such as traffic Intelligence, Application Server, Cloud Application, Data Integration, Identity Management, Mobile, Java, Oracle Fusion Middleware development Tools and more. Java and Middleware credentials picture full levels of the Oracle Certification Program — Associate, Professional and so on — and comprehend Java Developer, Java Programmer, System Administrator, Architect and Implementation Specialist.

    The highly favorite Java category has certifications for Java SE (Standard Edition), and Java EE (Enterprise Edition) and Web Services. Several Java certifications that require a prior certification accept either the corresponding Sun or Oracle credential.

    Oracle Operating Systems Certifications

    The Oracle Operating Systems certifications comprehend Linux and Solaris. These certifications are geared toward administrators and implementation specialists.

    The Linux 6 certifications comprehend OCA and OCP Linux 6 System Administrator certifications, as well as an Oracle Linux Certified Implementation Specialist certification. The Linux 6 Specialist is geared to partners but is open to full candidates. Both the Linux OCA and Specialist credentials require a single exam. To achieve the OCP, candidates must first merit either the OCA Linux 5 or 6 System Administrator or OCA Linux Administrator (now retired) credential, plus pass an exam.

    The Solaris 11 certifications comprehend the OCA and OCP System Administrator certifications as well as an Oracle Solaris 11 Installation and Configuration Certified Implementation Specialist certification. The OCA and OCP Solaris 11 System Administrator certifications identify Oracle Solaris 11 administrators who relish fundamental scholarship of and base-level skills with the UNIX operating system, commands, and utilities. As indicated by its name, the Implementation Specialist cert identifies intermediate-level implementation team members who install and configure Oracle Solaris 11.

    Oracle Systems Certifications­

    Oracle's Systems certifications comprehend Engineered Systems (Big Data Appliance, Ex­­adata, Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Exalytics, and Private Cloud Appliance), Servers (Fujitsu and SPARC) and Storage (Oracle ZFS, Pillar Axiom, Tape Storage, scintillate Storage System). Most of these certifications are geared toward individuals who sell and implement one of the specific solutions. The Exadata certification subcategory too includes Oracle Exadata X3, X4 and X5 Expert Administrator certifications for individuals who administer, configure, patch and monitor the Oracle Exadata Database Machine platform.

    Oracle Virtualization Certifications

    The Virtualization certifications cover Oracle Virtual Machine (VM) Server for X86. Oracle offers two Certified Implementation Specialists credentials, one targeting Oracle VM 3.0 for X86 and the other focused on VM 2.0 for X86. Both specialist credentials recognize individuals who sell and implement Oracle VM solutions.  

    The Oracle VM 3.0 for x86 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification is geared toward the intermediate-level team member who is skillful in installing OVM 3.0 Server and OVM 3.0 Manager components, discovering OVM Servers, configuring network and storage repositories and more. Candidates interested in the VM 2.0 credential should note that the exam retires on May 31, 2018.

    Related Jobs and Careers

    The sheer breadth and depth of Oracle's certification program is rife with opening for professionals who want to labor with Oracle technologies, or who already accomplish and want their skills to exist recognized and validated. Although there are many specific Oracle products to specialize on in varying capacities, the main job roles are administrators, architects, programmers/developers and implementation specialists.

    Every company that runs Oracle Database, Oracle Cloud, Oracle Linux or Solaris, Oracle operating systems and so on needs qualified administrators to deploy, maintain, monitor and troubleshoot these solutions. They too exigency architects to routine and design solutions that meet traffic needs and are confiscate to the specific environments in which they’re deployed.

    On the development front, ComputerWorld indicates that programmers and developers continue to exist "leading players in the IT world." That magazine ranks associated skills as the most sought-after by hiring managers in 2017, tied with abet desk support. (Database administration isn't far behind.) A quick search on results in over 12,000 hits for "Oracle developer," which is a worthy indication of both exigency and desire. Not only accomplish developers create and modify Oracle software, they often must know how to design software from the bottom up, package products, import data, write scripts and develop reports.

    And of course, Oracle and its partners will always exigency implementation specialists to sell and deploy the company's solutions. This role is typically accountable for tasks that must exist accomplished to procure a solution up and running in a client's environment, from creating a project routine and schedule, to configuring and customizing a system to match client specifications.

    Oracle Training and Resources

    It's not surprising that Oracle has an extensive library of exam preparation materials. Check the Oracle University website ( for hands-on instructor-led training, virtual courses, training on demand, exam preparation seminars, drill exams and other training resources.

    A candidate's best bet, however, is to first select a certification path and then follow the links on the Oracle website to the required exam(s). If training is recommended or additional resources are available for a particular exam, Oracle lists them on the exam page.

    Another worthy resource is the Oracle Learning Paths web page, which provides a lengthy list of Oracle product-related job roles and their recommended courses.

    Creating novel Resource Types | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    As described in the section "Data Service and Application Agents" in Chapter 2, "Oracle Solaris Cluster: Features and Architecture," Oracle has a substantial list of supported agents that cover most of the applications in your data center. These application agents are maintained by Oracle and are extensively tested on each novel release of both the Solaris Cluster software and the application itself. Even so, inevitably you will relish an application that is not fragment of the existing agent portfolio.

    Application Suitability

    Before creating a resource nature for your application, you must determine whether the application meets the criteria for being made highly available. The following list highlights the main points you must consider. For a complete list view "Analyzing the Application for Suitability" in [SCDevGuide].

  • Is your application crash-tolerant? This is necessary because in a highly available environment your application must exist able to retrieve its data consistency without requiring manual intervention. If the application did require such intervention, then most of the benefits of a high-availability framework would exist lost.
  • Does your application depend on the physical node designation of the machine, such as that resulting from calls to uname, gethostbyname, or equivalent interfaces? If so, then when the application moves to another cluster node, the dependency on the physical hostname will probably occasions the application to fail. There is a work-around to this problem, which is to interpose the library. However, this work-around can sometimes raise uphold issues with application vendors.
  • Can your application hasten on a multihomed system, that is, one with several public networks? Your application must exist able to ply situations where IP addresses are configured and unconfigured from network adapters as services rend around the cluster. This has consequences for the artery your application binds to the network.
  • Does your application employ hard-coded path names for the location of its data? If so, then symbolic links might not exist adequate to ensure that the data is stored in a location that is compatible with using a failover or global file system. If the application renames a data file, it can wreck the symbolic links.
  • After you relish determined that your application is suitable for being made highly available, you relish several ways to achieve the necessary integration:

  • You can employ the Generic Data Service (GDS) directly and just supply the required parameters. Although you cannot define any novel extension properties for the resource nature you create, it is by far the simplest option.
  • You can create a subclass of the GDS to create a completely novel resource type. This option enables you to define one or more extension properties for your novel resource type. This option is relatively simple and yet provides considerable flexibility.
  • You can extend the GDS using the Advanced Agent Toolkit. Although this option does not create a novel resource type, it does enable you to define one or more extension properties. This option is too relatively simple and provides considerable flexibility.
  • You can employ the GUI scdsbuilder appliance and customize the resulting shell script or C source using the Resource Management API (RMAPI) and the Data Service development Library (DSDL) APIs. If significant customization labor is needed, this option might result in an increased maintenance burden.
  • You can employ the RMAPI or DSDL APIs directly to develop your resource nature from scratch. This option trades the development and maintenance costs for ultimate flexibility and performance.
  • Each option is discussed in more detail in the following sections.

    Generic Data Service

    The Generic Data Service (GDS) is provided with the Solaris Cluster software. The SUNW.gds agent is packaged in the SUNWscgds package, which is installed as gauge by the Solaris Cluster software installer program. The SUNW.gds agent is considered the preferred artery to create both failover and scalable resources. The GDS is supported by Oracle, but you must uphold the script that you provide for the Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command methods.

    By default, the SUNW.gds resource nature is not registered, so you must register it before attempting to create a resource of that type. The commands in the following instance argue how to determine if the resource nature is registered and then how to register it, if it is not already present.

    Example 4.13. Registering the SUNW.gds Resource Type

    Use the clresourcetype command to determine whether the SUNW.gds resource nature needs to exist registered.

    # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds # clresourcetype register SUNW.gds # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds SUNW.gds:6

    In addition to the gauge resource properties, the GDS agent has four properties to enable you to integrate your application: Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command. These properties are described in "Integrating Your Application-Specific Logic." By using the GDS as the basis for your application, you automatically capitalize from full the patches and feature upgrades that the GDS receives.

    Example 4.14 shows how you can employ the GDS to construct the X11 program xeyes highly available. You originate by creating a Start_command program. In this example, a script calls the full path designation of the program with a parameter that is passed to the shell script. This script must exist on full the cluster nodes on which the application is intended to run.

    Next, having checked that the SUNW.gds resource nature is registered, you create the resource group. In this example, you allow the resource group's node list to default to full the cluster nodes.

    Next, you create a resource to picture your program. In the example, the Start_command property is specified by the script you wrote (and which must exist on full nodes). The display parameter to employ is too specified. Because this program does not listen on any network ports, you set the network_aware property to false. This means that the probe mechanism used will exist the continued being of the xeyes process that the Start_command program leaves running in the background. By default, any resource you create is enabled so that when the resource group is brought online, the resource is automatically started. To change the default, you can specify the -d argument to the clresource create command.

    The terminal two steps instruct the RGM that it needs to control or manage the xeyes-rg resource group and then to bring that resource group online. The action of bringing the resource group online starts the resource because it was created in an enabled state.

    Assuming you relish allowed remote X11 clients to display on your X server using xhost and you relish specified the rectify X display to employ (substitute a value suited to your environment for myhost:1.0), then the xeyes program will show on your display. You can switch the resource group between nodes and the RGM will obliterate the xeyes process and restart it on the novel node, phys-summer2, as the instance shows.

    Example 4.14. Creating a Simple, Highly Available xeyes Service

    List the script that will exist used to start the xeyes command.

    # cat /tmp/start_xeyes #!/bin/ksh /usr/openwin/demo/xeyes -display $1 & exit 0

    Check that the SUNW.gds resource nature is registered, and then create the resource group and resource that will control the xeyes service.

    # clresourcetype list | grep SUNW.gds SUNW.gds:6 # clresourcegroup create xeyes-rg # clresource create -t SUNW.gds > -p start_command="/tmp/start_xeyes myhost:1.0" > -p network_aware=false > -g xeyes-rg xeyes-rs

    Use the clresourcegroup command to bring the xeyes-rg resource group online.

    # clresourcegroup manage xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup online xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup status xeyes-rg === Cluster Resource Groups === Group designation Node designation Suspended Status ---------- --------- --------- ------ xeyes-rg phys-summer1 No Online phys-summer2 No Offline # clresourcegroup switch -n phys-summer2 xeyes-rg # clresourcegroup status xeyes-rg === Cluster Resource Groups === Group designation Node designation Suspended Status ---------- --------- --------- ------ xeyes-rg phys-summer1 No Offline phys-summer2 No Online

    To demonstrate how the GDS handles application failure, quit the xeyes program from your X display. You will notice that the RGM restarts the application almost instantaneously. The messages in /var/adm/messages (see instance 4.15) argue that the RGM recognized the failure and restarted the service.

    After the frailty probe determines that the service is online, indicated by Service is online in /var/adm/messages, obliterate the process again. The resource has two properties that determine how many times it is restarted by the RGM within a inevitable time period. These properties are Retry_count and Retry_interval (see instance 4.16). After the specified number of failures, the built-in logic of the GDS determines that the current node is unhealthy and releases the service so that it can exist started on another node. If the service too experiences problems on this node, then the RGM will not fail the service back to its original node unless the time period, in seconds, as defined by the resource group's Pingpong_interval property, has passed. Instead, the GDS attempts to maintain the service running on the remaining node. This conduct is governed by another property called Failover_mode.

    The purpose of the Pingpong_interval property is to prevent a service that fails to start from endlessly looping, resulting in the service migrating back and forth between cluster nodes. In a test environment, you might exigency to reset the value of Pingpong_interval to a lower value. Doing so enables you to restart your service once you relish corrected any problems you encountered.

    Example 4.15. Sample RGM Messages

    The /var/adm/messages file contains information on the situation changes of the resource groups and resources in the cluster.

    Nov 23 04:00:23 phys-summer2 [ID 529407 daemon.notice] resource group xeyes-rg situation on node phys-summer2 change to RG_ONLINE Nov 23 04:01:23 phys-summer2 [ID 922363 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status msg on node phys-summer2 change to <Service is online.> Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 Cluster.PMF.pmfd: [ID 887656 daemon.notice] Process: tag="xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,0.svc", cmd="/bin/sh -c /tmp/start_xeyes myhost:1.0", Failed to linger up. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 [ID 784560 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status on node phys-summer2 change to R_FM_FAULTED Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 [ID 922363 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs status msg on node phys-summer2 change to <Service daemon not running.> Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 423137 daemon.error] A resource restart attempt on resource xeyes-rs in resource group xeyes-rg has been blocked because the number of restarts within the past Retry_ interval (370 seconds) would exceed Retry_count (2) Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 874133 daemon.notice] Issuing a failover request because the application exited. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 [ID 494478 daemon.notice] resource xeyes-rs in resource group xeyes-rg has requested failover of the resource group on phys-summer2. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 [ID 423291 daemon.error] RGM isn't failing resource group <xeyes-rg> off of node <phys-summer2>, because there are no other current or potential masters Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 [ID 702911 daemon.error] Resource <xeyes-rs> of Resource Group <xeyes-rg> failed pingpong check on node <phys- summer1>. The resource group will not exist mastered by that node. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 969827 daemon.error] Failover attempt has failed. Nov 23 04:01:25 phys-summer2 SC[,SUNW.gds:6,xeyes-rg,xeyes-rs,gds_probe]: [ID 670283 daemon.notice] Issuing a resource restart request because the application exited. Example 4.16. Retry, Failover Mode, and Ping-pong Interval Properties

    Use the clresource command to determine the property values of the xeyes-rs resource.

    # clresource argue > -p retry_count,retry_interval,failover_mode xeyes-rs === Resources === Resource: xeyes-rs --- gauge and extension properties --- Retry_interval: 370 Class: standard Description: Time in which monitor attempts to restart a failed resource Retry_count times. Type: int Retry_count: 2 Class: standard Description: Indicates the number of times a monitor restarts the resource if it fails. Type: int Failover_mode: SOFT Class: standard Description: Modifies recovery actions taken when the resource fails. Type: enum # clresourcegroup argue -p pingpong_interval xeyes-rg === Resource Groups and Resources === Resource Group: xeyes-rg Pingpong_interval: 3600

    In the preceding example, the display variable property can exist changed only by stopping the resource and modifying the Start_command property. Although of tiny weight here, because the xeyes program must exist restarted to change the target X server on which it displays, it does construct a contrast in instances where a variable can exist changed while a service is running. Examples comprehend changing debugging levels to employ and changing directories for log files.

    To create a resource nature that has novel extension properties that can exist changed when you exigency to change them, you exigency to either write your resource nature from scratch or create a subclass of the GDS, as described in a later section.

    Supporting novel Applications Using the Advanced Agent Toolkit

    Many application agents in the current Solaris Cluster software release are derived from the Advanced Agent Toolkit methodology [AdvGDSTlkit]: HA-PostgreSQL, HA-MySQL, and HA containers, to designation three. full three employ the SUNW.gds agent as their basis. However, in its raw form, the SUNW.gds agent has some limitations.

    The rationale behind the toolkit is that full novel application agents relish many common requirements:

  • They might require one or more extension properties.
  • They must provide debugging information.
  • They might exigency to disable the process-monitoring facility (pmfadm) for applications that leave no obvious child processes to monitor.
  • They must supply a Start_command script, as a minimum, and possibly Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command scripts.
  • The toolkit too simplifies much of the labor needed to ply Oracle Solaris Zones and SMF. Thus, providing this extended framework enables your developers to focus on the application-specific integration labor rather than on debugging the framework itself. After the labor is complete, the novel resource nature is registered using a registration script.

    Developing Resource Types by Creating a Subclass of the GDS

    The odds of creating a subclass of the GDS, rather than writing a novel resource nature from scratch, is that the novel resource nature inherits full the best practices that are already fragment of the gauge GDS code. In addition, creating a subclass of the GDS enables you to create your own resource nature extension properties while retaining the same flush of flexibility as if you had started from scratch. Finally, your novel resource type, which is a subclass of the GDS, has a distinct name, enabling you to easily distinguish resources of the novel resource type. If you instead used the Advanced Agent Toolkit or the SUNW.gds agent, then you would relish to determine what the resource is by examining the extension properties or reviewing the code. This step would exist necessary because the resource nature would exist set to SUNW.gds, rather than MYCORP.appsvr, for example.

    You create a subclass of the GDS by creating a resource nature registration (RTR) file where the RT_basedir parameter is set to the directory containing binaries used by the gauge GDS methods: Start, Stop, Validate, and so on. You then extend the RTR file by defining your own resource nature extension properties. Finally, you set the routine parameters in the RTR file to point to your scripts that override the gauge GDS behavior.

    Several existing Sun resource types are implemented this way, including the HA-Logical Domain agent (SUNW.ldom), which was covered in the section "Failover Guest Domains" in Chapter 3, "Combining Virtualization Technologies with Oracle Solaris Cluster Software."

    The RTR file for the SUNW.ldom resource nature is shown in instance 4.17. In this RTR file, the RT_basedir parameter is set to the gauge directory for the GDS package, that is, /opt/SUNWscgds/bin. Of the gauge methods, only Init, Boot, and Validate relish been overridden using programs that are located in the ../../SUNWscxvm/bin directory. Unlike a gauge GDS resource type, the Start_command, Stop_command, Probe_command, and Validate_command properties are assigned fixed values and cannot exist changed. This is indicated by the Tunable = zero settings. Furthermore, each command, apart from validate_command, is called with a consistent set of arguments, namely, -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME. The %variable construct is similar to the $variable syntax organize in shell scripts. It means that when a resource of this nature is instantiated, employ the names you assigned it as arguments. For example, if you wrote a resource nature called and then created a resource group called whizz-rg containing a resource called bang-rs of this type, the argument passed would exist -R bang-rs -T -G whizz-rg. With these arguments, you can then construct calls to the RMAPI or DSDL APIs to retrieve or set properties.

    In contrast to the Start_command, Stop_command, and Probe_command properties, the Validate_command property does not employ this construct. Instead, the RGM passes the validate command full the properties listed for the resource nature on the command line. Then the validate command parses this list and determines whether the configuration is valid.

    Example 4.17. RTR File for the SUNW.ldom Resource Type

    The following text shows some of the key parts of the RTR file for the SUNW.ldom resource type:

    . . . RESOURCE_TYPE = "ldom"; VENDOR_ID = SUNW; RT_DESCRIPTION = "Sun Cluster HA for xVM Server SPARC Guest Domains"; RT_version ="1"; API_version = 10; RT_basedir=/opt/SUNWscgds/bin; Init = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/init_xvm; Boot = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/boot_xvm; Start = gds_svc_start; Stop = gds_svc_stop; Validate = ../../SUNWscxvm/bin/validate_xvm; Update = gds_update; Monitor_start = gds_monitor_start; Monitor_stop = gds_monitor_stop; Monitor_check = gds_monitor_check; Init_nodes = RG_PRIMARIES; Failover = FALSE; # The paramtable is a list of bracketed resource property declarations # that near after the resource-type declarations # The property-name declaration must exist the first attribute # after the open curly of a paramtable entry # # The following are the system defined properties. Each of the system defined # properties relish a default value set for each of the attributes. view at # man rt_reg(4) for a particular explanation. # { PROPERTY = Start_timeout; MIN = 60; DEFAULT = 300; } { PROPERTY = Stop_timeout; MIN = 60; DEFAULT = 300; } . . . # This is an optional property. Any value provided will exist used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to validate the application. # If no value is provided, The validation will exist skipped. # { PROPERTY = Validate_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to validate the application"; } # This property must exist specified, since this is the only mechanism # that indicates how to start the application. Since a value must # exist provided, there is no default. The value must exist an absolute path. { PROPERTY = Start_command; EXTENSION; STRINGARRAY; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm start -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to start application"; } # This is an optional property. Any value provided will exist used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to halt the application. # If no value is provided, signals will exist used to halt the application. # # It is assumed that Stop_command will not return until the # application has been stopped. { PROPERTY = Stop_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm halt -R %RS_NAME -T %RT_NAME -G %RG_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to halt application"; } # This is an optional property. Any value provided will exist used as # the absolute path to a command to invoke to probe the application. # If no value is provided, the "simple_probe" will exist used to probe # the application. # { PROPERTY = Probe_command; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = "/opt/SUNWscxvm/bin/control_xvm probe -R %RS_NAME -G %RG_NAME -T %RT_NAME"; TUNABLE = NONE; DESCRIPTION = "Command to probe application"; } # This is an optional property. It determines whether the application # uses network to communicate with its clients. # { PROPERTY = Network_aware; EXTENSION; BOOLEAN; DEFAULT = FALSE; TUNABLE = AT_CREATION; DESCRIPTION = "Determines whether the application uses network"; } # This is an optional property, which determines the signal sent to the # application for being stopped. # { PROPERTY = Stop_signal; EXTENSION; INT; MIN = 1; MAX = 37; DEFAULT = 15; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "The signal sent to the application for being stopped"; } # This is an optional property, which determines whether to failover when # retry_count is exceeded during retry_interval. # { PROPERTY = Failover_enabled; EXTENSION; BOOLEAN; DEFAULT = TRUE; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "Determines whether to failover when retry_count is exceeded during retry_interval"; } # This is an optional property that specifies the log flush GDS events. # { PROPERTY = Log_level; EXTENSION; ENUM { NONE, INFO, ERR }; DEFAULT = "INFO"; TUNABLE = ANYTIME; DESCRIPTION = "Determines the log flush for event based traces"; } { Property = Debug_level; Extension; Per_node; Int; Min = 0; Max = 2; Default = 0; Tunable = ANYTIME; Description = "Debug level"; } { Property = Domain_name; Extension; String; Minlength = 1; Tunable = WHEN_DISABLED; Description = "LDoms Guest Domain name"; } { Property = Migration_type; Extension; Enum { NORMAL, MIGRATE }; Default = "MIGRATE"; Tunable = ANYTIME; Description = "Type of guest domain migration to exist performed"; } { PROPERTY = Plugin_probe; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = ANYTIME; DESCRIPTION = "Script or command to check the guest domain"; } { PROPERTY = Password_file; EXTENSION; STRING; DEFAULT = ""; TUNABLE = WHEN_DISABLED; DESCRIPTION = "The complete path to the file containing the target host password"; } scdsbuilder GUI

    To customize an agent beyond what is permitted by the GDS, you can employ the Agent Builder command, scdsbuilder (see the scdsbuilder(1HA) man page). This command has three code generation options, and the resulting files are wrapped in a Solaris package that you can install on your cluster nodes:

  • DSDL code (see the section "Data Service development Library").
  • ksh code, including full the necessary scha_control commands (see the section "Resource Management API"). With the ksh code, you are creating your own resource type.
  • A ksh registration script for a GDS agent. Here, the code generates the confiscate clresource create command.
  • You can customize the resulting code to your specific needs. However, with the ksh registration script for the GDS agent, the scope for modification is limited. The instance in device 4.7 shows the employ of the third option.

    Figure 4.7

    Figure 4.7 Using the scdsbuilder GUI to create a novel resource type

    The scdsbuilder command starts the Solaris Cluster Agent Builder GUI, as shown in device 4.7. In this example, data has already been specified for each bailiwick available to the user. A short code of SUNW is specified for the vendor name, and tstgds is specified for the application name. This data is then used to generate both the designation of the package that Agent Builder creates for you and the designation of the resource nature that you will subsequently use.

    The information you provide in the other fields is used as follows:

  • The RT version enables you to specify a version number for this resource type. You can identify which version of the agent you are running when it is placed into production.
  • The working directory is used by Agent Builder as a working zone in which it can create your package and write other associated, intermediate files.
  • Your target application determines whether you select the scalable or failover option. If a particular instance of an application can hasten on multiple nodes at once without corrupting any of its data files, then you can select the scalable option. A tractable instance of such an application is a web server. For full other applications, such as databases and file services, select the failover option.
  • The Network awake check box is used to determine whether any resource created using this resource nature needs to relish the port_list property set. The port_list property is then used by the GDS service to provide a simple probe mechanism.
  • The source nature option determines whether the resulting code uses the C programming language, ksh, or the GDS (see the section "SUNW.gds" in Chapter 2, "Oracle Solaris Cluster: Features and Architecture") to create the data service. To employ the C option, you must relish a C compiler installed on your system.
  • After you relish entered the data and clicked on the Next button, you are presented with the screen shown in device 4.8.

    Figure 4.8

    Figure 4.8 Completing the resource nature definition using scdsbuilder

    Integrating Your Application-Specific Logic

    You employ the fields in this second screen to provide the location of the programs (which can exist compiled executables or scripts) and their associated arguments that will exist used to start, stop, probe, and validate your data service when it is installed on the target cluster nodes. For each program, you can set a time restrict on how long it can assume for the program to complete. If the program does not complete within the allocated time period, then the resource is placed into a failed state, such as STOP_FAILED.

    You are required to provide a value only for the start program. full the other programs are optional. Any programs specified must exit with a return code of zero only when they relish successfully completed their work. If they fail to execute their allotted task, they must return a value greater than 100. Values below that are used by the Solaris Cluster commands and relish specific meanings (see the intro(1CL) man page).

    The programs you allot to the start and halt commands must return successfully only when your target application has actually completed the material operation. If the halt command leaves the application under its control running, or not completely stopped, but the halt command returns successfully, then the cluster framework erroneously determines that it is safe to start the resource group on another cluster node. In some instances, particularly when the application uses a global file system, this outcome could result in data corruption because the two instances of the application could write to their data files in an uncontrolled fashion.

    If no halt command is provided, the process tree that results from the start command is terminated using the obliterate command.

    The validate command enables you to check that your application is correctly configured on full the potential nodes on which it can run. Again, if the program determines that your application is misconfigured, the validate program must exit with a nonzero exit code.

    The capability to incorporate a probe command is one of the key benefits of using the Solaris Cluster framework. A probe command enables you to write a program that determines the health of your application. As an example, if you are writing a probe for a database, you could test whether it can execute basic SQL statements, such as creating or deleting a table, or adding or deleting a record. If you accomplish not provide a probe script, then default methods are used instead.

    For non-network-aware applications, the process-monitoring command pmfadm (see the pmfadm(1M) man page) monitors the process tree spawned by your start command. Only if full the processes relish failed will the cluster framework attempt to restart the service. Therefore, if your service consists of multiple processes and only one process fails, then pmfadm will not recognize this frailty unless it causes full the other processes to fail as well. Consequently, if you exigency to monitor your application with a higher degree of granularity, you must provide a custom frailty probe.

    If the application is network-aware, then the default probe tries to open the port listed in the port_list property. Because this is a simple probe, it makes no attempt to retrieve any data. Even if the default probe successfully opens the ports, that does not necessarily argue overall application health.

    In the preceding example, you would install the package generated by scdsbuilder on full your cluster nodes. You would then register the novel resource nature so that you could create novel resources of this type. When the RGM is requested to create a resource, it calls the validate command: /usr/local/bin/my_validate -o some_param. If that command succeeds and you enable the resource, the RGM calls the /usr/local/bin/my_start -r foo-rs -g bar-rg command. In both cases, the initial arguments are fixed, but you can modify them subsequently using the clresource command.

    Resource nature Registration File

    If you select to write an agent from scratch using either the RMAPI or DSDL APIs, you must first relate the properties of your proposed resource nature in a file known as the resource nature registration (RTR) file. This file provides the RGM with details on which programs to summon and which variables are required to control the particular application.

    Example 4.18 shows an extract from the SUNW.LogicalHostname RTR file. As the instance shows, full the programs for this resource nature are located in the directory defined by RT_BASEDIR. The RTR file too defines programs that will, among other tasks, start, stop, and probe (Monitor_start) the logical IP address that the resource plumbs. These addresses are, in turn, defined in the HostnameList property.

    The extension properties you define are full application-specific. They could, for example, mention to the location of the software binaries, that is, the application home directory. If a property has a default value, then you can define it in the RTR file to reclaim your system administrator from having to override it each time he or she creates a resource of this type. Furthermore, you can spot limits on what values inevitable properties can assume and when they can exist changed.

    Example 4.18. Extract from the SUNW.LogicalHostname RTR File

    The following text shows some of the key parts of the RTR file for the SUNW.LogicalHostname resource type:

    # # Copyright 1998-2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc. full rights reserved. # employ is topic to license terms. # #ident "@(#)SUNW.LogicalHostname 1.20 08/05/20 SMI" # Registration information and Paramtable for HA Failover IPaddress # # NOTE: Keywords are case insensitive, i.e. users may employ any # capitalization style they wish # RESOURCE_TYPE ="LogicalHostname"; VENDOR_ID = SUNW; RT_DESCRIPTION = "Logical Hostname Resource Type"; SYSDEFINED_TYPE = LOGICAL_HOSTNAME; RT_VERSION ="3"; API_VERSION = 2; INIT_NODES = RG_PRIMARIES; RT_BASEDIR=/usr/cluster/lib/rgm/rt/hafoip; FAILOVER = TRUE; # To enable Global_zone_override GLOBAL_ZONE = TRUE; START = hafoip_start; STOP = hafoip_stop; PRENET_START = hafoip_prenet_start; VALIDATE = hafoip_validate; UPDATE = hafoip_update; MONITOR_START = hafoip_monitor_start; MONITOR_STOP = hafoip_monitor_stop; MONITOR_CHECK = hafoip_monitor_check; PKGLIST = SUNWscu; # # Upgrade directives # #$upgrade #$upgrade_from "1.0" anytime #$upgrade_from "2" anytime # The paramtable is a list of bracketed resource property declarations # that near after the resource-type declarations # The property-name declaration must exist the first attribute # after the open curly of a paramtable entry # # The Paramtable cannot accommodate TIMEOUT properties for methods # that aren't in the RT { PROPERTY = Start_timeout; MIN=360; DEFAULT=500; } . . . # HostnameList: List of hostnames managed by this resource. full must be # on the same subnet. If exigency > 1 subnet with a RG, create as many # resources as there are subnets. { PROPERTY = HostnameList; EXTENSION; STRINGARRAY; TUNABLE = AT_CREATION; DESCRIPTION = "List of hostnames this resource manages"; } . . . Resource Management API

    The Resource Management API (RMAPI) is a set of low-level functions contained in the library with both C and shell interfaces. full the office names provided by this interface are prefixed with scha_. The shell interfaces are listed in section 1HA of the Solaris Cluster manual pages.

    The ksh scripts generated by the Agent Builder are built using these commands, so you can insert additional lines in this code where the comments indicate. However, for greater control over the logic imposed on your application you must write your application agent from scratch.

    Data Service development Library

    The Data Service development Library (DSDL) is a set of higher-level functions encapsulated in the library that builds on the RMAPI functionality. This library can only exist accessed using a C programming language interface. Consequently, it is potentially more time-consuming to write a complete application agent using this approach, although it does proffer the greatest flush of performance and flexibility.

    If you used Agent Builder to create a resource type, you can customize it by inserting extra DSDL code where the comments indicate. Otherwise, you must write your agent from scratch.

    All the office names provided by the library are prefixed with scds_ and are documented in section 3HA of the Solaris Cluster manual pages. The NFS agent source code [NFSAgent] serves as a tractable instance of how these APIs are used. Using the nfs_svc_start.c source as a specific example, the library is initialized with scds_initialize(). Resource and resource group names are then retrieved using scds_get_resource_name() and scds_get_resource_group_name() calls, respectively. Finally, the status of the resource is set by the RMAPI scha_resource_setstatus() call. Most of the coding exertion involved with using these interfaces is consumed by the logic that describes how the agent should behave in various failure scenarios. For example, how many times should the agent attempt to restart the service before giving up and potentially failing over? What should the agent accomplish in response to a network failure?

    One odds of using the GDS is that full the best practices for service conduct are already in the logic of the code that makes up the agent, saving you from re-creating that code.

    Useful Utilities for building Custom Data Services

    The Solaris Cluster software comes with two programs that you will find very useful if you create your resource nature from scratch: hatimerun (see the hatimerun(1M) man page) and pmfadm.

    hatimerun Command

    Throughout the Start, Stop, Monitor_start, and Validate methods of your resource type, you will exigency to hasten various programs to execute the required logic steps. Because your goal is lofty availability, you cannot wait for a program that might never respond or return, whether that program has gone into a loop or is unable to retrieve some necessary data from the network, disk, or other program. Consequently, you must spot time constraints on the duration of the program's execution. This is the office of the hatimerun command. It enables you to execute a program under its control and set a restrict on the time it can assume to respond. If the program in question fails to respond in a timely fashion, it is terminated by default.

    The hatimerun command too enables you to leave the program running asynchronously in the background, change the exit code returned after a timeout, or employ a particular signal to terminate your program.

    The most common usage of this command is in your probe commands or in the steps leading up to stopping or starting your application.

    pmfadm Command

    If you write a custom probe for your service, you select what constitutes a well service. The criteria might comprehend application-specific checks to determine if the data it is delivering to potential clients is cogent or timely. If the application consists of multiple processes, you might want to check that each process is running, using the ps command. full of these tests combine to give you the best assessment of your application's current health. However, your probe is scheduled to construct its checks only at regular intervals. Even though you can tune these checks to occur at shorter intervals, doing so results in a greater load on your system. Consequently, you must wait, on average, half the probe era before your probe detects a situation where your application has completely failed, meaning that full the processes relish exited. Once again, this does not abet much toward your goal of lofty availability.

    The solution is to employ pmfadm, the process-monitoring facility command. When you start your application under pmfadm, it monitors full the processes your application spawns to a flush that you determine. By default, it monitors full the application's child processes. If they full exit, pmfadm immediately restarts your application for you on the condition that it has not already exceeded a preset number of restarts within a inevitable time interval.

    The most common usage of this command is in your start command to ensure that your key application processes are monitored and that complete failures are reacted to immediately. Library

    Some applications store or construct employ of configuration information about the physical hostname of the server on which the application is running. Such applications will most likely fail when the application is placed in a resource group and moved between the nodes of a cluster. This failure occurs because calls to uname or gethostbyname produce different responses on the global zone of each cluster node. Oracle Application Server and the Oracle E-Business Suite are two examples of programs that risk such failures [LibHost].

    To overcome this limitation, you employ the LD_PRELOAD feature to enable the runtime linker to interpose the library in the dynamic linking process. The following instance shows how this is done. You can employ the same construct within your resource Start or Monitor_start (probe) methods, as required.

    Example 4.19. How to employ the Library to Change the String Returned as the Hostname

    Use the uname command to display the current hostname.

    # uname -n phys-winter1

    Set the LD_PRELOAD_32, LD_PRELOAD_64 and SC_LHOSTNAME environment variables, and then rerun the uname command.

    # LD_PRELOAD_32=$LD_PRELOAD_32:/usr/cluster/lib/ # LD_PRELOAD_64=$LD_PRELOAD_64:/usr/cluster/lib/64/ # SC_LHOSTNAME=myhost # export SC_LHOSTNAME LD_PRELOAD_32 LD_PRELOAD_64 # uname -n myhost

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