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are looking to kick birth your profession as an Oracle PL/SQL developer? This examination demonstrates that you hold the fundamentals down pat.
1Z0-144: Oracle Database 11g: software With PL/SQL satisfies some of the two tests required in order to to develop into an Oracle PL/SQL Developer licensed associate. The market continues to hold a requirement for Oracle builders and gaining this OCA-stage certification is a technique to panoply your erudition of PL/SQL. This exam is basically focused at entry-degree builders. entire the themes are geared across the primary expertise that should silent be general to any individual working with PL/SQL.
The 1Z0-one hundred forty four exam is the successor to the older examination, 1Z0-147: software with PL/SQL. That examination became developed for Oracle 9i, and there hold been a lot of alterations to Oracle PL/SQL considering 9i. The exam, while silent available, has a worthy slight bit of old-fashioned material and has a significant seat of attention on triggers which made feel at the time because Oracle forms held extra significance than is staunch today. I totally imply that candidates win the 1Z0-a hundred and forty four examine for these causes alone. beyond that, 1Z0-a hundred and forty four isn’t simply the 1Z0-147 exam with some up to date tips tacked on -- the topics of both assessments fluctuate significantly. personally, 1Z0-one hundred forty four has significantly stronger the content material being covered. The topics on this witness at various are a better travel component of the information that an entry-level PL/SQL programmer should know.
The Oracle PL/SQL Developer licensed affiliate has two required tests: a SQL component and a PL/SQL component. You hold to circulate one examination that meets the SQL requirement and one that meets the PL/SQL requirement to profit the certification (the exams will too be taken in either order). There are presently three exams that meet the SQL requirement. that you can select any of here:
1Z0-007 is a further Oracle 9i legacy exam and i imply towards it for that motive. 1Z0-051 contains more existing counsel and is the stronger examination to pursue except you hold a private judgement behind desperate to hold Oracle 9i-certain potential (including topics on the defunct iSQL*Plus). 1Z0-047 is an authority-stage exam and as such is a a lot extra problematic witness at various than the first two. youngsters, this examine comes with an Oracle skilled certification in case you circulate it. As a customary rule, i recommend that candidates current to Oracle SQL pursue 1Z0-051.
The PL/SQL requirement can too be met by artery of the two assessments already mentioned:
This 1Z0-144 exam covers a ample ambit of topics in the following key areas:
None of these are superior subject matters, which is par for the route in OCA-level exams. The intent of the Oracle certified affiliate designation is to assess even if a candidate has a company grounding in the fundamentals of the given discipline. The subject matters on the 1Z0-one hundred forty four exam were well-chosen in that recognize. For candidates that profit the PL/SQL affiliate certification, there's a follow-on test, 1Z0-146: Oracle Database 11g: superior PL/SQL. This exam does hold extra superior PL/SQL subject matters, and passing it'll provide the candidate with the Oracle superior PL/SQL Developer licensed expert certification.
Collections in PL/SQL execute it simple that you should implement lists, arrays, stacks, queues, and many others. They are available three flavors: associative arrays, nested tables, and varrays. The three styles of collections share many elements and even hold their personal special features.
here are some information for taking handicap of collections. at the backside of the publish, I tender hyperlinks to a few resources for diving in additional deeply on collections.which you can question From Collections
Collections are, for essentially the most half, variables you are going to declare and maneuver in PL/SQL. however that you could query from them using the desk operator (and in 12.2 and better you even travel away off that operator).
Use this characteristic to:
right here's a simple demonstration:CREATE OR change category list_of_names_t IS desk OF VARCHAR2 (a hundred); / DECLARE happyfamily list_of_names_t := list_of_names_t (); begin happyfamily.lengthen (7); happyfamily (1) := 'Veva'; happyfamily (2) := 'Chris'; happyfamily (three) := 'Lauren'; happyfamily (four) := 'Loey'; happyfamily (5) := 'Eli'; happyfamily (6) := 'Steven'; happyfamily (7) := 'Juna'; FOR rec IN ( select COLUMN_VALUE the_name FROM desk (happyfamily) ORDER with the aid of the_name) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line (rec.the_name); discontinuance LOOP; end; / Chris Eli Juna Lauren Loey Steven Veva
previous to Oracle Database 12c, you might handiest expend nested tables and varrays with the table operator. but with 12.1 and above, that you could additionally expend it with integer-indexed associative arrays.
you could hold much more than readily constructing a simple opt for around your collection (or a characteristic that returns the assortment). that you may be share of that assortment with other collections or different tables. that you could fulfill set-stage operations fancy UNION and MINUS. that you could, in short, treat that assortment as a study-simplest set of rows and columns fancy any other.
LiveSQL offers a yoke of scripts demonstrating the desk operator here.Collections devour Session (PGA) reminiscence
just fancy well-nigh each other category of variable (or steady), collections expend PGA — technique global enviornment — reminiscence in preference to SGA — paraphernalia international area — reminiscence. This capacity that the recollection for collections is consumed per session.
think you hold a application that populates a set with countless numbers of facets of facts (which may even be records, no longer comfortably scalar values). in that case, each session that executes your program will expend that selfsame amount of reminiscence. issues may win out of hand instantly.
When writing your application, seek information from yourself what number of periods could Run it simultaneously and if there are ways to control/limit the volume of recollection used to populate the collection.
If, for example, you're the usage of BULK compile to populate a collection from a query, avoid choose-BULK bring together-INTO. That mode could judgement issues down the road, as the volume of statistics returned by the question increases. consider, in its place, the expend of an express cursor, with a FETCH statement and a restrict clause. The software may requisite to retrieve 1M rows, but which you can fetch just 100 or 1000 at a time, and for this judgement cap the total PGA consumed (and reused).
you are going to learn an dreadful lot greater counsel about setting that restrict price birthright here.
I tender a kit to back you anatomize how lots PGA reminiscence your session has consumed birthright here.FOR Loops don't work With Sparse Collections
many of your collections could be dense (all index values between lowest and maximum are described), but in some situations (above entire with associative arrays), your collections should be sparse. in case you are attempting to expend a numeric FOR loop to iterate through the collection's facets, you will hit a NO_DATA_FOUND exception.
instead, expend the navigation strategies (FIRST, last, next, PRIOR) to movement from one defined index price to the subsequent, and "skip over" undefined values.
in the first screen under, l_animals.FIRST returns -one hundred, and that identify is then printed. however the subsequent integer larger than -one hundred is -ninety nine. That isn't a defined index value, so the attempt to read l_animals(-99) factors the PL/SQL runtime engine to raise a NO_DATA_FOUND exception.
in the 2nd block, I once more start with the index price returned via a convene to the primary components. but I then expend next to learn the next optimum described index value. So it takes me straight to a thousand and i panoply the title of the species at that region. the subsequent title to subsequent returns NULL and the loop stops.
word: Lupus is the species title for wolf, and Loxodonta is the species identify for African elephants. can too entire of them reside lengthy and prosper!DECLARE classification species_t IS desk OF VARCHAR2(10) INDEX by PLS_INTEGER; l_animals species_t; start l_animals (-one hundred) := 'Lupus'; l_animals (one thousand) := 'Loxodonta'; FOR indx IN l_animals.FIRST .. l_animals.remaining LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line (l_animals (indx)); discontinuance LOOP; end; / Lupus ORA-01403: no information create DECLARE classification species_t IS table OF VARCHAR2(10) INDEX by using PLS_INTEGER; l_animals species_t; l_index PLS_INTEGER; begin l_animals (-100) := 'Lupus'; l_animals (one thousand) := 'Loxodonta'; l_index := l_animals.FIRST; while l_index isn't NULL LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line (l_animals (l_index)); l_index := l_animals.subsequent (l_index); discontinuance LOOP; end; / Lupus Loxodonta
You may suppose to your self: adequate, i will by no means expend a FOR loop with collections. i'll entire the time expend a long time loop with FIRST and next (or ultimate and in promote of travel backwards). That manner, it should work no matter if it is sparse or dense.
That approach likely will not judgement any trauma (performance should be high-quality), however be awake that in case you finish that, you're going to on no account note that a collection that changed into purported to be dense in reality became sparse as a result of a problem to your code (or user oversight :-) )! In other words, you may be eliminating "assurance" that covers up a computer virus!
databases ,pl/sql ,collections ,code ,counsel ,tutorial
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Oracle provides huge back for Java in entire tiers of deployment.
The enterprise-class Java server platform has an built-in Java virtual computing device. features of the Java virtual laptop comprise here:
support for Java 2 EE.
aid for shared Java bytecode as well as lightweight Java threads.
reminiscence supervisor and rubbish collector that optimizes using the system world enviornment (SGA) and the working equipment's virtual reminiscence manager.
Java classes can too be stored in the database as library devices and managed identical to other database objects.
support for JDBC drivers.
SQLJ translator is equipped, enabling SQL code to be embedded in Java.
NCOMP Java compiler is provided to back the translation of Java bytecode into more efficient C executables.
aid for usual Java libraries such as Java.lang, Java.io, and Java.util.
help for Java saved tactics.
LoadJava and DropJava utilities allow Java programs to be loaded into and unloaded from the database, respectively.
CORBA-compliant ORB (Object Request broker) is equipped.
assist for commercial enterprise Java Beans is equipped at the database as well as application server degree.
integrated with Oracle traffic manager.
average safety mechanisms similar to roles, can provide, and invoker rights which are generally used with PL/SQL will too be used with Java saved methods.
access from well-nigh any customer is practicable with the back of numerous fair cyber web protocols akin to IIOP, HTTP, information superhighway mail (IMAP4, SMTP, and POP3) and Net8.
Java saved approaches, CORBA servers, and EJBs can too be accessed the usage of cozy Sockets Layer (SSL) over Net8 and IIOP.
distinct application servers and databases may too be accessed with a solitary intranet or information superhighway signal-on.
aid for traffic accessories for Java (BC4J).
moreover the Java virtual desktop (JVM) that allows facts-intensive Java kept classes to Run within the database server, the JVM is too integrated with the Oracle iAS as a Java cartridge. Two sorts of programming fashions are supported through the Java cartridge:
Java purposes will too be directly developed and deployed using lots of paraphernalia supplied:
JDBC drivers enable database connectivity from Java.
An built-in construction environment (IDE) allows for the edifice of Java courses. JDeveloper is too integrated with JDBC and the SQLJ translator.
JavaBeans and EJB construction.
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Want to kick start your career as an Oracle PL/SQL developer? This exam demonstrates that you hold the basics down pat.
1Z0-144: Oracle Database 11g: Program With PL/SQL satisfies one of the two exams required in order to to become an Oracle PL/SQL Developer Certified Associate. The market continues to hold a demand for Oracle developers and gaining this OCA-level certification is one artery to demonstrate your erudition of PL/SQL. This exam is primarily targeted at entry-level developers. entire of the topics are geared around the basic erudition that should be confidential to anyone working with PL/SQL.
The 1Z0-144 exam is the successor to the older exam, 1Z0-147: Program with PL/SQL. That exam was developed for Oracle 9i, and there hold been numerous changes to Oracle PL/SQL since 9i. The exam, while silent available, has a worthy bit of outdated material and has a significant focus on triggers which made sense at the time because Oracle Forms held more significance than is staunch today. I highly recommend that candidates win the 1Z0-144 test for those reasons alone. Beyond that, 1Z0-144 isn’t just the 1Z0-147 exam with some updated information tacked on -- the topics of the two tests vary considerably. In my opinion, 1Z0-144 has considerably improved the content being covered. The topics on this test are a much better cross section of the information that an entry-level PL/SQL programmer should know.
The Oracle PL/SQL Developer Certified Associate has two required exams: a SQL component and a PL/SQL component. You must pass one exam that meets the SQL requirement and one that meets the PL/SQL requirement to gain the certification (the tests can be taken in either order). There are currently three exams that meet the SQL requirement. You can select any of the following:
1Z0-007 is another Oracle 9i legacy exam and I recommend against it for that reason. 1Z0-051 contains more current information and is the better exam to pursue unless you hold a personal judgement for wanting to hold Oracle 9i-specific erudition (including topics on the defunct iSQL*Plus). 1Z0-047 is an expert-level exam and as such is a much more difficult test than the first two. However, this test comes with an Oracle Expert certification if you pass it. As a general rule, I recommend that candidates current to Oracle SQL pursue 1Z0-051.
The PL/SQL requirement can be met by the two exams already mentioned:
This 1Z0-144 exam covers a wide ambit of subjects in the following key areas:
None of these are advanced topics, which is par for the course in OCA-level exams. The intent of the Oracle Certified Associate designation is to determine whether a candidate has a solid grounding in the fundamentals of the given subject. The topics on the 1Z0-144 exam were well-chosen in that respect. For candidates that gain the PL/SQL Associate certification, there is a follow-on test, 1Z0-146: Oracle Database 11g: Advanced PL/SQL. This exam does hold more advanced PL/SQL topics, and passing it will provide the candidate with the Oracle Advanced PL/SQL Developer Certified Professional certification.
Ed Haskins, President of OraKnowledge, Inc.
The Oracle Certification Program continues to be the most Popular certification among entire database vendors. This is no astound considering Oracle has dominated the market for big scale relational databases worldwide. Oracle has completely revamped the DBA Certification track with the release of the Oralce9i database. To best understand the modifications that the DBA track has undergone, it's best to first review the Oracle8i DBA track.
To become an Oracle8i Certified Professional (OCP) DBA, the certification candidate needed to pass five exams:
Passing entire five exams was a very challenging task, to instruct the very least. The first two exams in the track were often considered to be among the toughest...as mastery of their content was essential in passing exams 3 and 4. The Network Administration exam was an entity of its own, containing content much different than the others...although extremely necessary for the DBA to fulfill his or her duties.
With Oracle9i, the DBA Certification track is now divided into 2 primary tiers, as well as a third Master-level tier:
The core Oracle9i DBA track consists of 4 exams: 2 for OCA, and an additional 2 for OCP.
Oracle9i Certified Associate (OCA)
The OCA tier was designed to provide for an entry-level DBA certification designation for the Oracle9i platform. Information Technology professionals with slight or no Oracle suffer can obtain the erudition and skills necessary to demolish into the highly lucrative and challenging Oracle profession. The skills obtained from completing this certification track will allow the candidate to participate on Oracle-related projects acting as junior-level DBAs. Typically, a senior-level DBA will work closely to apportion commandeer DBA tasks to strengthen existing skills, and challenge them to learn slightly more advanced procedures.
The Oracle9i Certified Associate (OCA) requires passing two exams:
Oracle9i Certified Professional (OCP)
The OCP tier was designed for mid to senior-level DBAs with one or more years of focused Oracle DBA experience. The erudition and skills obtained from completing this tier of the certification program prepare the DBA to provide the complete assortment of DBA-related tasks...from Database Design and evolution to production tasks such as Performance Tuning and Backup & Recovery.
The Oracle9i Certified Professional (OCP) requires passing the two exams in the OCA Tier, plus two additional exams:
Note: It is too practicable to become an Oracle9i Certified Professional (OCP) by taking one exam: Oracle9i: current Features for Administrators. To qualify to become an OCP by taking this one "Upgrade" exam, you must first be an Oracle8i Certified Professional (OCP).
Oracle9i Certified Master (OCM)
There is a third tier to the Oracle9i DBA Certification Track, the OCM. This track is targeted at very senior flat DBAs and Oracle consultants. If you hold less than 5 years of staid Oracle work experience...and hold not spent many hours working with and testing advanced Oracle9i features...don't even consider this Tier as an option. I don't spell to sound negative about this, but let me continue with more on the requirements...and hopefully you'll espy what I mean.
The OCM designation first requires that you obtain your Oracle9i OCP credential. Once this is secured, Oracle requires that you win two advanced Oracle courses from Oracle University. These are Instructor-led courses that will cost on fair $2,000 each. There are about a dozen different courses to select from:
Once you've completed the course requirements, you can then register for and win the "practicum" exam. The practicum is a two-day, hands-on performance exam that requires the candidate to fulfill a number of tasks using Oracle9i on the Linux platform. Some of the skills that requisite to be proven include: database configuration, replication, partitioning, parallel operations, diagnostics, troubleshooting, performance tuning, and backup and recovery...all with "real-world" scenarios.
So, what's the problem with that you may ask? First, the skills you'll requisite to know and be able to fulfill are covered in many more than just two of the advanced courses you'll be required to win from Oracle University. So even if you finish win the two required courses, you'll requisite to learn and be prepared for much more. This could require many months of additional self-study or many thousands of dollars in additional Oracle University courses. Second, the cost of the practicum exam is an atrocious $2,000. You won't want to fail and re-take (re-pay) for this exam!!
Don't win me wrong, I admire the conception of a Master-level Oracle certification, but the course requirements and exam cost execute this Tier cost-prohibitive for most.
Continued in share II.For More Information
Get the basics of remote server access as well as how you can benefit from this access today. You will suffer workable examples that will bring you to an immediate and practical understanding of remote server access.This chapter is from the engage
After reading this chapter, you will be able to understand:
For this book's purpose, there are two practicable installation configurations: remote and local. A remote configuration uses your computer to access a remote server machine. A local configuration first determines whether you requisite to access a remote server machine.
You could be working locally, on a computer that has the Oracle database, application server, and client software entire installed on the selfsame machine, or you could be working remotely, using your computer to access a remote server machine. If you hold installed Oracle9i Personal Edition on your computer, then you hold a local installation.
Understand that most real-world databases are housed on a server machine, which is accessed remotely by client machines. If you hold a remote configuration, fancy that often create in a corporate training environment or an educational setting, then you should find the information in this chapter immediately applicable to your work. You may hold been granted access to a remote server machine on which you can complete the exercises in this book. In this case, check with the system administrator to espy if you hold access privileges needed to complete the exercises in this chapter. It is too practicable that your company may hold a evolution configuration where the client, Web server, and database server are on one machine, isolated from the ease of the network. This nature of configuration is illustrated as you work through the exercises in this book.
The selfsame holds staunch for Web sites; the majority of Web sites are too housed on server machines (commonly referred to as simply servers), with a connection to the Internet. Web applications, such as the one you build in this book, hold many Web pages that are dynamically generated from database procedures, so there is not a noteworthy requisite to store static HTML files on a server. Yet image files can be stored inside the database or they can be stored on a Web server, as can any static HTML pages you wish to expend in your application. It depends on how your database is configured. Documents that require a plug-in to view, and any files of other types other than HTML or image that are used in the application, such as Adobe Acrobat files or Word documents that are intended to be downloaded, can be stored on the Web server or in the database. Chapter 13, "Images," illustrates the mode for storing and retrieving documents from an Oracle 9i database.
If you finish not hold access to a remote server machine, then mention to Chapter 2, "Oracle 9iAS," in which you learn that your local machine can be used as the server, the client, and the middleware necessary to complete the exercises in this book. bethink that if you install an Oracle9i database on your own machine, the installation includes a basic Oracle 9iAS. You can store static HTML pages or images in your own computer's file directory, and configure the Oracle HTTP Server component of the Oracle 9iAS to find the files you want. This is done by identifying the directory where your images and HTML files are stored in the Oracle 9iAS, and giving that directory a virtual name, as explained in Chapter 2, "Oracle 9iAS."The Server
The server is a big file directory that you requisite to access in order to complete the exercises in this book. You store files there, such as HTML files or image files, that you wish to execute accessible to users on the Internet. You must map specific directories on the server machine to virtual directories in the 9iAS so that the remedy directories can be accessed, depending on the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) the user supplies.
About 80% of databases are stored on machines that Run the UNIX operating system, and are familiarly known as "UNIX boxes." Since databases are too stored on machines running NT, many NT commands, where they vary from UNIX commands, are noted throughout this chapter.Telnet
Telnet is software that provides a user or developer a artery to connect to a server machine. It is a terminal emulator, which means it gives users the aptitude to log in to a server machine and work on it remotely. When a developer connects to a server via Telnet, the developer begins a Telnet "session" on the server. Telnet allows you to cross platforms, signification that if you are on a Windows PC, you can Telnet to a UNIX server and vice versa.
Most computers running Windows approach with a basic version of Telnet software installed. The quickest artery to originate a Telnet session is to travel to the Start menu and select "Run…." You are asked to "Type the title of a program, folder, or document, and Windows opens it for you." nature the word "telnet" and click OK. A window should pop up that has the word "Telnet" in the title bar.
Once you hold successfully invoked a Telnet session, the next step is to connect to a server. No matter what version of Telnet software you use, you must know three things ahead of time in order to be able to successfully connect to a remote server—the title of the server, a login ID, and a password. If you are going to be connecting to a server and working there, chances are the system administrator knows that you are going to be doing this, and has provided you with the title of the machine and a login ID and password. A sample server title might be server4.virgil.com, where server4 is the title of the machine on the virgil network. Some people prefer to convene a machine by its numeric IP address, such as 220.127.116.11.
The mode you expend to connect to the server depends on the kindly of Telnet software installed on your machine. If your Telnet window has a prompt, you can enter the words "open server4.virgil.com" to open a connection. If your version of Telnet does not hold a prompt, then witness on the menu bar for an particular called "Connect." This is probably the first particular on the menu bar. Click on Connect and you are provided with a set to enter the server name. The host title is another term for server name—the server you are connecting to hosts your guest connection.
You are then prompted for a login title (ID) and password. Enter the login title and password provided by your system administrator. Once you are connected, you should espy a $ prompt, or possibly a % or # prompt. This is fairly anticlimactic. However, be assured that you are connected. You may too espy a list of environment or user settings, or a short message of greeting that was configured by the system administrator.Basic UNIX Commands
Once you hold connected to the server, you requisite to know how to navigate around the directory structure of the server and ply your files. You accomplish this using basic UNIX commands.
The first step in navigation is to know where you are. When a user logs in, the user will always originate from the selfsame initial directory, called the home directory. This home directory is determined when a user account is created by the system administrator, and is included in the configuration for each user who will be accessing the server. Different users are usually assigned different home directories. In order to find out which directory you are presently in, nature the UNIX command pwd. This will print your present working directory. You espy different values for pwd as you travel through the file system. In NT, your prompt is always inclusive of the present working directory.
To espy a list of entire of the contents of the present directory, nature ls and enter. The names of entire of the files and subdirectories in the current directory will be listed. To obtain a list with more details, nature ls -l and press the Enter key. The -l after the ls is called an argument. Supplying arguments after UNIX commands is a artery to supply more specifics about what you want the UNIX command to accomplish. Arguments are listed after the command, and the syntax is a minus symptom followed by one or more letters that attest what options you'd like. The -l is a valid dispute for the ls command, which tells the server to panoply a longer description of each file and subdirectory.
As you navigate through directories, pwd and ls -l (or simply reading the prompt itself and typing dir in NT) will probably be the commands you expend most often, to find out where you are and what is in the directory where you are.
If the ls -l command returns more file and directory names than suitable on the screen, enter ls -l | more instead. The screen fills one page, so to speak, with data, and then UNIX waits for you to press a key before displaying another screen page of data. The selfsame is accomplished in NT by including /p after the command, to attest that the computer should recess and wait for a key to be pressed before displaying more information.
Take a witness at the results from ls -l in more detail. Here is some sample output from running the ls -l command in UNIX:-rw-r--r-- 1 bobo devel 118253 Jul 17 12:05 1stlog1.wav drwxr-xr-x 2 bobo devel 4096 Nov 14 18:30 gfx -rw-r--r-- 1 bobo devel 1036 Nov 14 19:04 index.html -rw-r--r-- 1 bobo devel 973 Nov 14 18:32 index_old.html -rw-r--r-- 1 bobo devel 17451 Sep 5 00:35 syllabus.html -rw-r----- 1 bobo devel 0 May 24 2001 test.htm
The first column shows the file permissions, which are discussed in more detail later. Note that the first character is either a "d" or a dash. You could too espy an "l" here (indicating a symbolic link). A "d" in the first spot indicates a directory. The second column (denoted here by a list of numbers) shows the number of links to a file. The third column shows the owner of this file or directory; in this case, the owner is bobo. The owner is the user who has control over the file. The fourth column shows the group that the user bobo belongs to; in this case, devel. The fifth column shows the size of the file in bytes. The sixth column shows the date and time the file was created or last changed. Finally, the title of the file is displayed in the seventh column.
One of the most necessary columns to pay attention to when developing Web applications or documents is the first column. It indicates what permissions its owner has granted on the file. These permissions are powerful; they determine how much access users can hold to each file, and what users can finish with each file. Through permissions, files are made accessible on the Internet, or blocked from being accessible on the Internet, so it is necessary to understand and check file permissions, and to apply them carefully.Table 3.1. File Permissions Permission Character Number Equivalent read r 4 write w 2 execute x 1 none - 0 (Note that a hyphen symbol, "-", is the character displayed when not anyone of the other three permissions is granted for a file.)
There are three types of file permissions that can be granted on a file or directory. Table 3.1 outlines these three types. Though "none" is listed in Table 3.1 in the "Permission" column, it is not a authorization type, per se. Rather, it is the option available to you if you finish not select to enter one of the other three.
There are four levels of users when granting permissions, however. These four levels are outlined in Table 3.2.
Listed in Table 3.3 are some examples of different types of granted permissions. win a witness at the permissions listings in the left column. After the first character, which indicates whether the current file is actually a directory or just a file, the other nine characters attest the permissions for each nature of user. The second, third, and fourth characters point to permissions at the user level. The next three characters point to permissions at the group level, and the last three characters denote permissions for everyone else, the other level. These last three characters govern whether the public can read, write, or execute a file. These permissions examples provide a description of what each set of permissions permits, and to whom.Table 3.2. Levels of Users Level Letter Who is This user u The owner of the file, not just any user group g A group of users—users can be associated with groups by the system administrator other o Anyone who is not already included in either of the first two levels all a All users Table 3.3. Examples of File Permissions Sample Permissions Access -rwxrwxrwx The user, group, and everyone else can read, write, and execute -rwxr-xr-x Only the owner can read, write, and execute. Everyone else can only read and execute. -rwxrwx-- Only the owner and group can read and execute.
Remember that file permissions determine whether a file is accessible to the public on the Web. In the examples above, the public would be able to access files with the first two authorization sets, but not the third set of permissions. The first file would too be writeable, that is, updateable, by the public.
Always check file permissions to execute confident that they are remedy for each file. Files that are not intended for public access on the Web should not be made accessible to the public. When it is time to "publish" a file, the permissions for entire users must be changed to allow others to view the file.
Each set of permissions has a three-digit numeric equivalent. For example, the permissions -rwxr-xr-x are too known as 755. How is this determined? Each digit corresponds to one of the three levels of permissions; the three digits attest the permissions for the user, group, and other levels, respectively. The number for each flat is arrived at by adding the numeric equivalents for each level. As listed above, each permission—read, write, and execute—has a numeric equivalent. These numbers are added to arrive at each digit. In 755, the 7 in the user slot means the user can read (4), write (2), and execute (1) the file; 4 + 2 + 1 = 7 and 7 is used. The second slot has the value 5, signification that at the group level, only read (4) and execute (1) permissions hold been granted; 4 + 1 = 5, so 5 is used. The third digit is too 5, signification that the permissions at the "other" flat are the selfsame as they are at the group level; everyone else has the aptitude to read (4) and execute (1), and 4 + 1 = 5, so 5 is used again.
The UNIX command to change a file's permissions, or "change mode," is chmod.
The 755 indicates what the file permissions should be for the file "myfile". A 755 is a Popular choice for a file that is intended to be accessed by the public, since it prevents anyone but the owner from updating the file, while allowing everyone else to access it.
Be extremely mindful not to execute files accessible that should not be. To remove access from a level, expend a zero (0) for the corresponding digit. This illustration gives complete rights on the file to the owner, but revokes access from everyone else:chmod 700 myfile
NT users, note that you may change permissions on your files using basic Windows Explorer functionality.Basic Navigation
Now that you know how to determine which directory you are in and what its contents are, how can you navigate? The cd command lets you change directories in both UNIX and NT. Table 3.4 lists some basic navigation commands you can expend for affecting up and down in a directory tree.
Table 3.5 lists some additional commands you can expend in a Telnet session on the server to manage your files.
The cp, or copy, command is particularly useful for making backup copies of documents before changing them or creating current versions of them. The convention is to retain the selfsame title for the file, but append to the title the date that you are changing the file. If you are creating a backup file for myfile on March 1, 2002, you might create a copy called myfile20020301.Table 3.4. Basic Navigation Commands Command Description cd directoryname Navigates downward in the directory tree to the subdirectory "directoryname." If you are unable to stride to that directory, expend ls -l to espy if you are using a valid subdirectory name. cd .. Navigates upward one flat in the directory tree. cd cd without anything after it takes you to your own home directory (NOTE: In NT, entering this command by itself will simply print your current working directory onto the screen.) cd /mydirectory The forward slash means you want to skip to the highest flat in the directory tree, start from there, and travel to the subdirectory "mydirectory." This is the equivalent of typing cd .. repeatedly until you are at the topmost directory, and then typing cd mydirectory. Table 3.5. Additional Commands for File Management and Manipulation Command Example Description rm myfile Deletes or removes the file called "myfile." rm –i Prompts the user before the system deletes the file (as a safety measure). mkdir mydirectory Creates a directory called "mydirectory." rmdir mydirectory Deletes or removes the directory called "mydirectory." cp myfile mynewfile Copies the file "myfile"; the copy is called "mynewfile" and is located in the selfsame directory as the original "myfile" file. cp myfile /home/app/mynewfile Copies the file "myfile"; the copy is called "mynewfile" and is located in the /home/app/ directory. The cp command can copy files to another directory. mv myfile mynewfile Moves the file, or renames it. In this example, the file will be moved from its present location under the title "myfile" to the selfsame directory under the title "mynewfile." This effectively renames the file. This is the artery to rename a file in UNIX. mv myfile /home/app/ Moves the file "myfile" to the directory /home/app/. In affecting the file, it is not too renamed, because no current title was specified. Absolute vs. Relative Path and Filenames
A complete pathname, a pathname starting at the root or topmost directory, is too known as the absolute pathname. The pathname starting from where you are currently, wherever that may be, is known as the relative pathname. consider the following directory structure as an example. classnotes is the topmost directory. homework is a subdirectory of classnotes, and homework_one is a subdirectory of homework.Docroot> classnotes homework homework_one Absolute Paths
An absolute path contains the complete URL (Uniform Resource Locator) for a file. A URL typically consists of four parts: the protocol, the server/domain, the path directory, any subdirectories, and finally, the actual file title itself. An illustration of an absolute path listing is http://www.server4.virgil.edu/classnotes/homework/homework_one/hw1Answers.htm.
An absolute path is the selfsame as the path in the address window of a browser (this address window is too referred to as a location). Absolute paths are fine for linking to files outside of your Web site. However, using the absolute path to link to other files within your Web site has disadvantages.
Say that a Web site uses absolute paths for entire of its links and images. This prevents the Web site from being portable. The result is the site's files cannot be moved to another server without having to change each and every file path to reflect the current address. This really becomes an issue if there are different environments. A typical network infrastructure has multiple environments, each on its own server machine. These include:
Using absolute paths requires that the links be changed each time the site is moved to the next environment on the next machine. How can you avoid this and at the selfsame time execute a Web site portable? The respond is to expend relative paths.Relative Paths
It's preferable to expend relative pathnames when linking to documents within your own Web site. There are two types of relative paths: root-relative paths and document-relative paths.
A relative path uses as its starting point either (1) the Web site's docroot, or (2) the location of the page that holds the relative path. Using this starting point, the browser is able to find a file.Root-Relative Paths
A root-relative path always starts with '/' (a forward slash) and does not comprise the protocol and domain names. The starting point is the Web server's docroot based on the current document.
In this illustration the search begins in the docroot of the Web server on which the current page resides, or www.server4.virgil.edu. To reference the file, hw1Answers.htm, simply start at the topmost directory and drill down to the directory where the file resides.Document-Relative Paths
A document-relative path does not originate with '/' (a forward slash) and, fancy a root-relative path, does not comprise the protocol and domain. The starting point is the current document displayed in the browser. Thus, these paths are relative to the document.
To reference a file in the selfsame directory as the current browser document, just reference the title of the file:
To reference a file located in a directory below the current page, reference the subdirectory and file:
To reference a file located in a directory above the current page, nature in two sequential periods, "..". If the current document is located in the directory "homework_one" and you want to reference a document in "homework", then the path would be written fancy this:
Add an extra set of ".." for each directory that you requisite to travel up. For example, to reference a file located two directories up from the current document, you could write the following:
In this case, navigating two directories up from the "homework_one" directory puts you in the "classnotes" directory.Root-Relative versus Document-Relative Paths
Now that you understand that a relative path is preferable to an absolute path for linking to files within your Web site, which nature of relative path should you use: root-relative or document-relative paths?
It depends. Both give you the desired portability. If a site has an images directory that will not be moved, then a root-relative path is preferable for such a directory since the path to the images contained in it will always be valid regardless if the Web document (that references this directory) itself is moved to another directory. Document-relative paths, however, mind to be shorter, and may be preferable for that judgement alone. Both types of relative paths can become invalid if a file is moved. So, the choice of whether to expend root-relative or document-relative paths depends on the particular Web site and Web developer.Transferring Files via FTP
There are two options for delivering static files with Oracle 9iAS. You can store the files in the database or you can deliver them using the Apache Web server component. In the latter case, you are delivering, or serving, files from the file system of the server. When you hold files that you want to execute accessible on the Web, you must set them on the server. Files can be transferred to a remote server using FTP. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol, which is an apt description of what it does.
You too expend FTP to retrieve files for editing. This engage does not discuss how to edit files directly on the server, since the editing tools available within the UNIX and NT environments (save for the book's discussion concerning Notepad) are outside the scope of this book. However, it is just as efficacious to transfer files from a server to a local machine, edit the files locally using Notepad or another plain text editor, and then transfer the edited file back to the server; in fact, there are developers who prefer to work this way.
To expend FTP, you requisite the selfsame three pieces of information you requisite when connecting to the server: the server name, a login ID, and a password for that machine.
You too requisite to know what nature of transfer you want to accomplish. There are two modes for transferring files: binary and ASCII. The nature of the file being transferred determines which mode should be used. ASCII is used strictly for plain text files only, such as files you open and read in Notepad without affecting the content. entire other files, including word processing documents, images, and .pdf files, must be transferred in binary mode. If you are not unavoidable what nature of file you have, try opening it in Notepad and espy if the content is displayed correctly. If not, expend binary mode.
You expend text commands to transfer files via FTP. be awake that products exist that tender a graphical interface for using FTP, such as WS_FTP and Hummingbird. These can be easier to expend if you find yourself transferring big numbers of files often.
To transfer files, you must first access a "command-line prompt" in MS-DOS. travel to the Start menu and select "Run…" off the menu popup. nature cmd or command in the space provided and click OK. A window should pop up with a prompt such as C:\WINDOWS>.
The FTP utility can connect a Windows PC to a UNIX server, or a Windows PC to a Windows server. The illustration used here illustrates a Windows PC connection to a UNIX server. At the prompt, nature ftp followed by the title of the server you wish to access.
FOR EXAMPLEC:\WINDOWS> ftp server4.virgil.edu
You will be prompted to supply your user title and password. If successful, you espy an ftp> prompt. To view a list of ftp commands available at this prompt, nature allay followed by the Enter key. To view allay for a specific command, such as put, nature allay followed by the command, such as allay put.
The pwd, ls, and cd commands introduced earlier in this chapter are too available at the ftp> prompt, so expend them to navigate to the directory where the file should be placed. be confident you are in the directory where you want to set the document before you proceed.
Set the transfer mode that you want, using either of the two commands, binary or ascii. Below is an illustration of switching to binary, and then to ASCII mode.
To transfer the file, expend the set aside command and the path and filename for the file you are transferring. If you stored a file in C:\TEMP\DOCUMENTS called NEWPAGE.HTM, and you want to transfer it, you enter the following:ftp> set aside c:\temp\documents\newpage.htm
Following are sample messages received after issuing the set aside command:200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for NEWPAGE.HTM. 226 Transfer complete. ftp: 83 bytes sent in 0.6Seconds 1.38Kbytes/sec. ftp>
You can too retrieve a file from the server to work with locally. To accomplish this you expend the win command:ftp> win myserverfile.htm
The myserverfile.htm file is retrieved, and placed in the directory on your file system that you started from when you issued the ftp command.
If you wish to transfer many files at once, you can expend different versions of the win and set aside commands: mget and mput. Since these are commands for many files, instead of specifying one file, expend the asterisk (*) as a "wildcard" character. Using *.* indicates that entire files should be transferred. Here is an illustration of mput that will set aside entire files with the extension .htm on the server:ftp>mput c:\temp\documents\*.htm
Here is the command with sample output. Note that there are two files, apple.htm and orange.htm, and that the ftp program prompts the user to supply a "y" or an "n" for each file before transferring it. The first file is confirmed for transfer while the second is not:ftp>mput c:\temp\documents\*.htm mput c:\temp\documents\apple.htm? y 200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for orange.htm 226 Transfer complete. ftp: 7330 bytes sent in 0.6Seconds 1.38Kbytes/sec. mput c:\temp\documents\orange.htm? n ftp>
The mget command makes similar expend of the asterisk as a wildcard character. Here is a sample of the mget command that retrieves entire types of files from the server that originate with an "a":ftp>mget a*.* 200 nature set to A. mget apple.htm? y 200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for apple.htm(11 bytes). 226 Transfer complete. ftp: 7330 bytes sent in 0.6Seconds 1.38Kbytes/sec. mget artichoke.pdf? n ftp>
Keep in mind whether the current transfer nature is binary or ASCII. In the mget example, the transfer nature was set to A or ASCII. The second file to be transferred was artichoke.pdf, which is not a plain text file. If the file had been retrieved from the server in ASCII mode, the resulting local file would hold been unreadable. It would hold to be transferred a second time, with the transfer mode set to binary. be mindful of the transfer mode whenever you are transferring files. It is particularly simple to overlook the transfer nature when working with multiple files, so the artery the ftp program prompts the user to verify transfer of each individual file is extremely helpful here.
Finally, to discontinuance the FTP session, nature quit or bye and press the Enter key.
Once your files are transferred to the server, bethink to connect to the server using Telnet, and check the permissions on the files, changing the permissions as necessary.
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HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
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HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
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PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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