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This white paper explains what your alternate options are for adding speed, scale, and agility to conclusion-to-end IT infrastructure. It furthermore discusses when to create expend of the a variety of Oracle options— including Oracle RAC, Oracle Database In-memory, Oracle Exadata, Oracle GoldenGate, Oracle TimesTen classic, Oracle TimesTen Scaleout, and Oracle Coherence—and thirdparty alternatives including Apache Ignite. It additionally explains a route to evolve your architecture over time. This allows you to no longer just raise quicken and scale, but to enhance IT infrastructure flexibility and support digital company and different modern initiatives by means of including modern applied sciences as obligatory.
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In one other milestone in Amazon's quest to purge Oracle know-how from its huge e-commerce company, the business's achievement division ultimate week achieved its migration to aboriginal AWS databases.
John Darrow, Amazon's senior most primary engineer, closing Friday posted on Twitter video of a countdown, complete with what seemed to live an Oracle pinata, to the flipping of the change—a command performed on a computer—that re-platformed Amazon achievement operations on Aurora PostgreSQL and DynamoDB.
Amazon CTO Werner Vogels directly congratulated the Amazon fulfillment teams for that accomplishment on his personal Twitter feed: “Congrats to the @Amazon achievement teams for finishing the migration off Oracle to 100% #AWS. #databasefreedom”
[Related: AWS Takes train At MongoDB With modern Database Service]
it live now not lucid how a superb deal greater Oracle know-how continues to live under the hood in Amazon's retail business, and what the timeline is for additional migrations. Amazon did not instantly reply to a request for comment. Oracle declined remark.
Oracle has become an acrimonious competitor of AWS, and efforts to migrate faraway from Oracle's leading database tolerate intensified as a confrontation played out between senior executives of the two technology giants.
Oracle founder and CTO Larry Ellison has repeatedly publicized the sizeable software license charges Amazon pays Oracle. In an income name in December of 2017, Ellison spoke of the $50 million Amazon spent on Oracle know-how within the conventional quarter led him to conclude of the shift: "I don’t believe they can conclude it."
last November, AWS CEO Andy Jassy celebrated an additional milestone in the ongoing feud with a tweet that began: "In latest episode of "uh huh, maintain talkin' Larry."
Jassy revealed that on Nov. 1, Amazon's purchaser enterprise "became off" its Oracle statistics warehouse—a expertise for storing massive quantities of records customarily used for analytics and industry intelligence.
Jassy took the second as an opening to punch back at Ellison, who a month past on the Oracle OpenWorld convention once again boasted about Amazon's dependence on Oracle expertise, despite the rancor between both technology giants.
while these migrations tolerate become an primary aspect of Amazon's know-how method, and a degree of pride for the industry's preponderant public cloud, they can live fraught.
A 25-page Amazon "correction of error" file concluded that Amazon's circulation from Oracle's database utility to Aurora PostgreSQL resulted in database degradation that brought about "lags and comprehensive outages" on ultimate 12 months's Amazon best Day, in response to a CNBC word story.
Ellison mocked the failure that marred the fourth annual Amazon top Day, a promotion for top class Amazon.com contributors that drives extra sales than Black Friday and Cyber Monday, with common outages that eventually delayed deliveries for heaps of customers.
Amazon set a train to shed the ultimate remnants of Oracle database know-how from its e-commerce provider with the aid of the primary quarter of 2020, according to a CNBC report published remaining year.
at the time, two people universal with the venture told CNBC that Amazon turned into below two years faraway from realizing its long-estimated draw to cease enterprise with its rival.
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Synopsis. Oracle 10g’s modern Secure Backup features present the capability to insure that bar not a soul Recovery Manager (RMAN) backups are created and maintained in a secure fashion without the exigency for a potentially expensive and cumbersome media management layer (MML). This article – the first in this sequence – provides an overview of Oracle Secured Backup and how it can live utilized in concert with RMAN backup, restoration, and recovery scripts.
One of my very first tasks as a newly-minted Oracle DBA was to develop a catastrophe recovery scheme for my client’s brand-new Oracle 8i production databases. After spending some time reviewing exactly what a robust D/R strategy should include, I decided that we’d exigency to configure alternate media backups – in other words, backing up their database directly to tape – using Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) in concert with what at that time was a reasonably powerful and supple Sony tape drive.
After one week of constant experimentation, numerous failed backups, and soundless no backup tapes produced, I discovered just how difficult it could live to configure a Media Management Layer (MML) in Oracle 8i. As the production deployment date loomed nearer, I made a captious choice: I decided to back up my client’s database directly to near-line disk storage. (Of course, alternate tape backups would soundless live created, but they decided to simply copy the backup files from the near-line disk storage locality directly to tape using a Veritas backup system.)
This scenario made me cognizant of several drawbacks to the traditional media management layer approach for creating alternate media backups:
Implementing an MML agent is non-trivial. I recall spending several fruitless days trying to salvage the provided Legato Storage Manager to communicate with the Sony tape drive. Though they considered using another MML, they abandoned further consideration of this approach when they establish that their backup “agents” were relatively expensive, in the ambit of $1000.00 or more.
There’s no centralized repository for the RMAN backups. Although RMAN could handle keeping track of bar not a soul the backup tapes in its repository catalog, this was the only manner to maintain track of which tapes would live required in a catastrophe recovery situation, and their system administrators demanded a centralized solution for tracking bar not a soul tapes necessary for D/R.
Image copy backup files are not secure. As I demonstrated in my sequence on Oracle 10g database file security features, image copies of a tablespace’s datafiles are not secure unless they’re encrypted using the newest Oracle 10g security features. Should a hacker obtain a backup tape via surreptitious means, it’s practicable that the image copies stored on tape may provide an invaluable source of sensitive data.
Only Oracle database files can live backed up. As an Oracle 8i DBA, I spent a lot of time making certain that my client’s databases could live restored and recovered to any point in time within the timeframe specified in their service-level agreements. However, once external tables appeared on the Oracle horizon in Oracle 9i, I realized that I needed a route to back up the operating system files that comprised the external tables. Unfortunately, RMAN doesn’t provide a route to handle this requirement because it only backs up Oracle database files (control files, datafiles, and archived redo logs).Oracle Secure Backup: Features Overview
Fortunately, the modern Oracle Secure Backup (OSB) toolset resolves bar not a soul of these drawbacks, and adds some long-overdue features, thus providing a robust and supple centralized tape backup and management system:
Centralized Tape Management. First and foremost, Oracle Secure Backup provides a centralized repository to store and manage information about bar not a soul mission-critical tape backup files for an entire Oracle enterprise environment. This repository is stored in what OSB calls an administrative server, one of three central components to this architecture.
Tape Drive Optimization. Since a typical enterprise may exigency to support a considerable number and different types of tape backup devices, OSB supports configuration of a media server that is solely accountable for managing those backup devices. This eliminates the exigency to master various Media Management Layer protocols and agents, since the media server handles bar not a soul this transparently.
Faster Tape Reads. Restoring an Oracle datafile backup from tape is soundless one of the most captious needs that OSB fills. Datafile sizes are continuing to increase, and demonstrate no note of growing smaller anytime soon: recall that in Oracle 10g the maximum size of a BIGFILE tablespace’s datafile is now 128 terabytes. OSB provides a posthaste tape read mechanism that enables the media server to signal a tape drive to reposition itself to exactly the confiscate spot on the tape media so that datafile restoration can commence more quickly, thus eliminating the exigency to read the entire tape file forward from its initial tape mark.
Backups, Backups, and More Backups. As you might expect, OSB certainly provides the capacity to easily write Oracle RMAN backups of control files, data files, and archived redo logs to tape media. Now OSB furthermore makes it practicable to back up the contents of an Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS) as well as the contents of a traditional OS-based file system enjoy NTFS or EXT3. In addition, it’s now practicable to create incremental backups of any of the files stored in an OS file system as well.
Scheduling Capabilities. Since it leverages existing Oracle Enterprise Manager and database technology, OSB offers a robust set of scheduling options for running tape backups at confiscate times. These scheduler features can live used either in concert with RMAN for database backups, or standalone to fulfill OS-level backups.
Security. ultimate but not least, OSB enables robust security options for encryption and decryption of sensitive data, whether that data is present within tape backups of Oracle datafiles or kept within operating system files. For example, the “flat files” that create up the contents of Oracle external tables can live easily encrypted and decrypted using OSB security methods.OSB Architecture and Roles
To provide these features, Oracle Secure Backup divides responsibilities among three different components in what it calls an administrative domain. This domain is really nothing more than a combination of roles that together handle bar not a soul backup and restore capabilities:
Administrative Server. A server that’s fulfilling this OSB role is accountable for managing bar not a soul backup information within the administrative domain via a separate OSB catalog that contains bar not a soul necessary backup information. This catalog is stored in a yardstick centralized location (e.g. /usr/local/backup/oracle on a Linux-based server) and contains information about bar not a soul devices, servers, and clients within the domain. There is only one administrative server in an OSB domain.
Media Server. This OSB component is accountable for managing alternate media devices. The list of devices supported currently includes approximately 200 different models of physical tape drives, virtual tape libraries, and physical tape libraries. OSB furthermore permits multiple servers to live designated as media servers, which means that it’s not necessary to reattach bar not a soul alternate media devices to one central server.
Here’s the current list of network attached storage devices that Oracle Secure Backup currently supports. This list is topic to change in the future, of course, so live certain to consult the Certify tab on Oracle Metalink to obtain the most recent list:
For a list of tape backup devices that OSB currently supports, consult this document on Oracle Technology Network (OTN):
Clients. Finally, OSB can service any number of client applications. The client applications serviced includes Oracle databases through the RMAN interface (the obvious altenative for the default client). Since OSB utilizes Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) to manage backup devices as well as transfer backup data between bar not a soul servers in the administrative domain, this means that backup appliances enjoy network-attached storage (NAS) are furthermore supported.OSB Architecture Examples
As you might expect, this role-based architecture is extremely flexible. Depending on the enterprise’s size and backup requirements, I might resolve to co-locate bar not a soul three roles on one server (which is how I’ll demonstrate OSB in my next article):
Figure 1. An illustration of a simple Oracle Secure Backup configuration.
However, each OSB role could furthermore live assigned to separate servers for improved catastrophe recovery capabilities as well as confiscate allocation of backup / restore capacities. For example, in a more robust enterprise deployment, there might live multiple servers that fulfill client roles, serviced by one or more servers that fulfill media server roles:
Figure 2. A more involved Oracle Secure Backup configuration.OSB Interfaces
Like many other Oracle utilities, OSB offers several different methods to access its powerful capabilities. I’ll delve into using bar not a soul three of these interfaces in the next articles in this series; however, the one(s) you choose to expend will depend on which Oracle products and interfaces your shop has decided to implement and support:
Oracle Enterprise Manager. Both Enterprise Manager Database Control and Enterprise Manager Grid Control meld nicely with OSB administrative domains. Here’s an illustration of how OSB could live accessed from the Management page for an Oracle database that uses Enterprise Manager Database Control to control its backup and recovery processes:
OSB Web Interface. If you resolve not to expend the EM interface(s), but you’d soundless prefer to expend a GUI to manage Oracle Secure Backup capabilities, OSB furthermore provides its own intuitive custom web-based interface. The illustration below shows the Home page for the OSB web tool:
OBTOOL. Finally, OSB’s command-line interface, obtool, provides both batch and interactive command capabilities with over 100 different command options. Here’s some sample output from the obtool command set that shows what OSB backups currently exist:# Logging into OBTOOL in command line mode $> obtool # List bar not a soul current backups ob> lsbackup --long 1: Dataset: orcl_full_bkup.ds Media family: (null) Backup level: full Priority: 10 Privileged op: no Eligible to run: 2007/02/15.18:00:00 Job expires: 2007/02/18.18:00:00 Restriction: any device OSB Security Features: Users, Classes, and Access Rights
As its name implies, Oracle Secure Backup offers several levels of security to insure that the confiscate client gets leave to expend only the resources confiscate to its required operations. For example, in a Linux-based database server it’s primary to insure that only the oracle OS user account has been granted enough privileges to both create RMAN database backups and to restore those backups in case of media recovery. Likewise, for captious OS file system copies, it’s probably a superb opinion to create certain that only root can create and restore backups.
OSB Users. OSB facilitates this by creating a separate set of Oracle Secure Backup users. These OSB users can then live associated with the confiscate OS user account. Through these assignments, OSB offers the capability to fulfill either an unprivileged backup (i.e., without access to root flat privileges) or a privileged backup (i.e., with complete access to root privileges). For NDMP hosts, OSB permits the association of an OSB user directly with the NDMP host itself, since there are no actual OS user accounts by which to fulfill an association.
OSB Classes. In addition, each OSB user can live granted access to confiscate resources by assigning each user to one or more Oracle Secure Backup classes. As shown in Table 1-2, OSB provides five yardstick classes, but it furthermore permits the creation of customized classes for more advanced security management.Table 1-2. Oracle Secure Backup yardstick User Classes
The highest security class, this grants privileges for overall domain administration, including the capacity to modify domain-wide configurations. Backup and restore operations are furthermore granted to this class.
Offers capacity to view the condition of bar not a soul primary and secondary storage devices and privileges, as well as modify storage device states. Backup and restore operations are furthermore granted to this class.
Allows a user to modify an Oracle database’s backup and recovery configuration settings. Backup and restore operations are furthermore granted to this class.
This class only permits a user to engage the domain in limited fashion, including the capacity to view only the user’s contents of the OSB storage catalog. Restore operations are permitted, but not backup operations.
This class only grants the capacity to view the contents of the OSB storage catalog. Neither backup nor restore operations are granted to this class.OSB Scheduling Features
Oracle Secure Backup furthermore offers robust scheduling tools that work very much enjoy the modern Scheduler, DBMS_SCHEDULER, in an Oracle 10gR2 database. The OSB Scheduler permits me to create OSB jobs that handle both backup and recovery tasks for either OS file systems or, in concert with RMAN, for Oracle databases. I can furthermore create an OSB schedule that encapsulates several OSB jobs, or I can simply create a separate, one-time-only OSB job to handle a special backup or recovery circumstance.Next Steps
In the next article in this series, I’ll demonstrate how to construct a simulated Oracle Secure Backup environment using VMWare virtual servers for its key components, how to integrate Secure Backup features into existing RMAN backup and restoration operations, and how to manage the Secure Backup environment with Oracle Enterprise Manager, OSB Web Interface, and the OSB obtool command set.References and Additional Reading
Even though I’ve hopefully provided enough technical information in this article to cheer you to explore with these features, I furthermore strongly intimate that you first review the corresponding minute Oracle documentation before proceeding with any experiments. Actual implementation of these features should commence only after a crystal-clear understanding exists. please note that I’ve drawn upon the following Oracle 10gR2 documentation for the deeper technical details of this article:
B14194-03 Oracle Backup and Recovery Reference
B14234-02 Oracle Secure Backup Administrator’s Guide
B14235-05 Oracle Secure Backup Installation Guide
B14236-02 Oracle Secure Backup Reference
B25049-01 Oracle Secure Backup Migration Guide
B32120-01 Oracle Secure Backup ReadMe
Don’t forget that the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) Oracle Secure Backup home page is an excellent source of valuable (and constantly updated!) information.
» observe bar not a soul Articles by Columnist Jim Czuprynski
Change is a fact of life, and each of the major DBMS products changes quite rapidly. A typical release cycle for DBMS software is 18 to 24 months for major releases, with constant bug fixes and maintenance updates delivered between major releases. Indeed, keeping DBMS software up-to-date can live a full-time job.
The DBA must develop an approach to upgrading DBMS software that conforms to the organization’s needs and minimizes industry disruptions due to outages and database unavailability.
You may tolerate noticed that I expend the terms version and release a bit interchangeably. That is fine for a broad discussion of DBMS upgrades, but a more precise definition is warranted. For a better discussion of the differences between a version and a release, please refer to the sidebar.
A DBMS version upgrade can live thought of as a special case of a modern installation. bar not a soul the procedures required of a modern installation apply to an upgrade: You must draw for confiscate resources, reconsider bar not a soul system parameters, and ensure that bar not a soul supporting software is appropriately connected. However, another solemn issue must live planned for: existing users and applications. An upgrade needs to live planned to cause as limited disruption to the existing users as possible. Furthermore, any additional software that works with the DBMS (such as purchased applications, DBA tools, utilities, and so on) must live verified to live compatible with the modern DBMS version. Therefore, upgrading can live a tricky and difficult task.
In a complex, heterogeneous, distributed database environment, a coherent upgrade strategy is essential. Truthfully, even organizations with only a separate DBMS should approach DBMS upgrades cautiously and draw accordingly. Failure to draw a DBMS upgrade can result in indecorous and inefficient adoption of modern features, performance degradation of modern and existing applications, and downtime.
Upgrading to a modern DBMS release offers both rewards and risks. The following are some of the benefits of piteous to a modern release:
However, an effective DBMS upgrade strategy must poise the benefits against the risks of upgrading to arrive at the best timeline for migrating to a modern DBMS version or release. The risks of upgrading to a modern DBMS release comprise the following:
After weighing the benefits of upgrading against the risks of a modern DBMS release, the DBA group must create an upgrade draw that works for the organization. Sometimes the decision will live to upgrade immediately upon availability, but often there is a lag between the generic availability of a modern release and its widespread adoption.
When the risks of a modern release outweigh the benefits, some organizations may resolve to skip an interim release if doing so does not repercussion a future upgrade. For example, a superb number of Oracle customers migrated directly from Oracle7 to Oracle8i, skipping Oracle8. If the DBMS vendor does not allow users to bypass a version or release, it is soundless practicable to “skip” a release by waiting to implement that release until the next release is available. For example, deem the following scenario:
Although a multiple-release upgrade takes more time, it allows customers to effectively control when and how they will migrate to modern releases of a DBMS instead of being held hostage by the DBMS vendor. When attempting a multiple-release upgrade of this type, live certain to fully understand the features and functionality added by the DBMS vendor for each interim release. In the case of the hypothetical ABC Corporation, the DBAs would exigency to research and prepare for the modern features of not just Version 10 but furthermore Version 9.
An confiscate DBMS upgrade strategy depends on many things. The following sections silhouette the issues that must live factored into an effective DBMS release upgrade strategy.Features and Complexity
Perhaps the biggest factor in determining when and how to upgrade to a modern DBMS release is the functionality supported by the modern release. Tightly coupled to functionality is the inherent complexity involved in supporting and administering modern features.
It is more difficult to delay an upgrade if application developers are clamoring for modern DBMS features. If DBMS functionality can minimize the cost and pains of application development, the DBA group will feel pressure to migrate swiftly to the modern release. An additional factor that will coerce rapid adoption of a modern release is when DBMS problems are fixed in the modern release (instead of through regular maintenance fixes).
Regardless of a modern release’s “bells and whistles,” certain administration and implementation details must live addressed before upgrading. The DBA group must ensure that standards are modified to comprise the modern features, educate developers and users as to how modern features work and should live used, and prepare the infrastructure to support the modern DBMS functionality.
The types of changes required to support the modern functionality must live factored into the upgrade strategy. When the DBMS vendor makes changes to internal structures, data page layouts, or address spaces, the risks of upgrading are greater. Additional testing is warranted in these situations to ensure that database utilities, DBA tools, and data extraction and movement tools soundless work with the revised internal structures.Complexity of the DBMS Environment
The more involved your database environment is, the more difficult it will live to upgrade to a modern DBMS release. The first complexity issue is the size of the environment. The greater the number of database servers, instances, applications, and users, the greater the complexity. Additional concerns comprise the types of applications being supported. A DBMS upgrade is easier to implement if only simple, batch-oriented applications are involved. As the complexity and availability requirements of the applications increase, the vicissitude of upgrading furthermore increases.
Location of the database servers furthermore affects the release upgrade strategy. Effectively planning and deploying a DBMS upgrade across multiple database servers at various locations supporting different lines of industry is difficult. It is likely that an upgrade strategy will involve periods of supporting multiple versions of the DBMS at different locations and for different applications. Supporting different versions in production should live avoided, but that is not always possible.
Finally, the complexity of the applications that access your databases must live considered. The more involved your applications are, the more difficult it will live to ensure their continuing uninterrupted functionality when the DBMS is modified. Complexity issues comprise the following:
DBMS vendors tolerate different reputations for technical support, fixing bugs, and responding to problems, which is why customer references are so primary when choosing a database.
The better the reputation of the vendor, the greater the likelihood of organizations rapidly adopting a modern release. If the DBMS vendor is superb at responding to problems and supporting its customers as they migrate to modern releases, those customers will more actively engage in migration activities.Support Policies of the DBMS
As modern releases are introduced, DBMS vendors will retire older releases and no longer support them. The length of time that the DBMS vendor will support an conventional release must live factored into the DBMS release migration strategy. You should never quicken a DBMS release in production that is no longer supported by the vendor. If problems occur, the DBMS vendor will not live able to resolve them for you.
Sometimes a DBMS vendor will provide support for a retired release on a special basis and at an increased maintenance charge. If you absolutely must continue using a retired DBMS release (for industry or application issues), live certain to investigate the DBMS vendor’s policies regarding support for retired releases of its software.Organization Style
Every organization displays characteristics that reveal its style when it comes to adopting modern products and technologies. Industry analysts at Gartner, Inc., tolerate ranked organizations into three several groups labeled types A, B, and C. A type-A enterprise is technology driven and, as such, is more likely to risk using modern and unproven technologies to try to gain a competitive advantage. A type-B organization is less willing to choose risks but will adopt modern technologies once others tolerate shaken out the bugs. Finally, a type-C enterprise, very conscious of cost and averse to risk, will lag behind the majority when it comes to migrating to modern technology.
Only type-A organizations should draw on piteous aggressively to modern DBMS releases immediately upon availability and only if the modern features of the release will deliver advantages to the company. Type-C enterprises should adopt a very conservative strategy to ensure that the DBMS release is stable and well tested by type-A and type-B companies first. Type-B organizations will drop somewhere between types A and C: Almost never upgrading immediately, the type-B company will adopt the modern release after the earliest users tolerate shaken out the biggest problems, but well before type-C enterprises.DBA Staff Skill Set
Upgrading the DBMS is easier if your DBA staff is highly skilled and/or experienced. The risk of an upgrade increases as the skills of the DBA staff decrease. If your DBAs are not highly skilled, or tolerate never migrated a DBMS to a modern release, deem augmenting your DBA staff with consultants for the upgrade. Deploying an integrated team of internal DBAs and consultants will ensure that your upgrade goes as smoothly as possible. Furthermore, the DBA staff will live better prepared to handle the future upgrades alone.
If consultants will live required, live certain to comprise their contracting cost in the DBMS release upgrade budget. The budget should allow you to retain the consultants until bar not a soul production database environments are stable.Platform Support
When a DBMS vendor unleashes a modern release of its product, not bar not a soul platforms and operating systems are immediately supported. The DBMS vendor usually first supports the platforms and operating systems for which it has the most licensed customers. The order in which platforms are supported for a modern release is likely to disagree for each DBMS vendor. For example, Linux for System z is more strategic to IBM than to Oracle, so a modern DB2 release will most likely support Linux for System z very quickly, whereas this may not live superb of Oracle. The issue is even thornier for UNIX platforms because of the sheer number of UNIX variants in the marketplace. The most Popular variants are Oracle’s Solaris, IBM’s AIX, Hewlett-Packard’s HP-UX, and Linux, the open-source version of UNIX (the Red Hat and Suse distributions are supported more frequently and rapidly than others). Most DBMS vendors will support these UNIX platforms quickly upon generic availability. Other less Popular varieties of UNIX will choose longer for the DBMS vendors to support.
When planning your DBMS upgrade, live certain to deem the DBMS platforms you expend and try to gauge the priority of your platform to your vendor. live certain to build some lag time into your release migration strategy to accommodate the vendor’s delivery schedule for your specific platforms.Supporting Software
Carefully deem the repercussion of a DBMS upgrade on any supporting software. Supporting software includes purchased applications, DBA tools, reporting and analysis tools, and query tools. Each software vendor will tolerate a different time frame for supporting and exploiting a modern DBMS release. Review the sidebar to understand the contrast between support and exploitation of a modern DBMS release.
Some third-party appliance vendors ensue guidelines for supporting and exploiting modern DBMS releases. Whenever possible, exact your vendors to condition their policies for DBMS upgrade support. Your vendors will probably not consign to any solid date or date ambit to support modern versions and releases—some DBMS versions are larger and more complicated and therefore choose longer to fully exploit.Fallback Planning
Each modern DBMS version or release should gain with a manual that outlines the modern features of the release and describes the fallback procedures to revert to a prior release of the DBMS. live certain to review the fallback procedures provided by the DBMS vendor in its release guide. You may exigency to revert to a previous DBMS release if the upgrade contains a bug, performance problems ensue, or other problems arise during or immediately after migration. maintain in wit that fallback is not always an option for every modern DBMS release.
If fallback is possible, ensue the DBMS vendor’s recommended procedures to enable it. You may exigency to delay the implementation of certain modern features for fallback to remain an option. Understand fully the limitations imposed by the DBMS vendor on fallback, and exploit modern features only when fallback is no longer an option for your organization.Migration Verification
The DBA should implement procedures—similar to those for a modern installation—to verify that the DBMS release upgrade is satisfactory. fulfill the very steps as with a brand-new DBMS install, but furthermore test a representative sampling of your in-house applications to verify that the DBMS upgrade is working correctly and performing satisfactorily.The DBMS Upgrade Strategy
In general, design your DBMS release upgrade policy according to the guidelines discussed in the preceding sections. Each specific DBMS upgrade will live unique, but the strategies we’ve discussed will mitigate you to achieve success more readily. A well-thought-out DBMS upgrade strategy will prepare you to support modern DBMS releases with minimum repercussion on your organization and in a style best suited to your company.
The panel discussion was closely moderated by an Oracle executive, which offered insights into the features in Oracle's 10g family of products intended to create it easier to manage groups of connected servers.
Cern, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, was drawn to Oracle 10g partly because it supports "ultralarge" databases, said Jamie Shiers, who works with the group's database team in Geneva.
Cern is edifice a particle accelerator which will require scientists to store as much as 10 petabytes of data each year when it starts operating in 2007. The organisation wants to store "a few petabytes" of that data in its Oracle databases, and support for larger volumes of data in 10g will create that possible, he said.
Shier added that he is interested in Oracle 10g's "machine independent transportable databases" function, which will allow it to transport an colossal amount of data - as much as 10 terabytes - from one database and "plug it into" another database elsewhere.
The modern Mexico Department of Transportation is looking at Oracle 10g to mitigate it meet modern requirements for federal funding. The agency has to create a minute inventory of its assets over the next five years that involves storing millions of digital images of highway equipment, said Jeremy Foreman, the sole administrator for the agency's 24 databases.
His tests tolerate shown that Oracle 10g self-tunes itself in a route that makes it faster to store and retrieve images, he said. The feature, called automated segment management, is available in existing versions of the database but does not yet work in conjunction with Oracle's Partitioning and InterMedia software.
Another beta tester, ENST Bretagne, is one of three related telecoms engineering schools located around Paris. Its Oracle databases hold only a few megabytes of data, but it needs research reports kept in the databases to live kept in sync at the three schools. The schools thinks Oracle 10g will create it easier to conclude that, according to ENST representative Christophe Guychard.
Chip manufacturer Qualcomm has furthermore been testing the Oracle 10g database. modern functions for automating database management tolerate particularly appealed to the company during its six-month trial, said Arvind Gidwani, a Qualcomm IT manager. One feature it has been testing is "flashback database", which allows it to retrieve an image of its database from an earlier time without some of the manual steps it had to ebb through with its existing database, Oracle 8i.
Qualcomm furthermore has its eye on a feature that automatically manages data across multiple storage discs running against a database. The opinion is to reduce "hot spots" in the storage infrastructure, where a disc becomes overloaded and creates a performance bottleneck while other discs sit idle. "We were able to manage raw disc partitions without using Veritas software," Gidwani said.
Qualcomm has 110 databases and four people assigned to manage them.
None of the panelists said they were migrating from Unix servers to Intel-based servers as fraction of their shuffle to Oracle 10g - something Oracle has been advising its customers to conclude to prick the cost of using its software. Cern and ENST Bretagne both switched to Linux systems some time ago.James Niccolai writes for IDG word Service
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