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Storage significant EMC is taking a comprehensive strategy to records loss prevention (DLP) with its RSA facts Loss Prevention Suite, which contains RSA DLP Datacenter, RSA DLP network and RSA DLP Endpoint with RSA enterprise supervisor; in addition, four RSA appliances are used for the DLP suite.
Editor's notice: The RSA statistics Loss Prevention Suite changed into recently discontinued, and the product hit conclusion of fundamental mitigate on Jan. 31. RSA DLP will hit its End of prolonged assist date on Dec. 31, 2018.
The home rig used for the RSA information Loss Prevention Suite encompass a Sensor appliance, which is employed for passive monitoring; an Interceptor appliance, which analyses and enforces guidelines for outbound e-mail; an internet content material Adaptation Protocol (ICAP) Server appliance, which communicates with ICAP-equipped net proxies to computer screen and manage web and FTP site visitors; and a community Controller equipment, which manages faultless the appliances and communicates with the windows-primarily based RSA commercial enterprise manager software.
The RSA enterprise manager, for its half, is a apposite administration console that displays dashboards, creates reviews, manages coverage construction and deployment, and controls incident management workflow and administers the information loss prevention programs. here is a closer appear at the components of the RSA information Loss Prevention Suite.RSA DLP Datacenter
RSA DLP Datacenter is an information-at-relaxation scanning DLP device that performs automatic discovery for sensitive records on storage structures akin to Microsoft windows file servers, Unix file servers, network-attached storage/storage-area network devices, Microsoft SharePoint, Lotus Notes, databases and local drives on home windows workstations.
The RSA community Sensor appliance is required to install this tool.
The DLP Datacenter is able to effectively scan large storage repositories without the want for dedicated hardware by using brief scanning brokers.RSA DLP Endpoint
RSA DLP Endpoint monitors and controls sensitive statistics on windows endpoints. The network Sensor appliance is furthermore required to install this device, and it uses both brief or permanent endpoint brokers.
RSA DLP Endpoint can pomp screen and forestall sensitive statistics exposures via consumer moves comparable to HTTP/HTTPS posts to webmail and sociable media, portable media reads and writes, printing, and the saving of dainty records to network file shares. selected devices can subsist whitelisted to authorize the switch of sensitive statistics to permitted portable media.
An non-compulsory self-remediation feature in RSA DLP Endpoint may furthermore subsist used to educate clients by proposing true-time remarks on coverage violations.
in addition to home windows, RSA DLP Endpoint helps digital desktops comparable to Microsoft Hyper-V, VMware View, Citrix XenDesktop and XenApp digital purposes.RSA DLP community
RSA DLP network screens and controls dainty facts in motion in actual time to stay away from unauthorized transmissions. DLP network can control company e mail on windows workstations and portable endpoints, comparable to windows laptops, smartphones and capsules. it's furthermore capable of control sensitive information in widely wide-spread TCP site visitors, HTTP/HTTPS net and sociable media site visitors, FTP, snappily messaging and encrypted site visitors.
The community Sensor appliance is required to deploy this device.abstract
The RSA data Loss Prevention Suite is designed to serve medium-sized agencies to large organizations. The product suite covers endpoint records in use, community information in transit and records at rest in a considerable number of information and databases.
RSA DLP utility furthermore addresses information on cellular contraptions, in addition to public cloud functions and capabilities. Pricing for the DLP suite is relative upon a few factors, including which home rig could subsist deployed. corporations attracted to pricing and licensing terms for RSA facts Loss Prevention Suite can contact the vendor or their licensed RSA resale partners.
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providers showcase how they are addressing the difficulty; consultants explore position security may play as services evolve
concerns in regards to the security implications of evolving cloud computing technologies dominated remaining week's annual RSA convention.
With many viewing security as a massive barrier to adoption of cloud-primarily based functions, key companies used closing week's event to exhibit how they're addressing the problem while experts explored the duty safety could play as these services evolve.
Cloud computing may magnify typical laptop security problems, at the least in the brief term, talked about Adi Shamir, professor of mathematics and desktop science at Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science. Shamir become amongst a group of protection pundits who debated the duty of protection in cloud computing during the extremely seen Cryptographer's Panel. Shamir involved that a plague, which would subsist an annoyance on a computing device computing device, as an instance, could subsist catastrophic in hosted computing environments.
Bruce Schneier, chief security expertise officer at BT Counterpane, argued there are few simple adjustments between cloud computing and the client-server model. but Ronald Rivest, a professor of laptop science at MIT, observed that he expects cloud computing to become "a focal point in their travail in safety." He introduced, "i'm confident about cloud computing, however I feel a lot of us beget difficult travail to do."
A slew of providers beget launched unique applied sciences and capabilities to address some of cloud computing's security issues. Cisco rolled out its unique Cisco safety Cloud functions, a SaaS providing designed to connect features from multiple networks and purposes to combine protection in the cloud with enterprise community protection. a Part of Cisco's "Collaborate with confidence" initiative, the cloud safety capabilities encompass a botnet filter and a bunch-primarily based intrusion prevention gadget (IPS). "The most efficient approach you can remedy this [security problem] is thru an architectural strategy." said Cisco CEO John Chambers in a keynote address.
IBM launched safety choices for the cloud in response to studies from its X-force safety analysis community on international crook businesses. The company introduced its unique virtual equipment, the Proventia Virtualized community protection Platform, which consolidates an IPS, net app protection and community policy enforcement into a unique service. massive Blue additionally delivered malware scanning capabilities to its Rational AppScan scanning and testing application, which performs net site scanning and trying out for embedded malware and malicious content.
long-time protection services provider Savvis unveiled a unique managed internet software firewall (WAF) carrier that runs on its Cloud Compute providing. The Missouri-based issuer of co-region and committed internet hosting services claims to subsist one of the crucial first to tender WAF know-how as a carrier (WAF has been available for roughly two years in hardware and utility). in line with Chris Richter, Savvis' vp of protection services, about 80 percent of his company's consumers are looking to a WAF because it's now a requirement of the fee Card industry's records protection typical.
RSA adds unique tools
For utility builders, the ample word at this year's conference came from event sponsor RSA (a division of EMC), which announced that it is making access to tools for edifice protection into apps from the outset less complicated. The company launched the RSA partake project, an pains combining the RSA BSAFE encryption tools for C++ and Java privilege into a free toolkit. RSA partake furthermore includes on-line mitigate in the sort of a developer group, in response to RSA President artwork Coviello in his keynote address. The RSA partake assignment invites builders "to participate in an internet neighborhood with one of the surest minds in cryptography," he observed.
in line with the enterprise, BSAFE partake toolkits are interoperable with existing products based on BSAFE encryption. those items purview from standalone software functions to browsers to gaming methods. RSA is providing a $10,000 reward for the developer who devises "essentially the most inventive and useful use" of BSAFE encryption in a web-based utility. the contest runs unless may 20. involved developers can enter on the RSA partake undertaking community web site.
Microsoft disclosed a partnership with RSA/EMC to combine RSA information Rights management features (IRM) with information loss protection know-how in Microsoft's SharePoint platform. The RSA answer for SharePoint addresses numerous security considerations that often gain up in huge SharePoint shops, Microsoft observed.
"one of the vital challenges with IRM is that it really works well within a firm, however no longer across organizational boundaries," illustrious Scott Charney, vp of Microsoft's trustworthy Computing neighborhood, in a keynote presentation. "by means of doing this partnership with EMC, they remove the capabilities of IRM and travel cross-boundary."
A key component of the unique solution is the RSA restful View tool for SharePoint, which the company spoke of offers a hierarchical view of SharePoint environments, from servers to files, and entry handle facts. The outcomes, Microsoft mentioned, is a simpler technique for picking where sensitive information resides in any given SharePoint ambiance, which can subsist used as a device for assessing chance, amongst other issues. the two groups had banded together final 12 months to integrate RSA's facts Loss Prevention (DLP) classification with the Microsoft IT platform and "future guidance-insurance policy items."
Charney furthermore talked up a few of Microsoft's key safety initiatives, providing an replace on the enterprise's open identity platform mission, code-named "Geneva," which the company says may subsist a key Part in enabling its own Azure cloud capabilities. One aspect of the platform of selected interest to developers is an included framework for edifice .net applications designed to account digital token claims and a server-based mostly digital token provider.
"the artery they accomplish identification nowadays is fully wrong," Charney noted. "i am going to a web site, they problem me for some personal assistance -- a sociable safety quantity, date of birth, mother's maiden identify. They validate that tips after which they supply me a credential. Of course, those secrets don't appear to subsist underhand in any respect. Yet that's the artery they beget now carried out identity on the information superhighway."
He additionally outlined the security elements coming in home windows 7, so they can consist of mitigate for depended on Platform Modules (TPMs) that champion hardware-based mostly encryption, such as the home windows BitLocker pressure Encryption, AppLocker and DirectAccess. Microsoft persevered to account for unique protection features in windows 7 as reported Monday.
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Your self-confidence may subsist misplaced if you were counting on your desktop antimalware to protect unpatched systems against the recently discovered XML flaw in Internet Explorer, based on tests by NSS Labs Inc..
The NSS' test results of six business-grade endpoint protection products from AVG, Kaspersky Lab, McAfee Inc., Sophos, Symantec Corp. and Trend Micro Inc. yielded generally penniless results for stopping known SQL injection exploits of the flaw.
The attacks were reported in the wild on Dec 11 andMicrosoft issued a patch on Dec. 17. It was the software giant's second release outside of its daily monthly patching cycle in two months. NSS conducted its tests the week of Dec. 15, issuing its findings based on live testing through Dec. 18.
NSS tested the products aptitude to halt the exploits at any of three stages: first, detecting and blocking the malicious URL; second, detecting and blocking the exploit; and finally, detecting and blocking the malware when it was inserted in the test clients' memory.
"The issue here is really the exploit, rather than the malware that is delivered afterwards," said Rick Moy, NSS Labs president. "There are really only two exploits. After that, the attacker can load up a keylogger, Trojan, or anything they want. The trick is to tangle it on [its] artery in, before it actually exploits -- and that's what they weren't seeing [it] happen."
Only Kaspersky Lab's Total Space Security 6.0 stopped the exploits icy by blocking URL access. Sophos Endpoint Security and control detected the URL, but only issued a warning without blocking it. However, it did detect and block the exploit.
Symantec's Endpoint Protection 11.0.2 failed to detect the URL or the exploit, but detected and quarantined the malware payload. Trend Micro's Officescan 8.0 SP1 R3 performed similarly, but failed to quarantine one of the malware's two components, apparently because the attack thwarted its aptitude to gain the necessary permissions.
Both McAfee's Total Protection for Endpoint and AVG's Internet Security Network Edition 8.0 failed to detect and halt the attack at any of the three stages.
NSS turned on the most aggressive detection settings, where possible.
Given the results, NSS recommended that companies patch immediately, even if they accomplish not beget time to complete their plenary testing regime.
While NSS cautions that this was a very narrow test of the aptitude to block exploits of a new, captious flaw, enterprises often weigh on vendors' assertions that their products can thwart zero-day attacks by using heuristic and anomaly detection techniques and host intrusion prevention systems (HIPS), since traditional signature-based detection is increasingly ineffective against many Web-borne exploits.
"The HIPS Part surprised us," said Vik Phatak, NSS chairman and CEO. "Most of these products were not inserting themselves between Internet Explorer, which is tightly tied to the OS and the TCP stack. You'd anticipate that the HIPS product would tangle the exploit before it actually knocks over the browser."
Microsoft responded rapidly to issue a patch, but there is always a necessary lag after the discovery of any flaw. And, most companies faith on rigorous patch testing on their system configurations before common patching. Further, patches sometimes fail, and some systems, typically those of remote users who may not log into the network frequently, remain unpatched for a while.
The test results, though narrow, watch to underscore recent testing by Secunia, which tested the exploit detection aptitude of a dozen different consumer endpoint protection products. Secunia turned 144 malicious files and 156 malicious Web pages against XP SP2 with missing patches and a number of vulnerable programs. Symantec was tops with only 64 hits; the other products lagged far behind.
Consumer endpoint protection products are generally regarded as more efficient than trade versions because vendors are justifiably cautious about breaking corporate applications.
Routine physical activity elicits a number of health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of numerous habitual diseases and premature death.1 2 Compared with the common population, elite athletes appear to gleam additional health benefits in the shape of greater life expectancy and lower risk of disease and hospital admission.3–7 However, concomitantly, they dash a higher risk of musculoskeletal disorders and long-term disability after the End of their careers.4 8–11
Systematic injury and illness surveillance is a prerequisite to efficient protection of the health of the athletes. Epidemiological data contribute to better planning and provision of athlete healthcare and, importantly, inform the development of measures to obviate injury and illness.12 13
Some International Sports Federations or research institutes beget set up injury and illness surveillance systems either longitudinally, over one or more seasons, or in inescapable main events.14–76 For Beijing 2008, the IOC developed the IOC injury surveillance system77 78 which, to account for faultless health aspects, was expanded for Vancouver 2010 to furthermore embrace illnesses.79 Since then, the surveillance system has been implemented in London 201280 and Sochi 2014.81 In these Games, the injury and illness incidences beget ranged from 9.6 to 14.0 injuries and from 7.2 to 8.9 illnesses per 100 athletes.
Our train was to report the incidence and characteristics of the sports injuries and illnesses occurring during the Rio 2016 Olympic Summer Games.Methods
We employed the IOC injury and illness surveillance system for multi-sport events in this prospective cohort study.77 They asked faultless National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams to report the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of athlete injuries and illnesses on a standardised medical report shape (online appendix 1). Concurrently, they retrieved the selfsame information on faultless athletes treated for injuries and illnesses in the polyclinic and faultless other medical venues operated by the Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016 (Rio 2016) medical staff. These data were collected through an electronic medical record system (GE Centricity rehearse Solution), which was used for the first time in the Games.Supplementary Material Supplementary Appendix 1
We used the athlete accreditation number to control for duplicates resulting from athletes being treated for the selfsame condition by both NOC and Rio 2016 medical staff. In such cases, they retained the NOC data.Implementation
Four months in advance, they informed the NOCs about the study by letter. The day before the opening of the Games, they organised an information meeting for faultless NOC medical staff, where they furthermore distributed the daily injury and illness report forms, as well as an instructional booklet detailing the study protocol (online appendix 2).Supplementary Material Supplementary Appendix 2
Throughout the data collection, they actively followed up the NOCs comprising more than 10 participating athletes with frequent visits to address any questions and hearten continuous reporting during the games. They recorded the response rate of faultless the 207 NOCs.Definition of injury and illness
We defined injuries and illnesses as unique (ie, pre-existing, not fully rehabilitated conditions were not recorded) or recurring (athletes having returned to plenary participation after a previous condition) musculoskeletal complaints, concussions or other medical conditions (injuries) or illnesses incurred in competition or training during the Rio Olympic Games (5–21 August 2016) receiving medical attention, regardless of the consequences with respect to absence from competition or training.77 In cases where a unique incident caused multiple injury types, they retained only the most stern diagnosis, as determined by their research team based on faultless available clinical data, for analysis.80 stern injuries and illnesses were defined as injuries or illnesses estimated to lead to absence from training or competition of more than 1 week.Injury and illness report form
Our NOC injury and illness report shape (online appendix 1) was identical to the one they used in the Vancouver 2010, London 2012 and Sochi 2014 Olympic Games.79–81 With respect to injuries, they recorded the following data: accreditation number, sport and event, whether the injury occurred in competition or training, date and time, carcass part, type, cause and estimated time lost from competition or training. They recorded data on illnesses in a similar fashion: accreditation number, sport and event, date, affected system, main symptom(s), cause and estimated time loss.
We provided instructions and examples on how to complete the shape correctly in the instructional booklet. Furthermore, they distributed the injury and illness report shape in English, French, Arabic, Chinese, German, Japanese, Russian and Spanish.Confidentiality and ethical approval
We used the athlete accreditation number to query the IOC athlete database for the age, gender and nationality of the injured or ill athlete. They treated faultless information confidentially and deidentified their database after the Games.
The study was reviewed by the Medical Research Ethics Committee of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority (2011/388).Data analysis
We calculated the summary measures of injury and illness incidences (i) according to the formula i=n/e, where n is the number of injuries or illnesses in competition, training or in total during the study period and e is the respective number of exposed (participating) athletes, with incidence proportions presented as injuries/illnesses per 100 athletes. They furthermore calculated the summary measures of injury and illnesses per 1000 athlete-days, where athlete-days correspond to the total number of athletes multiplied by 17 days. They calculated CIs of the risk ratio (RR) of the number of injuries or illnesses between two groups by a simple Poisson model, assuming constant hazard per group. They present injury and illness incidences as means and RRs with 95% CIs. They regarded two-tailed p values <0.05 as significant.Results
In total, 11 274 athletes took Part in the Rio Olympic Games. Of these, 5089 were women (45%) and 6185 men (55%). There were eight double-starters, meaning athletes who participated in two different sports, giving a total of 11 289 athlete exposures to injury or illness.
Throughout the 17 days of the Rio Games, the 207 NOCs submitted 1590 of a maximum of 3519 forms (45%; 97 countries did not submit any data) (table 1). The response rate of the 114 NOCs with >10 participating athletes (accounting for 10 772/96% of faultless the athletes) was 74% (1439 of 1938 forms).Table 1
Response rates, injuries and illnesses in NOCs of different sizes (measured by number of athletes)Injuries overall, by sport and gender
We recorded a total of 1101 injuries, equalling 9.8 injuries (95% CI 9.2 to 10.3) per 100 participating athletes. This corresponds to 5.7 injuries per 1000 athlete-days. On average, 8% (n=931) of the athletes sustained at least one injury. In addition, there were 70 and 10 athletes with two and three injuries each, respectively.
Figure 1 shows the incidence proportion of injured athletes in each sport (additional details are available in online appendix 3). The incidence of injury was highest in BMX cycling (37.5 injuries (95% CI 20.2 to 54.8) per 100 athletes), boxing (30.1 (23.7–36.4)), mountain bike cycling (23.8 (13.1–34.4)), taekwondo (23.6 (15.2–32.1)), water polo (19.4 (14.0–24.8)) and rugby (18.6 (13.6–23.5)), and lowest in canoe slalom, rowing, shooting, archery, swimming, golf and table tennis (ranging from 0 to 3 injuries per 100 athletes).Supplementary Material Supplementary Appendix 3 Figure 1
Proportions of athletes (%) in each sport with injury, injury with estimated time loss ≥1 day, and injury with estimated time loss >7 days.
The injury incidences for women (9.3 injuries (95% CI 8.4 to 10.1) per 100 athletes) and men (9.4 (8.6–10.1), RR=0.99 (0.87–1.11)) were nearly identical (online appendix 4). However, women were at significantly higher risk of injury in sailing (RR=5.33 (1.78–15.93)), shooting (RR=5.14 (1.67–15.78)) and mountain bike cycling (RR=3.61 (1.37–9.50)).Supplementary Material Supplementary Appendix 4
There was no statistical contrast in the incidence of injury between the NOCs that did not report any NOC data (ie, Rio 2016 data only) and the NOCs that reported data (7.9 vs 9.8 injuries per 100 athletes; RR=1.24 (0.72–2.14)).Severity of injuries
While almost two thirds of the injuries were estimated to result in no time loss from sport (n=662, 60%), 40% of the injuries (n=438) were expected to obviate the athlete from participating in competition or training (online appendix 3). device 1 shows the incidence of injuries estimated to lead to ≥1 day and >7 days of absence in each sport. It was estimated that 14% of the injuries (n=153) would result in an absence from sports from 1 to 3 days, 6% (n=64) in an absence from 4 to 7 days, 10% (n=106) in an absence from 8 to 28 days and 10% (n=115) in an absence for more than 28 days. Information on severity was missing for one injury.
A total of 221 injuries (20%) were classified as severe, with an estimated absence from training or competition of more than 1 week (box 1, online appendix 3).Box 1 Information on the 221 stern injuries (estimated absence >7 days), with the sports with the highest numbers in brackets (unadjusted for athlete exposures in each sport).
65 muscle strains (33 in athletics, six in football, six in weightlifting)
57 ligament sprains/ruptures (eight in wrestling, six in athletics, six in judo, five in artistic gymnastics, five in weightlifting)
24 fractures (three in hockey, three in rugby, two in boxing, two in artistic gymnastics, two in mountain bike cycling, two in road cycling, two in water polo)
15 dislocations or subluxations (four in wrestling, three in judo, two in boxing)
12 lesions of meniscus or cartilage
nine concussions (out of 12 in total: seven in boxing, two in rugby, one each in BMX cycling, mountain bike cycling, and handball)
seven stress fractures (three in athletics, two in tennis, one each in boxing and triathlon)
six tendon ruptures
five contusions, haematomas or bruises
five lacerations, abrasions or other skin lesions (three in boxing, two in triathlon)
four nerve or spinal cord injuries
four tendinopathies (three in athletics)
two arthritis, synovitis or bursitis injuries
two ’other bone injuries
The most commonly injured anatomical locations were the knee (n=130), thigh (n=108), ankle (n=103), visage (n=94) and lower leg (n=90). The most common injury types were sprain/ligament rupture (n=187), contusion/haematoma/bruise (n=178), strain/muscle rupture/tear (n=168), laceration/abrasion/skin lesion (n=152) and tendinosis/tendinopathy (n=112). The distribution of injury locations and injury types per sport are presented in online appendices 5 and 6, respectively.Causes, mechanisms and onset of injury
While 71% (n=781) of the injuries were reported to occur acutely, 27% (n=301) were reported to subsist caused by overuse (information missing for 19 injuries). The three most commonly reported injury causes/mechanisms were contact with another athlete (28%), non-contact trauma (21%) and overuse with gradual onset (19%). The distribution of injury causes/mechanisms in each sport is detailed in online appendix 7. Of faultless overuse injuries (gradual and sudden onset) occurring in the Games, 72% were recorded with no estimated absence from competition or training.Supplementary Material Supplementary Appendix 7
In terms of onset, 59% of the injuries were sustained in competition (5.8 (5.3–6.2) injuries per 100 athletes) and 37% during training (3.6 (3.2–3.9) injuries per 100 athletes; RR=1.61 (1.42–1.82)) (information on training/competition was missing for 45 injuries; online appendix 3). However, when analysing only the stern injuries, those estimated to result in at least 7 days of absence, the contrast was greater (RR=2.22 (1.69–2.96)).
Injuries in training and in competition differed significantly in characteristics (location, type, mechanism and subsequent time loss from sport) and in terms of incidence in different sports (online appendix 3). The injury incidence was higher in competition than in training in boxing (RR=7.50 (3.88–14.51)), tennis (RR=6.00 (1.77–20.37)), hockey (RR=5.71 (2.56–12.76)), rugby (RR=5.38 (2.53–11.43)), handball (RR=3.90 (1.95–7.81)), football (RR=3.63 (2.08–6.31)), water polo (RR=3.56 (1.70–7.45)), BMX cycling (RR=3.50 (1.15–10.63)), basketball (RR=3.40 (1.25–9.22)), fencing (RR=3.25 (1.06–9.97)) and judo (RR=2.91 (1.47–5.77)). Swimming was the only sport in which the incidence of injury was significantly higher in training than in competition (RR=0.29 (0.11–0.80)).Illnesses overall, by gender, sport and severity
Among the 11 289 exposed athletes, a total of 613 illnesses were reported, resulting in 5.4 illnesses (95% CI 5.0 to 5.9) per 100 athletes. This corresponds to 3.2 illnesses per 1000 athlete-days. On average, 5% (n=587) of the athletes incurred an illness, as there were 26 athletes with two illnesses each. Women (5.7 illnesses (5.0–6.3) per 100 athletes) were at significantly higher risk of contracting an illness than men (4.0 (3.5–4.5), RR=1.41 (1.19–1.67)).
Figure 2 shows the incidence proportion of ill athletes in each sport (additional details are available in online appendix 3). Diving was the sport with the highest illness incidence (11.9 illnesses (95% CI 6.0 to 17.7) per 100 athletes), followed by open-water marathon (11.8 (2.4–21.2)), sailing (11.8 (8.4–15.3)), canoe slalom (10.8 (3.8–17.9)), equestrian (10.5 (6.0–15.0)) and synchronised swimming (9.6 (3.7–15.6)). The illness incidence was low in a number of sports, with the lowest incidences recorded in trampoline and artistic gymnastics, golf and handball (ranging from 0 to 2 illnesses per 100 athletes).Figure 2
Proportions of athletes (%) in each sport with illness, illness with estimated time loss ≥1 day and illness with estimated time loss >7 days.
One in five illnesses (n=113, 18%) were expected to result in absence from training or competition. Of these, two illnesses (0.3%) were expected to result in an estimated time loss of more than 7 days (chickenpox and conjunctivitis).Affected system, main symptoms and causes of illness
A total of 292 illnesses (47%) affected the respiratory system. The second, third and fourth most frequently affected systems were the digestive system (n=131, 21%, 1% of the athletes affected), skin and subcutaneous tissue (n=53, 9%), nervous system (n=38, 6%) and genitourinary system (n=27, 4%), respectively. Infection was the most common cause of illness (n=346, 56% of the illnesses; 3% of the athletes incurred an infection). Of the 292 respiratory illnesses, 223 (76%) were caused by an infection. The distribution of affected systems, main symptoms and causes of illness per sport are presented in online appendices 8, 9 and 10, respectively.Data sources, and injuries and illnesses per NOC size
Only 6% of the injuries and 2% of the illnesses were captured by both the NOCs and the Rio 2016 staff. While 59% of the injuries and 70% of the illnesses were recorded solely by the NOCs, 27% and 15% of the injuries and illnesses, respectively, were recorded only by the Rio 2016 staff.
Whereas the majority of injured and ill athletes from the larger NOCs were seen internally by the NOC medical staff, athletes from little NOCs were to a greater extent relying on diagnosis and treatment from the Rio 2016 medical staff (table 1).
There was furthermore an inverse relationship between NOC size (measured in number of participating athletes) and the risk injuries, with athletes from smaller NOCs suffering more injuries (NOCs with <10 athletes: 12.2 (9.1–15.2) injuries per 100 athletes versus NOCs with >99 athletes: 8.7 (8.1–9.4) injuries per 100 athletes, injury RR=1.40 (1.07–1.81)).Discussion
The train of the present paper was to report and analyse the incidence and characteristics of the sports injuries and illnesses in the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. The main findings of this 17-day-long prospective cohort study were that 8% and 5% of faultless the 11 274 athletes suffered from at least one injury or illness, with overall incidences of 9.8 injuries and 5.4 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively.
Injury incidences varied from tall to low across sports, with the highest incidences found in BMX cycling, boxing, mountain bike cycling, taekwondo, water polo and rugby. Illness incidences were generally lower, with the highest incidences seen in diving, open-water marathon, sailing, canoe slalom, equestrian and synchronised swimming.Injuries in the Olympic sports
The incidence of injury in the Rio Games (8%) was lower than those in Beijing 2008 (10%),78 Vancouver 2010 (11%),79 London 2012 (11%)80 and Sochi 2014 (12%).81 It was furthermore lower than the injury incidences reported from recent Paralympic Games.33–36 38
When comparing each sport in Rio 2016 with Beijing 2008, higher injury incidences were organize in diving (9% vs 2% of the athletes injured), water polo (19% vs 10%), boxing (30% vs 15%), fencing (8% vs 2%) and sailing (6% vs 1%), while the injury incidences were lower in basketball (8% vs 13%), football (15% vs 32%) and hockey (12% vs 20%).
Likewise, when doing a similar comparison with London 2012, the injury incidences in Rio were higher in boxing (30% vs 9%) but lower in athletics (11% vs 18%), football (15% vs 35%), handball (15% vs 22%), sailing (6% vs 15%), swimming (3% vs 5%) and taekwondo (24% vs 39%).
Some sports beget collected and published data on injury incidences in their world championships or other main events. The incidence of football injury in Rio 2016 was similar to those in the 2014 World Cup,20 200429 and 200831 European championships, but half of that in the 2010 World Cup.19 In athletics, as well as in diving, swimming and synchronised swimming, the injury incidences in Rio were similar to those reported from recent world championships.40–47 In contrast, the Rio injury incidences in open-water marathon and water polo were lower and higher, respectively, than previously reported from the aquatics world championships.46 47 In rugby sevens, the injury incidence in Rio was less than half than previously organize in the Rugby Sevens World Cup and World Series.23 Similarly, the proportions of injured athletes in the beach volleyball tournaments in the three latest summer Olympic Games constitute about one third of that reported earlier in the beach volleyball world championships.14 In handball, the incidence of injuries in Rio was about half of that organize in the men’s world championship in 2015.64 Interestingly, and in contrast, the BMX cycling injury incidence in Rio was about six times higher than that documented in the 1989 BMX European championships.70
A change in injury incidence can subsist the result of changes in the composition of the Olympic Games programme (eg, two unique sports in Rio), environmental factors, venue or track design, competition rules or changes in equipment. Recorded injury frequencies are furthermore likely to subsist influenced by the response rate and reporting accuracy by the NOC and organising committee medical staff. However, their analysis comparing the injury incidences of the NOCs that reported data and those that did not (other than the data recorded by the Rio 2016 staff) indicated no significant contrast between the two. In addition, in Rio 2016, a unique electronic medical record was used for the first time by the organising committee medical staff. Also, incidence differences (lower or higher) may simply subsist the result of a natural variability of athletes’ exposure to risk, an observation that emphasises the value of ongoing surveillance to monitor trends over time, for example, the result of venue design, rule or rig changes in the period between major sports events.Severity of injuries
In major sports events, fancy the Olympic Games, injuries or illnesses of even minor severity with or without time loss beget the potential to subsist both participation limiting and performance inhibiting, and thus obviate athletes from possibly fulfilling their potential and reaching their life-time achievement. In the Rio Games, 40% of the injuries were estimated to result in time loss from competition or training of at least 1 day. This places Rio 2016 between London 2012 and Beijing 2008, in which the equivalent numbers were 35% and 50%, respectively. In contrast, athletes in Rio incurred more injuries of higher severity (20% of the injuries estimated to result in absence greater than 7 days) than the athletes in London 2012 and Beijing 2008 (both 13%).
The sports with the highest incidences of injuries entailing a prolonged absence from training or competition (>7 days) were BMX cycling (10% of the athletes), wrestling (5%), weightlifting (5%) and triathlon (5%), which is similar to the data from the London Games.Causes, mechanisms and onset of injury
The causes, mechanisms and circumstances of injuries in competition and training differed significantly between the different sports. Overall, the distribution of injuries in competition and training (59% vs 37%) was similar to that of London 2012,80 the 2009 and 2013 Aquatics World Championships,46 47 the 2010 men’s Football World Cup,19 and the 2011 Athletics World Championships,42 but not Beijing 2008,78 the 2007 or 2009 Athletics World Championships,40 41 or the 2015 men’s Handball World Championships,64 where the incidence of competition injuries was higher. In Rio 2016, the majority of injuries were reported to subsist acute, whereas overuse injuries with either a gradual or sudden onset accounted for a quarter of the injuries. Although similar distributions were reported from London 2012 and Beijing 2008, these numbers should subsist interpreted with caution, due to the limitations in the recording of overuse injuries in the current methodology.82–86Illness risk during the Olympics
In the lead up to the Rio Games, there were concerns about the risk of gastroenteritis and other infections from various water-borne viruses and bacteria, as well as the mosquito-borne Zika virus, with some calling for the Games to subsist cancelled.87 However, the overall symmetry of athletes with illness in the Rio Games (5%) was actually lower than those reported from London 2012 (7%),80 Vancouver 2010 (7%)79 and Sochi 2014 (8%).81 While the majority of illnesses in Rio (56%) were caused by an infection, the symmetry of athletes contracting an infection (3%) was identical to London 2012 (3%) and lower than Sochi 2014 (5%). Similarly, the incidence of digestive system illness (1%) was identical to London 2012 (also 1%). In terms of the Zika virus, no cases were reported among either athletes or the common population during the Olympic Games in Rio.88
As in previous Olympic Games,79–81 female athletes contracted more illnesses than manly athletes. The selfsame disproportion has previously been reported in the 2009 Athletics41 and Aquatics46 World Championships, but not in the 2011 Athletics42 or 2013 Aquatics47 World Championships, in the 1994–2009 US Open Tennis Championships,89 or in the Winter or Summer Paralympic Games.37 39Methodological considerations
In studies on sports injury, it is usually recommended to express incidences using a measure of time exposed to risk as the denominator.35–37 90 91 However, considering the inherent complexity and size of the Olympic Games, this was not feasible in the present study. Instead, they expressed the injuries or illnesses by means of absolute risk: the number of unique cases per 100 registered athletes (incidence proportion). This approach erroneously assumes that the frequencies and lengths of exposure are identical in faultless sports and that the number of athletes at risk in each NOC is constant throughout the Games. Interpretation of differences in injury incidences or patterns should therefore subsist made with caution.
In the current study, they defined injuries and illnesses as unique or recurring injuries or illnesses receiving medical attention, regardless of the consequences with respect to absence from competition or training. By using such a definition, less grave injuries may subsist overlooked, since such injuries accomplish not always require medical attention.92 93 Nonetheless, their results point to that the majority of reported injuries were not estimated to involve any absence from the sport. Also, in the Olympic Games, faultless athletes can accept healthcare through the athletes’ village polyclinic and the venue medical clinics. However, the availability, size and character of the NOCs’ own medical teams vary among countries, meaning that not faultless athletes benefit from identical healthcare, which may jaundice the injury and illness recording.
Throughout the 17 days of data collection in the Olympic Games, they collected 45% of faultless the NOC injury and illness report forms. If including only the NOCs which they actively followed up (those with more than 10 athletes), as done in previous Olympic Games, the response rate was 74%, which is lower than in previous Games (99.7% in Sochi; 96% in London). It is difficult to speculate as to what the potential causes are. In the future, transitioning to an electronic data collection system, similar to that used in the Paralympics,35 may mitigate to ameliorate the response rate among the NOCs, as well as the accuracy of the data.
A mere 6% of the injuries and 2% of the illnesses were captured by both the NOC and the Rio 2016 medical personnel, underlining the consequence of both recorder groups. Their study furthermore shows that in particular athletes from smaller NOCs benefit from diagnosis and treatment from the local organising committee’s medical staff, whereas the majority of athletes from larger NOCs are seen by their own NOC medical staff. More importantly, they once again identified an inverse relationship between NOC size and the risk of health problems, with athletes from the smallest NOCs experiencing significantly more injuries compared with the largest NOCs. It is difficult not to note this finding in light of divide differences in resources available to the NOC. large delegations usually gain from countries with well-developed exercise physiology and sports medicine communities and are generally able to tender their athletes more comprehensive healthcare and closer medical follow-up both in the lead up to and during the Games, potentially giving them a competitive advantage.Practical implications
The continuously accumulating evidence that injuries and illnesses vary substantially between sports demonstrates the necessity for tailoring preventive measures to the specific context of each sport. Sport bodies such as the IOC, International Paralympic Committee, International Sports Federations (IFs) and NOCs beget the responsibility to protect the health of their athletes. The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages faultless stakeholders to remove measures to ensure that sport is practised with minimal risks of physical injury and illness or psychological harm.94 For IFs, a captious component of this responsibility is the implementation of a scientifically sound injury and illness surveillance system in faultless major events. Some sports federations beget build increasing pains into working systematically and scientifically to protect their athletes’ health.15–20 22–47 49–61 68 They hearten other IFs and sports organisations to follow their example.Acknowledgments
The authors would fancy to admit the contribution and champion of the Rio 2016 staff throughout the different stages of this study. The authors furthermore sincerely thank faultless the NOC medical staff contributing to the data collection: Dr Loughraieb Mok Amine (ALG), Dr Maria Stella Cristiano (ANG), Dr Hugo Rodriques Papini (ARG), Dr Davit Mosinyan (ARM), Dr Carolyn Broderick (AUS), Dr Alfred Engel (AUT), Dr Guliyeva Ludmila (AZE), Dr Virgil Rene Best (BAR), Dr Johan Bellemans (BEL), Dr Henadzi Zaharodny (BLR), Dr Roberto Nahon (BRA), Dr André Pedrinelli (BRA), Dr Stefan Strugarov (BUL), Dr Bob McCormack (CAN), Dr Joshua Ferguson (CAN), Dr Jaques Ngouonimba Goulou (CGO), Dr Alejandro Orizola (CHI), Dr Minhao Xie (CHN), Dr Ngiebe Mubiala (COD), Dr Juan Carlos Quiceno (COL), Dr Karen Nuit Cifuentes Rodríguez (COL), Dr Humberto Evora (CPV), Dr Max Moreira (CRC), Dr Damir Jemmendzic (CRO), Dr Dinko Pivvalica (CRO), Dr Miroslav Smerdej (CRO), Dr Pablo Castillo Diaz (CUB), Dr Constantinos Schizas (CYP), Dr Petr Sikora (CZE), Dr Lars Juel Andersen (DEN), Dr Francis Sanchez (DOM), Dr Pablo Sarmiento Panchana (ECU), Dr Haile Ghirmasion (ERI), Dr Rosario Urena Duran (ESP), Dr Mihkel Mardua (EST), Dr Ayalew Tilahun Beshahe (ETH), Dr Maarit Valtonen (FIN), Dr Philippe Le Van (FRA), Dr Fabrice Bryand (FRA), Dr Niall Elliott (GBR), Dr Mike Rossiter (GBR), Dr Zurab Kakhabrishvili (GEO), Dr Bernd Wolfarth (GER), Dr Odysseas Paxinos (GRE), Dr Georgios Marinos (GRE), Dr Greg Varigos (GRN), Dr Luis Cruz (GUM), Dr Mukkuaka Oda (HAI), Dr Julian Wai Chang (HKG), Dr Eva Vinalti (HON), Dr Peter Barlogh (HUN), Dr Antonius Andi Kurniawan (INA), Dr Leane Suniar Manuruna (INA), Dr Pawanddeep Singh Kohli (IND), Dr Gholamreza Norouzi (IRI), Dr Rod McLoughlin (IRL), Dr Ghaleb Abbas Salih (IRQ), Dr Örnolfur Valoimarsson (ISL), Dr Lubov Galitskaya (ISR), Dr Antonio Spataro (ITA), Dr Derrick McDowell (JAM), Dr Kohei Nakajima (JPN), Dr Tomohiro Manabe (JPN), Dr Shuichi Nakayama (JPN), Dr Hiroshi Takagi (JPN), Dr Serikkazy Mazenhov (KAZ), Dr Natalia Kudashova (KAZ), Dr Elena Galtis (KAZ), Dr Daniel Langat (KEN), Dr Baktygul Alisheva (KGZ), Dr Jungjoong Yoon (KOR), Dr Liga Circule (LAT), Dr Axel Urhausen (LIE), Dr Dalius Barkauskas (LTU), Dr Axel Urhausen (LUX), Dr Christian Nührenbörger (LUX), Dr Semmar Sahar (MAR), Dr Arshad Bin Puji (MAS), Dr Balmus Dorin (MDA), Dr Viridiana Silva Quiroz (MEX), Dr Chuluun Nasanbat (MGL), Dr Bayartuya Bayarsaikhan (MGL), Dr Licienne Attard (MLT), Dr Predrag Dabovic (MNE), Dr Flezer Tomadote (MOZ), Dr Jürgen Hofmann (NAM), Dr Aniya-Mart Kruger (NAM), Dr Cees-Rein van den Hoogenband (NED), Dr Sarub Shrestha (NEP), Dr Abdulkadir Mu’azu (NGR), Dr Thomas Torgalsen (NOR), Dr Lars Haugvad (NOR), Dr Anne Froholdt (NOR), Dr Bruce Hamilton (NZL), Dr note Fulcher (NZL), Dr Victor Carpio Quintana (PER), Dr Bernie Amof (PNG), Dr Hubert Krysztofiak (POL), Dr Maria Joao Cascascais (POR), Dr Kim Yumi (PRK), Dr Rebecca Rodriquez (PUR), Dr Juan Manuel Alonso (QAT), Dr Carlo Bagutti (ROT), Dr Tanase Dan (ROU), Dr Kevin Subban (RSA), Dr Andrej Sereda (RUS), Dr Seydina Omar Diagne (SEN), Dr Darren Leong (SIN), Dr Matjaz Vogrin (SLO), Dr Martin Zorko (SLO), Dr Katja Azman Juvan (SLO), Dr Dragan Radovanovic (SRB), Dr Goran Vasic (SRB), Dr Patrick Noack (SUI), Dr Branislav Delej (SVK), Dr Per Andersson (SWE), Dr Fredrik Bergström (SWE), Dr Mats Börjesson (SWE), Dr Nassoro Matuzya (TAN), Dr Hilary Meechai Inwood (THA), Dr Lin Yzn Chou (TPE), Dr Tonya Welch (TTO), Dr Ayachi Saida (TUN), Dr Tugba Kocahan (TUR), Dr Hassan Kamal (TUR), Dr Abdulhameed Alattar (UAE), Dr Robert Zavuga (UGA), Dr Oleksandr Varvinskyi (UKR), Dr Daniel Zarrillo (URU), Dr Bill Moreau (USA), Dr Svetlana Suyatskaya (UZB), Dr Joze German Medina (VEN), Dr Phu Nguyen Van (VIE), Dr Mulenga Davie (ZAM), Dr Austin Jeans (ZIM), Dr Dorothy Masawi (ZIM) and Dr Nicholas Munyonga (ZIM).
Companies, looking to protect their data and networks from cloud arrangements made by employees, are turning to technology that can sniff out cloud services that are lurking, unbeknownst to the IT department, on corporate networks. Chief information security officers spend the technology, offered by so-called cloud access security brokers, to enforce policies such as blocking risky services or encrypting data before it is uploaded to the cloud.
When Myrna Soto, head of infrastructure and information security at Comcast, used a security broker, she expected to find employees using hundreds of cloud services. She was stunned to find workers using thousands of cloud services. “We really thought they knew what was going on,” said Ms. Soto during a panel at the RSA Conference in San Francisco final week.
At Comcast, employees turned to cloud services for well-intended trade reasons but some could beget had grave consequences. For example, the terms of some cloud services actually give ownership of the data to the service provider. It’s something that is revealed in the terms of service, but few people actually read through the terms. “We organize a yoke instances that could beget been very detrimental in the sense of ownership of data,” she said. Fortunately, in those instances, it was caught before there were problems.
Over the past several years, the market for these cloud security brokers, whose software or services sit between the enterprise and one or more cloud services, has emerged from essentially nothing to about $100 million, said Neil MacDonald, vice president at distinguished analyst at research solid Gartner Mr. MacDonald predicts the market will grow to about $500 million over the next three years. Currently Gartner is tracking more than 15 companies that tender security broker products and services including Symantec, Skyhigh Networks and Bitglass Inc.
To enforce security, these security brokers beget access to faultless of the traffic between the endpoint and one or more software-as-a-service applications, typically through network traffic redirection. Once faultless of the traffic is redirected through the security broker, it’s feasible for companies to remove an inventory of faultless the cloud services employees use, accomplish regulatory compliance reporting and check that sensitive data isn’t leaking into the cloud. At the selfsame time, those security brokers can furthermore apply techniques such as encryption or tokenization to further secure the data. Tokenization, for example, is the process of replacing sensitive data such as bank accounts or personally identifiable information with a surrogate value that wouldn’t subsist useful if stolen.
Cisco Systems Vice President and Chief Information Security Officer Steve Martino discovered 607 cloud services when the company began to spend a security broker. About half of those were cloud services that Cisco already had a relationship with so it meant investigating a few hundred other services, said Mr. Martino, speaking at the RSA conference.
Cisco’s cloud access security broker has established risk ratings of faultless the services which Mr. Martino uses to mitigate determine when the company needs to find safer cloud services for employees to use. Through the process, Cisco discovered that employees were using free file sharing services or ones that simply required a credit card. The company decided it needed different security features and formed a relationship with another file-sharing cloud service provider. It then began to direct employees from the other file-sharing services they used to the more secure file-sharing service. “We were able to build the privilege controls in situation and deliver the capability to the users,” said Mr. Martino.
Over the final several years, cloud access security brokers beget expanded capabilities beyond tracking cloud services, providing encryption, integration with specific cloud platforms such as Microsoft Office 365 or Salesforce and integration with data loss prevention software and services.
Western Union is considering expanding its spend of the Skyhigh service to provide additional security layers as its spend of cloud services expands. “We’re looking at moving to Office 365 and thinking about how they provide security controls around those applications,” David Levin, director of information security at Western Union told CIO Journal. In the past, the company has used the security broker to determine the risk of various cloud services employees spend and to create a safe alternative in the event those services aren’t secure.
The Skyhigh service, for example, can give the company power to allow or traverse access to corporate data in the cloud based on user, device or geographic location. It does application auditing and alerts the company if someone is using the application in a suspicious way. It can encrypt data and give companies the aptitude to enforce corporate policies as data moves from mobile to cloud, on premise to cloud and even from cloud to cloud.
Comcast currently encrypts data but doesn’t spend its cloud access security broker to accomplish so. That may change in the future. “We are actively looking at an opportunity with Salesforce and a yoke other software-as-a-service applications where they are going to explore and pilot the spend of encryption from the broker,” said Ms. Soto.
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