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000-886 IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

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000-886 exam Dumps Source : IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

Test Code : 000-886
Test cognomen : IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 152 existent Questions

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IBM IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1

Tivoli are alive Monitoring services Launched with the aid of IBM | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM is neatly everyday for its developments in high-performance computing, eco-friendly computing, commercial enterprise server and cloud computing alike. great Blue does not look to subsist taking any breaks and, now not lengthy after disclosing plans for the introduction of yet one other incredibly powerful and environmentally pleasant supercomputer (the Blue Waters), it has now offered yet one other development, this time in the enviornment of cloud computing features. This development, wide-spread because the Tivoli monitoring platform, will allow medium-sized businesses to more efficiently deal with as many as 500 monitored substances.

"With digital suggestions because the lifeblood of more groups, even the smallest groups or divisions harmonize with the statistics middle's functionality mission-essential," Al Zollar, generic supervisor of IBM Tivoli, said. "With this recent service, IBM is providing their smartest information seat application through which agencies opt for and pay for what they need. or not it's so effortless that they call most corporations can badge in for it on Monday and fill it operating through Friday. The simplicity is addition to their service administration portfolio."

The respective supplies that the Tivoli monitoring platform can tackle are everything from operating systems to applications and contraptions at once linked to the monitored community. The Tivoli is an on-demand service that immediately detects verve outages and bottlenecks, instantly notifying the IT supervisor and infrequently even resolving observed issues devoid of the want for consumer involvement. The service helps Linux, AIX, HP-UX and Microsoft home windows operating programs, and sum Tivoli Monitoring functions should subsist dedicated and preconfigured.

experience although the carrier would require a monthly fee, no software licensing is required. The set-up payment expenses $6,500 and contracts can moreover cover time intervals of 90 days to a few years. The "touchless" agent-less Tivoli Monitoring 6.2.1. (which monitors instruments and device software) starts at $44 per thirty days per node, with the agent-primarily based OS and software monitoring altenative costing $fifty eight per node each month.

IBM Spectrum | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM Spectrum is the brand the dealer gave to its storage software in 2015, when it moved six products beneath the Spectrum umbrella.

The six items IBM Spectrum items consist of hasten up, Scale, Virtualize, control, offer protection to and Archive.

IBM Spectrum accelerate is shroud storage in response to IBM's XIV storage expertise. it might scale as much as tens of petabytes of potential and subsist deployed on commodity servers, XIV or within the cloud. it's attainable for buy as software or as cloud service with IBM SoftLayer.

IBM Spectrum Scale acts as a handle pane to manage policy-based mostly statistics stream. it's according to IBM's common Parallel File materiel technology. it's purchasable for buy as stand-alone utility, bundled on IBM hardware because the IBM Elastic Storage Server or as a cloud carrier.

IBM Spectrum Virtualize is storage virtualization utility formerly referred to as IBM SAN extent Controller. It allows storage capability from assorted storage systems to subsist pooled so elements corresponding to compression and auto tiering may moreover subsist spread throughout sum storage ability, and for administration from a lone place.

IBM Spectrum handle is management software that runs in IBM's cloud for virtualized, cloud and application-described storage. It provides users with performance monitoring and skill planning for on-premises storage.

IBM Spectrum protect is a backup and healing product primarily based formerly referred to as IBM Tivoli Storage supervisor. It can moreover subsist used with actual, virtual or cloud storage.  It gives snapshots, multi-site replication and catastrophe recuperation administration.

IBM Spectrum Archive software become previously called Linear Tape File device and enables access to IBM tape drives the usage of a 1:1 mapping of file folders to tape drives. It eliminates the want for separate management software for archival storage and amenities movement of information between production and archival potential.

Discovering chance-aware identity and entry management | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Discovering probability-aware identity and entry controlFebruary 7, 2014  |  by means of Veronica Shelley Share Discovering possibility-aware identification and entry administration on Twitter partake Discovering threat-mindful identity and access management on fb partake Discovering threat-mindful id and entry management on LinkedIn find out about identity and access management as a Strategic company Driver at Pulse 2014

nowadays’s hastily-altering, borderless company world and the cell/cloud momentum are breaking down the natural perimeter, forcing us to examine safety differently. possibly your company is imposing recent access policies and controls for mobile users, otherwise you’re relocating purposes into the cloud. Or most likely you’re opening up your industry to external clients to exploit recent enterprise fashions. As cloud, cellular and other IT consumerization traits pick hold, agencies exigency to look to subsist beyond common id and access management (IAM) strategies and sequel into sequel safety options designed for existing and rising traits.

You want an hazard-mindful IAM approach that helps you “believe relish an attacker“, ferreting out weaknesses and highlighting entry anomalies so you can proactively handle security vulnerabilities earlier than disaster strikes. This routine positions your company to enhanced deal with some thing the long Run brings while moreover addressing the latest protection, privacy and compliance necessities.

As huge security breaches continue to fabricate headlines, it’s pellucid that your corporation’s security is only as effectual as its weakest hyperlink – people. with a view to offer protection to the brand recent extended enterprise, you exigency an IAM solution that centralizes guidelines and controls over people’s access while moreover presenting visibility to “who has entry to what” throughout sum materials — both in the cloud and on-premises. a flexible, brilliant IAM respond becomes the key line of defense for the multi-perimeter difficult and an impressive obligate for enterprise improvement on several tiers. With the amend know-how in vicinity, that you would subsist able to sprint your company toward sustainable compliance, decreased possibility, greater provider tiers and lessen operational prices.

Fall Out Boy and Elvis Costello at Pulse Palooza 2014!

Fall Out Boys at IBM Pulse 2014

Fall Out Boys at IBM Pulse 2014

Pulse Palooza skill introduced

have you registered yet for Pulse 2014? If now not, what are you looking forward to! execute you know that in addition to remarkable networking, hearing from industry thought leaders and discovering the way to expend cloud as a boom engine to your company…you’re additionally invited to a non-public rock concert a helpful way to fill you ever rockin’ the nighttime away!

imagine being entertained by now not one, however TWO headline acts. First up, the Grammy-nominated party plunge Out Boy, clean off of two bought-out excursions for their #1 album, shop Rock and Roll.

Hailing from Chicago, plunge Out Boy—Patrick Stump (vocals/guitar), Pete Wentz (bass), Joe Trohman (guitar) and Andy Hurley (drums)—has regarded on the cover of Rolling Stone and other prestigious publications. they've performed on Saturday evening live, The nowadays demonstrate, america’s obtained ability, The Voice, Late nighttime with Jimmy Fallon, The Tonight betray with Jay Leno, Conan, The Late array with David Letterman, Jimmy Kimmel reside and many extra.

Elvis Costello at IBM Pulse 2014

Elvis Costello at IBM Pulse 2014

Up subsequent? not any other than the rock legend and icon, Elvis Costello! From the enduring “Pump It Up” to “Alison” to “day by day I Write the publication,” each music is a hit…and straight recognizable!

Elvis Costello has followed his musical curiosity in a profession spanning greater than 30 years. he's in sum probability finest frequent for his performances with The points of interest, The Imposters and for live performance appearances with pianist Steve Nieve. youngsters, he has additionally entered into acclaimed collaborations with Burt Bacharach, The Brodsky Quartet, Paul McCartney, Swedish mezzo-soprano Anne Sofie von Otter, guitarist bill Frisell, composer Roy Nathanson, The Charles Mingus Orchestra, listing producer and songwriter T Bone Burnett and Allen Toussaint.

So find pumped and find ready to rock – here is one evening you're going to now not exigency to omit! And it sum takes vicinity in one of the Amazing song venues within the nation these days: the MGM imposing garden enviornment.

  • Tuesday, February 25th
  • MGM imposing garden enviornment
  • 7:00 p.m. – 10:00 p.m.
  • food and drinks provided.
  • observe: Pulse Palooza is protected in your buy of a complete conference move, exhibitor circulate, dev@Pulse move, and Tuesday day flow. additional guest passes will moreover subsist bought for $a hundred on-website throughout open registration hours. money cost will not subsist accepted.

    IBM acknowledges that the days of “historic-trend” IAM – with its focus on inside consumer provisioning and lone sign-on to applications inner the firewall – are long gone for good. IAM solutions now should control resources in the datacenter and in the cloud, while supplying identity functions to basically any materiel (akin to desktops, tablets and smartphones) and protecting an eye on compliance necessities.

    So this 12 months’s Pulse give protection to will interlard “the recent pan of IAM”, IBM protection IAM options redesigned to back convey access functions safely, successfully and price-readily to interior and external clients within security and compliance instructions. Their recent threat-aware IAM solutions bring brilliant id and entry assurance and profit valued clientele to evade insider threats and identity fraud, pick care of cloud, mobile and sociable interactions, and simplify identification silos and cloud integrations. The options give a key line of protection of the commercial enterprise’s numerous perimeters.

    be taught from wonderful periods

    As at sum times, the best spokespeople are their customers, who’ll clarify of their personal phrases how IBM IAM solutions back them address not most effectual their protection but their enterprise challenges. These businesses will talk about how their IAM infrastructure has opened recent doors of opening through strengthening protection and assisting their company goals.


    click on here to subsist taught extra about Pulse 2014 convention


    as an example, link Session #IAM-1826 Extending on-line access for nowadays’s company needs to learn the way WestJet, Canada’s most preferred airline, revamped their consumer notification tactics with IBM options. WestJet wanted to lengthen its solicitous customer provider, exceptionally when flights fill to subsist cancelled or delayed, via sending personalised, suggestions-generated messages to customers by way of e-mail or textual content. WestJet teamed with IBM to reinvent its shuttle notification tactics and, in consequence, dramatically stronger customer satisfaction and industry success.

    different shoppers, equivalent to Whirlpool, Republic features, and Getnet, will additionally partake their reports on how IBM IAM options not most effectual bolstered their security attitude however supported recent enterprise initiatives. And their IBM consultants and partners will focus on tips to improvement from their newest IAM solutions, including their able-to-go entry management home equipment, redesigned security id supervisor UI, and their recent listing services offerings.

    hands-on tips on IAM materiel optimization and integration, inspiring consumer success reviews, and insights from safety pundits – you’ll locate sum of it at the 2014 Pulse protect experience. Don’t leave out it!

    take a view at even more classes

    nevertheless now not certain about attending Pulse? pick a view at sum of the different periods within the id & entry administration: business, cellular and Cloud track:

    BNSF Railway’s circulation from Oracle/solar to IBM id and access controlHow execute you migrate 45,000 users to a brand recent id and entry administration platform after ten years of the usage of a closely custom-made solar/Oracle Waveset IAM answer? via heedful and thorough evaluation, a well-deliberate migration strategy, and the information of an experienced methods integrator, BNSF Railway successfully moved to the IBM IAM platform in a comparatively brief length of time. This venture concentrated on migrating to a recent IBM IAM suite of technologies with out dropping any of the capabilities that had been developed in the Oracle/Waveset IAM products over a ten-12 months duration. To reduce charge and abridge the timeline, a key priority turned into to sequel in obligate the recent gadget with minimal custom evolution the usage of handiest “out-of-the-field” capabilities. Come hearken to this compelling Story of how one IBM customer finished its goals using the IBM answer. topic matters will consist of approach, challenges and greatest practices. tips and hints for a success IAM/SAP Integration The forty-yr alliance between IBM and SAP has resulted in lots of a hit implementations, including mobile and cloud computing. This session covers one illustration: Whirlpool’s in-depth id and access management and SAP integration project, which offers comfy entry to the enterprise’s ERP equipment. next, Ingo Dressler from IBM will talk about SAP integration elements with IBM’s IAM products, including a way to tackle the challenges of position-based mostly entry manage and SAP authorization. id Governance and Administration: the Place execute they fade next? over the past few years, groups fill invested in office administration, id governance, consumer provisioning and lifecycle management capabilities with a purpose to gain handle over users and their access to IT components. where execute they fade subsequent with these investments? as an example, over eighty% of organizational counsel resides in unstructured data codecs (Microsoft office files, and so on). File programs and SharePoint farms fill grown continuously over the terminal decade, and the allotted nature of unstructured information skill that entry has now not been centrally managed. The fruits is that they haven't any visibility into who has entry to what, and how they’re getting entry. during this panel session, they can determine organizational needs to expand visibility into sum users and their entitlements, and to govern their access across applications and services. IBM, together with two ready for IBM safety Intelligence partners, ILANTUS and STEALTHbits, will present insights into how id and entry analytics are assisting agencies govern clients’ entry to applications and even gain visibility into the locality of unstructured facts. Demonstrating Governance, risk and Compliance in your Mainframe Mainframes host mission-critical corporate counsel and construction functions for many fiscal, healthcare, executive and retail agencies that require totally secure techniques and regulatory compliance. Demonstrating compliance in your trade will moreover subsist complicated and failure to conform may cease up in vulnerabilities, audit screw ups, loss of recognition, protection breaches, and even device shutdown. How are you able to simplify enforcement of protection policy and most arrogate practices? How can you automate security monitoring, risk detection, remediation and compliance reporting? How are you able to demonstrate governance, possibility and compliance in your mainframe? find out how your contemporaneous mainframe can aid you to conform to industry regulations, reduce prices and offer protection to your industry whereas helping cloud, cellular, sociable and titanic statistics environments. mind the gap: Bridging online access in distributed Environments In strictly regulated industries, managing access rights and preferences for federated users, specially very significant customer populations, whereas protecting compliance can subsist daunting. We’ll talk about challenges linked to cozy person authentication and authorization for essential online functions. Then, note Vanmaele of SecurIT, an IBM protection industry associate, will characterize how their TrustBuilder solution can back in filling the hole with a federation hub the expend of federation proxy and bridging performance. id and entry administration for the internet of issues… Are You able? Analysts call that billions of instruments should subsist related to the “internet of issues” through 2020, including net services and mobile contraptions. security governance and entry handle will require innovation and out-of-the-container considering. in this session, Getnet, a Brazilian fiscal capabilities issuer, will partake their strategy to actual entry handle and labor hour enforcement integration with the IAM platform. Then Aruba Networks, an IBM industry companion, will talk about how their ClearPass network access management respond built-in with IBM security entry supervisor for cellular helps rein in the complexity of BYOD and mobile entry. the mixing provides conclusion-to-end control, from contraptions becoming a member of the network, gaining lone sign-on into the net atmosphere after which getting access to internet resources. This aids integration with mobile materiel administration (MDM) methods (e.g., FiberLink’s Maas360), bettering net useful resource access possibility choices with the aid of including extra device posture-specific attributes. Integrating identification management with Cloud functions wondering what companies are doing with identify integration to/from the cloud? Cloud identities are tremendously multi-faceted. corporations are using open, necessities-based mostly tips on how to provision, lone signal-on (SSO) and govern consumer access to industry and SaaS purposes. Cloud provider suppliers are embarking on providing APIs to profit developers construct and install SaaS. Many groups are maturing the adoption of IAM as a hosted service. This interactive session will deliver key insights into the three mediocre entry elements to the usage of identification as a key protection control for cloud integration. Lighthouse security group, an IBM protection company accomplice, will partake their experiences provisioning clients to entry industrial SaaS (Google Apps). IBM will partake experiences offering cloud infrastructure using SoftLayer and SSO to SaaS (e.g., Microsoft workplace 365). Extending online entry for these days’s industry demandsWhen is identity and access administration greater than only a protection answer? When it helps simplify operations, enable company manner and pressure expanded income. during this panel dialogue, Kevin Minshull, respond Architect at WestJet airlines, discusses the airline’s cell rollout strategy based on integrating IBM WebSphere solutions, including DataPower and API management. Then Patrick Wardrop, IBM protection respond Architect, and Jason Keeneghan, IBM security access Product manager, will warrant how WebSphere DataPower can mingle with IBM security access supervisor to construct protection gateways that offer protection to web, cellular, and API traffic and assist recent enterprise models. IBM security identity manager WebServices and listing Integrator Are you caught with the default GUIs offered with IBM safety id manager (ISIM) for information entry and control? fully now not! This session indicates a arms-on strategy and examples of how to leverage the recent ISIM WebServices using protection listing Integrator (SDI) to operate typical ISIM projects. it will betray the strategies and steps crucial to create this extra ISIM interface. additionally, this presentation will converse in regards to the recent WebServices, and provide a top flat view of the capabilities that can subsist organize to you. finally, it's going to array integration with third-birthday celebration materiel and the combination with IBM Tivoli directory Integrator (TDI). fighting Insider Threats with Privileged identity controlIBM protection Privileged identity supervisor secures, automates and audits using privileged identities to profit thwart insider attacks and enrich protection. Martin Schmidt from IBM will warrant how current Tivoli id supervisor shoppers can with ease add the respond to their current environment with no wholesale improve to IBM safety identification manager, taking edge of enhanced control over privileged and shared accounts. learn how to avoid insider threats and identity fraud with safety Privileged identification manager. chance-conscious identity and entry administration for a Multi-Perimeter worldIn today’s open and interconnected commercial enterprise, typical perimeters are being extended to embody cell, cloud, sociable entry and guidance interactions. To fabricate matters worse, many organizations pan the growing can charge and risk of managing assorted identity and access controls devoid of the necessary safety intelligence to address those challenges. They exigency the means to cozy id and access across the wide diversity of commercial enterprise and information superhighway materials from any device, any provider and any supply. subsist a piece of IBM during this session to evaluation the next era entry and identity administration needs and the respond patterns purchasable these days to allow quick adoption of mobile, cloud, and sociable transformation. 2020 imaginative and prescient: id and entry administration for the subsequent Decade one of the crucial fastest-growing corporations on the earth, Cognizant has over 50 delivery centers global and over one hundred sixty,000 personnel. during this session, William Doyle, Cognizant affiliate vice chairman protection, felony and risk programs, will argue how Cognizant offers its users—including personnel, companies, and customers—with included access inside the IBM protection identity management framework, and how they are adapting to ongoing protection requirements. Then Sridhar Muppidi, Chief know-how Officer for IBM security, will focus on the future of identification and access management and the way IBM’s threat-conscious IAM options will address emerging safety needs. raise Your id and access administration respond with Integrations from Key IBM expertise partners be a piece of a panel of IBM expertise partners to learn about recent and enjoyable identification and entry management (IAM) integrations that fill been validated during the ready for IBM safety Intelligence program. IBM technology companions Aruba Networks, Prolifics, OnWire Consulting group, and SafeNet will talk about how their integrations with key areas of the IBM security portfolio enhance respond cost for shoppers. The panel dialogue will cowl Amazing authentication, cell, cloud, and safety intelligence expend cases. comfortable mobile Transactions: Weakest link or safest bet? The frequent adoption of cell computing is forcing agencies to determine recent methods to at ease cellular entry for their shoppers and personnel. youngsters, as a substitute of being the weakest link in network defenses, could cellular know-how basically subsist more comfy than natural computing through 2014? cozy cell transactions are a key a piece of enabling both client interaction with your business, and a mobile workforce. This comprises realizing the risks worried in offering mobile access to business-important supplies, and the way to innovatively maneuver that risk to permit differentiated mobile access to purposes and data. this benign of graded fill faith mannequin could subsist according to device risk, consumer fill faith or transactional context. This spans each worker access in BYOD situations, as well as purchaser entry to enterprise apps. This session will argue these patterns and characterize a solution strategy the usage of Trusteer and IBM security access manager for cell. identity management and Analytics sit down with one of IBM’s id administration consultants to argue premier practices and techniques for administration of users, including privileged users, roles and rights. entry managementJoin this session for an interactive dialogue on presenting relaxed access and authenticating users; and implementing proactive entry guidelines on cloud, sociable and mobile collaboration channels. Mainframe safetyjoin us for a casual dialogue on the way to expand the effectivity and manageability of mainframe structures, the Place a lot of your corporation’s mission-essential functions, creation systems, and classified industry information dwell. including titanic Brother to IBM security identification manager IBM safety identification manager offers complete id management and industry lone signal-on capabilities for privileged clients. however the truth is that many businesses don’t know what privileged users are really doing as soon as they access enterprise servers. The quickly-becoming style of session pastime recording is addressing this want. with the aid of recording keyword-searchable video and undertaking logs of every person action on each server, a completely recent stage of IT protection and compliance is possible. subsist piece of us as they argue how Fortune 500 companies and different businesses are including “massive brother” session recording capabilities to their networks in an exertion to capture video of sum on-monitor endeavor performed with the aid of interior privileged clients and remote providers gaining access to home windows and Unix/Linux servers. We’ll talk about how adding a key phrase-searchable session recording subsystem to IBM protection id supervisor can aid preclude protection breaches, velocity forensic investigations and ease regulatory compliance. holding The Skies Clear: Intelligently Monitoring & maintaining IT assets across the Cloud We regularly communicate of the migration from physical servers, to virtualization, to hybrid cloud deployments, to affecting wholly into the common public cloud. but the fact is that they are the expend of sum of those applied sciences to allow industry nowadays. It’s this compund of environments that gifts a significant security challenge. How will they fabricate certain that they now fill the arrogate degree of protection controls lively in each and every atmosphere? execute they fill adequate visibility in each of these environments that will plunge in keeping with various compliance frameworks? will they fill ample insight to optimize operations, or to cease today’s advanced threats? during this session, we’ll focus on how can they leverage the materiel they fill at hand today to address these challenges. We’ll discover–in accordance with recent advancements and precise world event–where these materiel are heading in the next few years. Tags: Cloud | Cloud protection | IBM Pulse | identity and access management (IAM) | cellular protection | Technical & Product Veronica Shelley

    WW Market facet manager, IBM security

    Veronica Shelley is the international marketing manager for the IBM security identity and access management (IAM)... 10 Posts comply with on What’s new
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  • Share this text: Share Discovering hazard-mindful id and entry management on Twitter partake Discovering risk-aware identity and entry administration on fb partake Discovering danger-aware identification and access administration on LinkedIn extra on Cloud protection IT engineer configuring a hybrid cloud deployment. ArticleMoving to the Hybrid Cloud? fabricate unavoidable It’s cozy by Design Security professionals developing a  scheme to reduce cybersecurity complexity. ArticleBreak through Cybersecurity Complexity With recent suggestions, no longer greater tools Illustration of hybrid cloud concept. ArticleSucceed in your Cloud Migration With a cozy Hybrid Cloud strategy Executives discussing cybersecurity risk in a board room. ArticleBoard directors Can’t fill the funds for to ignore Cybersecurity risk

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    IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

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    Software offers on-demand datacenter automation solution. | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Press Release Summary:

    Tivoli® Provisioning Manager v3.1 enables users to create, customize, and utilize best-practice automation workflows to respond to changing market needs. On-demand automation solution offers prebuilt workflows that provide control and configuration of vendors' products. Software moreover includes auto-discovery of datacenter resources, integration with Tivoli Configuration Manager, and datacenter change and configuration management capabilities.

    Original Press Release: IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager V3.1 Helps Automate Your Datacenter At a glance

    IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager V3.1 offers the following benefits:

    Allows IT become more agile by simplifying and enabling rapid change to infrastructure resources to profit meet the needs of the on claim business.

    Helps reduce datacenter administration costs, improve server utilization, and reduce infrastructure management complexity by automating manual and repetitive datacenter change management tasks.

    Helps you effectively deploy both simple and complicated applications by understanding software dependencies using Autonomic Computing technology, Solution Installation framework.

    Automates process steps, enabling desired situation management and providing audit records of changes to datacenter assets.

    Helps lower implementation costs and drive a quick ROI by utilizing existing hardware, software, storage, and network devices with out-of-the-box best-practice workflows and recent intuitive GUI.

    Helps reduce security exposures by tracking and applying security patches to datacenter servers.

    For ordering, contact:

    Your IBM representative, an IBM industry Partner, or IBM Americas call Centers at 800-IBM-CALL (Reference: YE001).


    In today's industry environment, being able to respond to changing market needs is a prerequisite to being competitive. However, the delivery of recent products and services often drives up IT costs in the contour of recent applications, IT infrastructure, and back staff. As a result, companies fill been forced to subsist more selective in their industry pursuits, often forgoing projects that would fill required changes to IT infrastructure. recent on claim automation solutions from IBM profit companies leverage their existing IT assets to become more agile and responsive to the business.

    IBM Tivoli® Provisioning Manager allows you to create, customize, and quickly utilize best-practice automation workflows. Prebuilt workflows provide control and configuration of many vendors' products, while customized workflows can implement your company's datacenter best practices and procedures. Additional automation workflows can subsist obtained from the IBM Orchestration and Provisioning Automation Library (OPAL), an online repository where customers, industry Partners, and ISVs can publish and partake workflows for automation. The IBM Tivoli Provisioning Manager moreover includes DB2 Universal Database® Enterprise Server Edition V8.2 with Fix Pack 7A, IBM Tivoli Directory Server 5.2, and components of IBM WebSphere® Application Server V5.1.1.3

    New in V3.1

    Improved auto-discovery of datacenter resources

    Improved integration with IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager adding more out-of-the-box workflows

    Provided Common Datacenter Model (DCM)

    Reserved resources, allowing you to reserve desired resources

    Discovered "drift"

    Datacenter change and configuration management capabilities

    Planned availability dates

    May 10, 2005: Electronic software delivery

    May 20, 2005: Media (Passport Advantage)

    June 3, 2005: Media (Build to Order)

    Related Thomas Industry Update Thomas For Industry

    GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the bespeak 

    This section discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in particular, Kerberos v5 and how this works in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software and what is involved in implementing such a solution. gratify subsist alert that this is not a petty task.

    It’s worth taking a brief view at the relationship between the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

    The GSSAPI does not actually provide security services itself. Rather, it is a framework that provides security services to callers in a generic fashion, with a scope of underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos v5. The current implementation of the GSSAPI only works with the Kerberos v5 security mechanism. The best way to believe about the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in the following manner: GSSAPI is a network authentication protocol abstraction that allows Kerberos credentials to subsist used in an authentication exchange. Kerberos v5 must subsist installed and running on any system on which GSSAPI-aware programs are running.

    The back for the GSSAPI is made feasible in the directory server through the introduction of a recent SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. Through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained previously, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. Additional GSSAPI mechanisms execute exist. For example, GSSAPI with SPNEGO back would subsist GSS-SPNEGO. Other GSS mechanism names are based on the GSS mechanisms OID.

    The Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software only supports the expend of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (for example, Linux), but the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software does not expend them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

    Understanding GSSAPI

    The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) is a yardstick interface, defined by RFC 2743, that provides a generic authentication and secure messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can subsist plugged in. The most commonly referred to GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism that is based on stealthy key cryptography.

    One of the main aspects of GSSAPI is that it allows developers to add secure authentication and privacy (encryption and or integrity checking) protection to data being passed over the wire by writing to a lone programming interface. This is shown in device 3-2.

    03fig02.gifFigure 3-2. GSSAPI Layers

    The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are executed, as opposed to when they are compiled and built. In practice, the most commonly used GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a few different flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only useful to NIS+ applications.

    What can subsist confusing is that developers might write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. There is a titanic difference, and applications that talk Kerberos directly cannot communicate with those that talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not compatible, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An illustration is telnet with Kerberos is a secure telnet program that authenticates a telnet user and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the network during the telnet session. The authentication and message protection features are provided using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos only uses Kerberos, which is based on secret-key technology. However, a telnet program written to the GSSAPI interface can expend Kerberos as well as other security mechanisms supported by GSSAPI.

    The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that provide back for third-party companies to program directly to the Kerberos API. The goal is to animate developers to expend the GSSAPI. Many open-source Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) allow users to write Kerberos applications directly.

    On the wire, the GSSAPI is compatible with Microsoft’s SSPI and thus GSSAPI applications can communicate with Microsoft applications that expend SSPI and Kerberos.

    The GSSAPI is preferred because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos evolution team might change the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist today might not work in the future without some code modifications. Using GSSAPI avoids this problem.

    Another profit of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a titanic benefit, especially if a developer later decides that there is a better authentication routine than Kerberos, because it can easily subsist plugged into the system and the existing GSSAPI applications should subsist able to expend it without being recompiled or patched in any way.

    Understanding Kerberos v5

    Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed to provide tough authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it is included in the Solaris OE to provide tough authentication for Solaris OE network applications.

    In addition to providing a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos moreover offers the faculty to add privacy back (encrypted data streams) for remote applications such as telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and other common UNIX network applications. In the Solaris OE, Kerberos can moreover subsist used to provide tough authentication and privacy back for Network File Systems (NFS), allowing secure and private file sharing across the network.

    Because of its widespread acceptance and implementation in other operating systems, including Windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous environment, allowing users on machines running one OS to securely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

    The Kerberos software is available for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a separate package called the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) software. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is included as piece of the Solaris effortless Access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) package. For Solaris 8 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software package is available with the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack.

    For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as piece of the Solaris effortless Access Server 3.0 package available for download from:

    For Solaris 8 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is available in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, available for download from:

    For Solaris 9 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is already installed by default and contains the following packages listed in TABLE 3-1.

    Table 3-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 Packages

    Package Name



    Kerberos v5 KDC (root)


    Kerberos v5 Master KDC (user)


    Kerberos version 5 back (Root)


    Kerberos version 5 back (Usr)


    Kerberos version 5 back (Usr) (64-bit)

    All of these Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are based on the MIT KRB5 Release version 1.0. The client programs in these distributions are compatible with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with other implementations that are compliant with the standard.

    How Kerberos Works

    The following is an overview of the Kerberos v5 authentication system. From the user’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

    The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that serves as identification for a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver’s license identifies you and indicates what driving permissions you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you execute a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you expend rlogin to log in to another machine), your system transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you license to access the other machine. Transparently means that you execute not exigency to explicitly request a ticket.

    Tickets fill unavoidable attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can subsist forwardable (which means that it can subsist used on another machine without a recent authentication process), or postdated (not convincing until a specified time). How tickets are used (for example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is set by policies that are determined when Kerberos is installed or administered.

    You will frequently notice the terms credential and ticket. In the Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

    Initial Authentication

    Kerberos authentication has two phases, an initial authentication that allows for sum subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

    A client (a user, or a service such as NFS) begins a Kerberos session by requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the Key Distribution seat (KDC). This request is often done automatically at login.

    A ticket-granting ticket is needed to obtain other tickets for specific services. believe of the ticket-granting ticket as something similar to a passport. relish a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and allows you to obtain numerous “visas,” where the “visas” (tickets) are not for alien countries, but for remote machines or network services. relish passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the other various tickets fill limited lifetimes. The incompatibility is that Kerberized commands notice that you fill a passport and obtain the visas for you. You don’t fill to execute the transactions yourself.

    The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it back, in encrypted form, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket using the client’s password.

    Now in possession of a convincing ticket-granting ticket, the client can request tickets for sum sorts of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket usually lasts for a few hours. Each time the client performs a unique network operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

    Subsequent Authentications

    The client requests a ticket for a particular service from the KDC by sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    For example, suppose user lucy wants to access an NFS file system that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. Since she is already authenticated (that is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she attempts to access the files, the NFS client system automatically and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The client sends the ticket to the server.

    When using the NFS service, the NFS client automatically and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS service to the NFS server.

  • The server allows the client access.

    These steps fabricate it flaunt that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, though, as it registers itself with the KDC, just as the first client does.

  • Principals

    A client is identified by its principal. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can allot tickets. A principal can subsist a user, such as joe, or a service, such as NFS.

    By convention, a principal cognomen is divided into three parts: the primary, the instance, and the realm. A typical principal could be, for example, lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM, where:

    lucy is the primary. The primary can subsist a user name, as shown here, or a service, such as NFS. The primary can moreover subsist the word host, which signifies that this principal is a service principal that is set up to provide various network services.

    admin is the instance. An instance is optional in the case of user principals, but it is required for service principals. For example, if the user lucy sometimes acts as a system administrator, she can expend lucy/admin to distinguish herself from her usual user identity. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two different hosts, she can expend two principal names with different instances (for example, lucy/ and lucy/


    A realm is a logical network, similar to a domain, which defines a group of systems under the very master KDC. Some realms are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). Otherwise, the realms are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between the two realms must subsist defined.

    Realms and KDC Servers

    Each realm must comprise a server that maintains the master copy of the principal database. This server is called the master KDC server. Additionally, each realm should hold at least one slave KDC server, which contains duplicate copies of the principal database. Both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets that are used to establish authentication.

    Understanding the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution seat (KDC) is a trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets to clients and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a shroud of data that is presented as the user’s credentials when attempting to access a Kerberized service. A ticket contains information about the user’s identity and a temporary encryption key, sum encrypted in the server’s private key. In the Kerberos environment, any entity that is defined to fill a Kerberos identity is referred to as a principal.

    A principal may subsist an entry for a particular user, host, or service (such as NFS or FTP) that is to interact with the KDC. Most commonly, the KDC server system moreover runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative commands such as adding, deleting, and modifying principals in the Kerberos database. Typically, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are sum on the very machine, but they can subsist separated if necessary. Some environments may require that multiple realms subsist configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for each realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should subsist applied to sum realms and KDCs in the network to ensure that there isn’t a lone feeble link in the chain.

    One of the first steps to pick when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the user has the altenative of whether to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local copy of the master key that resides on the KDC’s local disk. The master key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the user enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically before starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as piece of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc process will fill to manually enter the master key (password) every time they start the process. This may look relish a typical trade off between convenience and security, but if the relaxation of the system is sufficiently hardened and protected, very diminutive security is lost by having the master key stored in the protected stash file. It is recommended that at least one slave KDC server subsist installed for each realm to ensure that a backup is available in the event that the master server becomes unavailable, and that slave KDC subsist configured with the very flat of security as the master.

    Currently, the Sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three types of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-RAW. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher shroud Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and RAW designators mention to the checksum algorithm that is used. By default, the key created will subsist DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption ilk for the KDC. The ilk of key created is specified on the command line with the -k option (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). pick the password for your stash file very carefully, because this password can subsist used in the future to decrypt the master key and modify the database. The password may subsist up to 1024 characters long and can comprise any combination of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    The following is an illustration of creating a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key cognomen 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will subsist prompted for the database Master Password. It is Important that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: master_key

    Notice the expend of the -s dispute to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is in the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with the following mode and ownership settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.EXAMPLE.COM

    The directory used to store the stash file and the database should not subsist shared or exported.

    Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration information from /etc/krb5/kdc.conf. This file contains KDC-specific parameters that govern overall conduct for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters in the kdc.conf file are explained in detail in the kdc.conf(4) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters characterize locations of various files and ports to expend for accessing the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters generally execute not exigency to subsist changed, and doing so does not result in any added security. However, there are some parameters that may subsist adjusted to enhance the overall security of the KDC. The following are some examples of adjustable parameters that enhance security.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will listen on to receive requests. The yardstick port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is included and commonly used to back older clients that soundless expend the default port designated for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE soundless listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. This is not considered a security risk.

  • max_life – Defines the maximum lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to fill users re-authenticate frequently and to reduce the casual of having a principal’s credentials stolen, this value should subsist lowered. The recommended value is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the epoch of time from when a ticket is issued that it may subsist renewed (using kinit -R). The yardstick value here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this value may subsist set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The recommended value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos principal is any unique identity to which Kerberos can allot a ticket. In the case of users, it is the very as the UNIX system user name. The default lifetime of any principal in the realm may subsist defined in the kdc.conf file with this option. This should subsist used only if the realm will hold temporary principals, otherwise the administrator will fill to constantly subsist renewing principals. Usually, this setting is left undefined and principals execute not expire. This is not insecure as long as the administrator is vigilant about removing principals for users that no longer exigency access to the systems.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported by the KDC may subsist defined with this option. At this time, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software only supports des-cbc-crc:normal encryption type, but in the future this may subsist used to ensure that only tough cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The location of a dictionary file containing strings that are not allowed as passwords. A principal with any password policy (see below) will not subsist able to expend words organize in this dictionary file. This is not defined by default. Using a dictionary file is a helpful way to preclude users from creating petty passwords to protect their accounts, and thus helps avoid one of the most common weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will only check passwords against the dictionary for principals which fill a password policy association, so it is helpful exercise to fill at least one simple policy associated with sum principals in the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default system dictionary that is used by the spell program that may moreover subsist used by the KDC as a dictionary of common passwords. The location of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. Other dictionaries may subsist substituted. The format is one word or phrase per line.

    The following is a Kerberos v5 /etc/krb5/kdc.conf illustration with suggested settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. sum rights reserved. # expend is topic to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth Needs affecting -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words } Access Control

    The Kerberos administration server allows for granular control of the administrative commands by expend of an access control list (ACL) file (/etc/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file allows for wildcarding of principal names so it is not necessary to list every lone administrator in the ACL file. This feature should subsist used with imposing care. The ACLs used by Kerberos allow privileges to subsist broken down into very precise functions that each administrator can perform. If a unavoidable administrator only needs to subsist allowed to fill read-access to the database then that person should not subsist granted complete admin privileges. Below is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – Allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • d – Allows the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • m – Allows the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • M – Prohibits the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • c – Allows the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – Allows inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – Allows the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • L – Prohibits the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • * – Short for sum privileges (admcil).

  • x – Short for sum privileges (admcil). Identical to *.

  • Adding Administrators

    After the ACLs are set up, actual administrator principals should subsist added to the system. It is strongly recommended that administrative users fill separate /admin principals to expend only when administering the system. For example, user Lucy would fill two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin principal would only subsist used when administering the system, not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to access remote services. Using the /admin principal only for administrative purposes minimizes the casual of someone walking up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative commands on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals may subsist differentiated by the instance piece of their principal name. In the case of user principals, the most common instance identifier is /admin. It is yardstick exercise in Kerberos to differentiate user principals by defining some to subsist /admin instances and others to fill no specific instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin instance identifier are assumed to fill administrative privileges defined in the ACL file and should only subsist used for administrative purposes. A principal with an /admin identifier which does not match up with any entries in the ACL file will not subsist granted any administrative privileges, it will subsist treated as a non-privileged user principal. Also, user principals with the /admin identifier are given separate passwords and separate permissions from the non-admin principal for the very user.

    The following is a sample /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. # sum rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given complete administrative privilege lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM * # # tom/admin user is allowed to query the database (d), listing principals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@EXAMPLE.COM dlc

    It is highly recommended that the kadm5.acl file subsist tightly controlled and that users subsist granted only the privileges they exigency to execute their assigned tasks.

    Creating Host Keys

    Creating host keys for systems in the realm such as slave KDCs is performed the very way that creating user principals is performed. However, the -randkey option should always subsist used, so no one ever knows the actual key for the hosts. Host principals are almost always stored in the keytab file, to subsist used by root-owned processes that wish to act as Kerberos services for the local host. It is rarely necessary for anyone to actually know the password for a host principal because the key is stored safely in the keytab and is only accessible by root-owned processes, never by actual users.

    When creating keytab files, the keys should always subsist extracted from the KDC on the very machine where the keytab is to reside using the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If this is not feasible, pick imposing care in transferring the keytab file from one machine to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file could expend these keys from the file in order to gain access to another user or services credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever principal that the key represented and further compromise the security of that Kerberos realm. Some suggestions for transferring the keytab are to expend Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to expend the secure file transfer programs scp or sftp offered with the SSH package ( Another safe routine is to Place the keytab on a removable disk, and hand-deliver it to the destination.

    Hand delivery does not scale well for great installations, so using the Kerberized ftp daemon is perhaps the most convenient and secure routine available.

    Using NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm exigency to fill their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable time confine (default 300 seconds). The safest, most secure way to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP client and NTP server software (SUNWntpu package). notice the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the individual commands. For more information on configuring NTP, mention to the following Sun BluePrints OnLine NTP articles:

    It is captious that the time subsist synchronized in a secure manner. A simple denial of service bombard on either a client or a server would involve just skewing the time on that system to subsist outside of the configured clock skew value, which would then preclude anyone from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized services on that system. The default clock-skew value of five minutes is the maximum recommended value.

    The NTP infrastructure must moreover subsist secured, including the expend of server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security features. Using the Solaris Security Toolkit software (formerly known as JASS) with the secure.driver script to create a minimal system and then installing just the necessary NTP software is one such method. The Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    Documentation on the Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    Establishing Password Policies

    Kerberos allows the administrator to define password policies that can subsist applied to some or sum of the user principals in the realm. A password policy contains definitions for the following parameters:

  • Minimum Password Length – The number of characters in the password, for which the recommended value is 8.

  • Maximum Password Classes – The number of different character classes that must subsist used to fabricate up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and convincing values are 1, 2, and 3. The recommended value is 2.

  • Saved Password History – The number of previous passwords that fill been used by the principal that cannot subsist reused. The recommended value is 3.

  • Minimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password must subsist used before it can subsist changed. The recommended value is 3600 (1 hour).

  • Maximum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The maximum time that the password can subsist used before it must subsist changed. The recommended value is 7776000 (90 days).

  • These values can subsist set as a group and stored as a lone policy. Different policies can subsist defined for different principals. It is recommended that the minimum password length subsist set to at least 8 and that at least 2 classes subsist required. Most people attend to pick easy-to-remember and easy-to-type passwords, so it is a helpful understanding to at least set up policies to animate slightly more difficult-to-guess passwords through the expend of these parameters. Setting the Maximum Password Lifetime value may subsist helpful in some environments, to obligate people to change their passwords periodically. The epoch is up to the local administrator according to the overriding corporate security policy used at that particular site. Setting the Saved Password History value combined with the Minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from simply switching their password several times until they find back to their original or favorite password.

    The maximum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which only supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption method, DES-CBC-CRC. In order to preclude password guessing attacks, it is recommended that users pick long passwords or pass phrases. The 255 character confine allows one to pick a minute sentence or effortless to remember phrase instead of a simple one-word password.

    It is feasible to expend a dictionary file that can subsist used to preclude users from choosing common, easy-to-guess words (see “Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is only used when a principal has a policy association, so it is highly recommended that at least one policy subsist in sequel for sum principals in the realm.

    The following is an illustration password policy creation:

    If you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin displays the syntax (usage information) for that command. The following code box shows this, followed by an actual add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] policy options are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy Policy: passpolicy Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of customary keys kept: 3 Reference count: 0

    This illustration creates a password policy called passpolicy which enforces a maximum password lifetime of 90 days, minimum length of 8 characters, a minimum of 2 different character classes (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password history of 3.

    To apply this policy to an existing user, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@EXAMPLE.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy that is applied to sum user principals in a realm, change the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 default kadmin: get_policy default Policy: default Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of customary keys kept: 3 Reference count: 1

    The Reference matter value indicates how many principals are configured to expend the policy.

    The default policy is automatically applied to sum recent principals that are not given the very password as the principal cognomen when they are created. Any account with a policy assigned to it is uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /etc/krb5/kdc.conf) to check for common passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC system should subsist made regularly or according to local policy. However, backups should exclude the /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local policy requires that backups subsist done over a network, then these backups should subsist secured either through the expend of encryption or possibly by using a separate network interface that is only used for backup purposes and is not exposed to the very traffic as the non-backup network traffic. Backup storage media should always subsist kept in a secure, fireproof location.

    Monitoring the KDC

    Once the KDC is configured and running, it should subsist continually and vigilantly monitored. The Sun Kerberos v5 software KDC logs information into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, but this location can subsist modified in the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging section.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should fill read and write permissions for the root user only, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root other 750 25 May 10 17:55 /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos Options

    The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file contains information that sum Kerberos applications expend to determine what server to talk to and what realm they are participating in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is covered in the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism Software Installation Guide. moreover mention to the krb5.conf(4) man page for a complete description of this file.

    The appdefaults section in the krb5.conf file contains parameters that control the conduct of many Kerberos client tools. Each instrument may fill its own section in the appdefaults section of the krb5.conf file.

    Many of the applications that expend the appdefaults section, expend the very options; however, they might subsist set in different ways for each client application.

    Kerberos Client Applications

    The following Kerberos applications can fill their conduct modified through the user of options set in the appdefaults section of the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file or by using various command-line arguments. These clients and their configuration settings are described below.


    The kinit client is used by people who want to obtain a TGT from the KDC. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following kinit options: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.


    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that control its behavior. mention to the man page for complete information. However, there are several involving security issues involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet client uses a session key even after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains lively even after the ticket originally used to gain access, is no longer valid. This is insecure in a strict environment, however, the trade off between ease of expend and strict security tends to lean in favor of ease-of-use in this situation. It is recommended that the telnet connection subsist re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a recent ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is defined by the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), normally defined as eight hours.

    The telnet client allows the user to forward a copy of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system using the -f and -F command-line options. The -f option sends a non-forwardable copy of the local TGT to the remote system so that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other local Kerberized services on that system only. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the remote system so that the TGT can subsist used from the remote system to gain further access to other remote Kerberos services beyond that point. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward options are set to untrue in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments can subsist used to override those settings, thus giving individuals the control over whether and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x option should subsist used to circle on encryption for the data stream. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not back encryption, the session is closed. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following telnet options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the client to try and attempt to log in without prompting the user for a user name. The local user cognomen is passed on to the remote system in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh clients behave much the very as their non-Kerberized equivalents. Because of this, it is recommended that if they are required to subsist included in the network files such as /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the root users directory subsist removed. The Kerberized versions fill the added profit of using Kerberos protocol for authentication and can moreover expend Kerberos to protect the privacy of the session using encryption.

    Similar to telnet described previously, the rlogin and rsh clients expend a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. Thus, for maximum security, rlogin and rsh sessions should subsist re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x options in the very style as the telnet client. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following rlogin options: forward, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line options override configuration file settings. For example, if the rsh section in the krb5.conf file indicates encrypt false, but the -x option is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.


    Kerberized rcp can subsist used to transfer files securely between systems using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It does not prompt for passwords, the user must already fill a convincing TGT before using rcp if they wish to expend the encryption feature. However, beware if the -x option is not used and no local credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the standard, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. It is highly recommended that users always expend the -x option when using the Kerberized rcp client.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] option.


    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is separate from the yardstick Solaris OE login daemon and thus, the yardstick Solaris OE features such as BSM auditing are not yet supported when using this daemon. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is set to true, then the login program will generate a recent Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the user upon proper authentication.


    The Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp client uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 as the default mechanism. This means that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption through the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The only Kerberos-related command-line options are -f and -m. The -f option is the very as described above for telnet (there is no exigency for a -F option). -m allows the user to specify an alternative GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to expend the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The protection flat used for the data transfer can subsist set using the protect command at the ftp prompt. Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports the following protection levels:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • Safe data is integrity protected using cryptographic checksums

  • Private data is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • It is recommended that users set the protection flat to private for sum data transfers. The ftp client program does not back or reference the krb5.conf file to find any optional parameters. sum ftp client options are passed on the command line. notice the man page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In summary, adding Kerberos to a network can expand the overall security available to the users and administrators of that network. Remote sessions can subsist securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks can subsist secured and encrypted across the network. In addition, Kerberos allows the database of user and service principals to subsist managed securely from any machine which supports the SEAM software Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with other RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and some MS Windows 2000 lively Directory services. Adopting the practices recommended in this section further secure the SEAM software infrastructure to profit ensure a safer network environment.

    Implementing the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Software and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This section provides a high-level overview, followed by the in-depth procedures that characterize the setup necessary to implement the GSSAPI mechanism and the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of EXAMPLE.COM for this purpose. The following list gives an initial high-level overview of the steps required, with the next section providing the particular information.

  • Setup DNS on the client machine. This is an Important step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • Install and configure the Sun ONE Directory Server version 5.2 software.

  • Check that the directory server and client both fill the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • Install and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • Move the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /etc/gss/mech file.

  • Create recent principals using kadmin.local, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration system.

  • Modify the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This access is necessary for the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • Check that you fill a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • Perform an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line instrument from the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software to test and verify.

  • The sections that succeed fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS Client

    To subsist a DNS client, a machine must Run the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a lone program. It is a set of dynamic library routines used by applications that exigency to know machine names. The resolver’s office is to resolve users’ queries. To execute that, it queries a cognomen server, which then returns either the requested information or a referral to another server. Once the resolver is configured, a machine can request DNS service from a cognomen server.

    The following illustration shows you how to configure the resolv.conf(4) file in the server kdc1 in the domain.

    ; ; /etc/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; domain nameserver nameserver

    The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain cognomen in the form:

    domain domainname

    No spaces or tabs are permitted at the cease of the domain name. fabricate certain that you press recrudesce immediately after the terminal character of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself in the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-only cognomen servers that the resolver should consult to resolve queries. cognomen server entries fill the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP address of a slave or cache-only DNS cognomen server. The resolver queries these cognomen servers in the order they are listed until it obtains the information it needs.

    For more particular information of what the resolv.conf file does, mention to the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (Master KDC)

    In the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm cognomen = EXAMPLE.COM

  • DNS domain cognomen =

  • Master KDC =

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • Online profit URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This procedure requires that DNS is running.

    Before you initiate this configuration process, fabricate a backup of the /etc/krb5 files.

  • Become superuser on the master KDC. (kdc1, in this example)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You exigency to change the realm names and the names of the servers. notice the krb5.conf(4) man page for a complete description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = admin server = } [domain_realm] = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = { help_url = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956 }

    In this example, the lines for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and sum domain_realm entries were changed. In addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ in the [realms] section was deleted and the line that defines the help_url was edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You must change the realm name. notice the kdc.conf( 4) man page for a complete description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM= { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s exigency affecting ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth }

    In this example, only the realm cognomen definition in the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database by using the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s option, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself before the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key cognomen 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will subsist prompted for the database Master Password. It is Important that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: key

    The -r option followed by the realm cognomen is not required if the realm cognomen is equivalent to the domain cognomen in the server’s cognomen space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access control list file (kadm5.acl).

    Once populated, the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file contains sum principal names that are allowed to administer the KDC. The first entry that is added might view similar to the following:

    lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM *

    This entry gives the lucy/admin principal in the EXAMPLE.COM realm the faculty to modify principals or policies in the KDC. The default installation includes an asterisk (*) to match sum admin principals. This default could subsist a security risk, so it is more secure to comprise a list of sum of the admin principals. notice the kadm5.acl(4) man page for more information.

  • Edit the /etc/gss/mech file.

    The /etc/gss/mech file contains the GSSAPI based security mechanism names, its expostulate identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the services for that mechanism under the GSSAPI. Change the following from:

    # Mechanism cognomen expostulate Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 diffie_hellman_1024_0 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/ gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism cognomen expostulate Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/ gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 diffie_hellman_1024_0
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    You can add as many admin principals as you need. But you must add at least one admin principal to complete the KDC configuration process. In the following example, lucy/admin is added as the principal.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.local kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Re-enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin.local:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind service.

    The following command sequence creates a special keytab file with principal entries for lucy and tom. These principals are needed for the kadmind service. In addition, you can optionally add NFS service principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and so on.

    When the principal instance is a host name, the fully qualified domain cognomen (FQDN) must subsist entered in lowercase letters, regardless of the case of the domain cognomen in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/ Entry for principal kadmin/ with kvno 3, encryption ilk DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/ Entry for principal changepw/ with kvno 3, encryption ilk DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local:

    Once you fill added sum of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin.local as follows:

    kadmin.local: quit
  • Start the Kerberos daemons as shown:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc start kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master start


    You cease the Kerberos daemons by running the following commands:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals by using the SEAM Administration Tool.

    To execute this, you must log on with one of the admin principal names that you created earlier in this procedure. However, the following command-line illustration is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the master KDC host principal which is used by Kerberized applications such as klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/ Principal "host/" created. kadmin:
  • (Optional) Create the master KDC root principal which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/ Enter password for principal root/ password Re-enter password for principal root/ password Principal "root/" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host principal to the master KDC’s keytab file which allows this principal to subsist used automatically.

    kadmin: ktadd host/ kadmin: Entry for principal host/ with ->kvno 3, encryption ilk DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    Once you fill added sum of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: quit
  • Run the kinit command to obtain and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the principal.

    This ticket is used for authentication by the Kerberos v5 system. kinit only needs to subsist Run by the client at this time. If the Sun ONE directory server were a Kerberos client also, this step would exigency to subsist done for the server. However, you may want to expend this to verify that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/ Password for root/ passwd
  • Check and verify that you fill a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reports if there is a keytab file and displays the principals. If the results betray that there is no keytab file or that there is no NFS service principal, you exigency to verify the completion of sum of the previous steps.

    # klist -k Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO Principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/

    The illustration given here assumes a lone domain. The KDC may reside on the very machine as the Sun ONE directory server for testing purposes, but there are security considerations to pick into account on where the KDCs reside.

  • With regards to the configuration of Kerberos v5 in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software, you are finished with the Kerberos v5 part. It’s now time to view at what is required to subsist configured on the Sun ONE directory server side.

    Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As previously discussed, the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), is yardstick interface that enables you to expend a security mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate clients. The server uses the GSSAPI to actually validate the identity of a particular user. Once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to apply the GSSAPI mapping rules to obtain a DN that is the bind DN for sum operations during the connection.

    The first particular discussed is the recent identity mapping functionality.

    The identity mapping service is required to map the credentials of another protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the directory server. As you will notice in the following example, the identity mapping feature uses the entries in the cn=identity mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each protocol is defined and whereby each protocol must execute the identity mapping. For more information on the identity mapping feature, mention to the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Documents.

    To execute the GSSAPI Configuration for the Sun ONE Directory Server Software
  • Check and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is returned as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    Example of using ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and find the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s base "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=EXTERNAL supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • Verify that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    By default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    Example of using ldapsearch to verify that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=Directory Manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=security,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # Should return # cn=SASL, cn=security, cn=config objectClass=top objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/Sun/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the Sun ONE Directory Server so that it contains the amend suffix for your directory server.

    You exigency to execute this because by default, no GSSAPI mappings are defined in the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

    Example of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: default dsMappedDN: uid=${Principal},ou=people,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: ${Principal} dsMatching-regexp: (.*) dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com

    It is Important to fabricate expend of the ${Principal} variable, because it is the only input you fill from SASL in the case of GSSAPI. Either you exigency to build a dn using the ${Principal} variable or you exigency to execute pattern matching to notice if you can apply a particular mapping. A principal corresponds to the identity of a user in Kerberos.

    You can find an illustration GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    The following is an illustration using ldapmodify to execute this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -f identity-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • Perform a test using ldapsearch.

    To execute this test, ilk the following ldapsearch command as shown below, and respond the prompt with the kinit value you previously defined.

    Example of using ldapsearch to test the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@EXAMPLE.COM" -b "" -s base "(objectclass=*)"

    The output that is returned should subsist the very as without the -o option.

    If you execute not expend the -h hostname option, the GSS code ends up looking for a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an oversight occurs.

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