000-674 exam Dumps Source : xSeries - Windows 2000 Installation/Performance Optimization
Test Code : 000-674
Test title : xSeries - Windows 2000 Installation/Performance Optimization
Vendor title : IBM
: 68 real Questions
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informationIBM Presses forward with Scale-Out Benchmark on Datacenter
IBM ran home windows 2000 Datacenter Server and SQL Server 2000 on 32 of its original eight-processor IBM eServer xSeries 370 servers, which savor been unveiled on Friday. IBM additionally ran a junior edition of the gawk at various -- the equal configuration with 16 nodes and a relent of 363,129 tpmC.
Analyst Tom Manter of the Aberdeen community calls the effects staggering.
"IBM has taken loads of their event and know-how from the excessive-conclusion mainframe programs and midrange systems and introduced that down into their xSeries. We're starting to perceive one of the vital results and that they're very high-quality and extraordinary," Manter says.
The outcomes are entertaining for 2 causes. they are the first clustered results hasten using home windows 2000 Datacenter Server. They additionally signify a departure for IBM Corp. in using Microsoft's SQL database instead of IBM's own DB2.
Jay Bretzmann, IBM's supervisor of product advertising for the xSeries, calls the database determination an "openness issue."
"ultimate time they used DB2. next time they might moreover spend DB2 once again. They don't want to appear dote a one database corporation," Bretzmann says.
Manter says one rationale IBM might moreover savor switched databases changed into to accept Microsoft's support. Microsoft issued a information release Monday morning promotion IBM's outcomes, but Redmond changed into in most cases secretive over the summer when IBM produced what became then a record benchmark on windows 2000 superior Server using DB2.
IBM's present configuration used 256 of Intel's newest Xeon processor, the 900 MHz released ultimate week.
The right influence places IBM forward of Compaq's 505,302 tpmC from October for the #1 spot. Compaq and IBM had been playing leapfrog with the scale-out programs considering Compaq and Microsoft teamed on the first windows 2000 scale-out influence in February 2000.
those clustered systems savor been controversial, spurring the TPC to create a original division in the means it publishes its effects: one record for clustered effects, one for non-clustered outcomes. not one of the providers -- Microsoft, IBM and Compaq -- has pushed ahead a reference consumer who is imposing their clustered databases yet, besides the fact that children Microsoft elements out that Tandem shoppers were the usage of clustered programs for years.
The expense performance of $28.89/tmpC works out to a total system suffuse of $19,884,668. it truly is just about twice the $10 million of the 2d dwelling Compaq gadget ($19.ninety eight/tpmC) and appreciably greater than the very nearly $12 million fee tag of the highest ranking non-clustered outfit on the record, Fujitsu's seventh-ranked PrimePower 2000 that hits 222,772 tpmC ($50.34/tpmC).
The rate performance compared with Compaq's outcomes stems partly from the spend of Datacenter Server as adverse to advanced Server. The hardened Datacenter OS fees extra and ought to at every times consist of a service component.
IBM's examine techniques are scheduled for availability in late may also. --
Scott Bekker is editor in chief of Redmond Channel companion magazine.
informationIBM shows its Hand in excessive-conclusion home windows Hardware
large Blue unveiled its IBM eServer xSeries 430 on Friday, a 64-processor NUMA gadget constructed for 32-bit Intel processors. The methods, an outgrowth of the NUMA-Q line IBM got 18 months in the past when it purchased Sequent computer programs, back Linux and mainframe purposes immediately. they'll initiate supporting Datacenter Server in the Whistler timeframe. Microsoft presently says its Whistler servers will doubtless ship within the fourth quarter.
Ian Miller, vice chairman for advertising of the eServer xSeries, says that over time windows and Whistler signify the biggest unique marketplace for the xSeries 430. For now, IBM executives don't regard they may subsist lacking an tremendous probability by now not having stronger-than-eight-processor hardware attainable for home windows 2000 Datacenter Server.
"The scalability that windows has at this aspect in terms of in fact becoming to a complete 32-processor gadget, there are limitations in how some distance that you could go," Miller says. IBM will point clients to scaling out on their original eight-processor servers, the IBM eServer xSeries 370. "i would quarrel that the x370, frankly, represents an improved expense-performance message for the home windows Datacenter market than the CMP machine," Miller says.
Analyst Tom Manter with the Aberdeen group says IBM will ought to disclose compelling cost to compete efficiently within the Datacenter market with the x430.
"these days you savor got a Unisys CMP gadget, which is being offered via every the principal suppliers except for IBM. they've a chance to set up a de facto average. Then IBM goes to savor quite a challenge when Whistler server comes out three hundred and sixty five days later to then Come into the industry with a unique architecture," Manter says.
however Manter is in no artery writing IBM off: "They've stunned us during the past, too."
Unisys faces challenges of its personal in holding its CMP coalition collectively. enterprise executives are already merchandising the subsequent generation of the mobile MultiProcessing architecture to preserve companions committed. but agencies with their own R&D operations dote Compaq and Hewlett-Packard might moreover pick to expand their own architectures. --
Scott Bekker is editor in chief of Redmond Channel companion magazine.
IBM's servers are worth paying greater for, some say, since it has main technology and repair; others grumble that great Blue runs dote a forms.
IBM receives nods of approval for Intel-primarily based servers designed with a alive to eye for engineering element, although its methods are usually pricier than opponents'.
The distinguished Bucks school District in Doylestown, Pa., swapped out Compaq servers two years ago in want of IBM's. Ray Kase, the district's director of guidance know-how, says his team evaluated IBM and Hewlett-Packard. The figuring out components, he says: IBM provided more suitable integration between the servers and its own FastT networked storage systems, and the enterprise appeared extra technically astute.
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"We felt very decent concerning the adventure they had with the IBM engineers," he says. "They savor been really trying to accept to know their environment, asking very specific questions." Kase says the district's 46 IBM servers savor had "very nearly no downtime, and they savor 25,000 college students and college who hammer those programs pretty decent."
but some grumble that great Blue nevertheless services dote an impenetrable forms. it subsist now and again challenging to locate the amend individuals at a corporation with about as many personnel (319,273 eventually count) as the population of Tampa, Fla. "there savor been a few instances after I needed to shriek at a person to accept service," says André Mendes, chief expertise integration officer at the Public Broadcasting service, which become an early adopter of IBM's BladeCenter. provides a precise suggestions-technology government at a Fortune 500 business, who asked not to subsist identified: "coping with IBM is dote dealing with the IRS. they're totally unresponsive."
no longer everybody consents with such assessments. really, IBM's highly responsive service places it ahead of opponents, says Brendan Carlton, methods supervisor at the U.S. division of Huhtamaki, a Finnish packaging business. Huhtamaki's servers, as an example, are installation to alert IBM of impending hardware disasters. "a couple of times I've Come into the office and there's an IBM guy there with a alternative tough force," Carlton says. "and i failed to even understand I had an issue." As for pricing, he allows for that IBM is always "a exiguous bit additional. however i would degree pay extra as a result of IBM service is 2d to none."
in the meantime, Leo Hurtado, CIO of furnishings retailer W.S. Badcock, which operates 330 outlets within the southeastern U.S., says the IBM servers his company purchased remaining 12 months were below 10% greater expensive than those from Dell or HP: "We're very satisfied with the cost element."
IBMNew Orchard Rd.,Armonk, the noteworthy apple 10504(914) 499-1900www.ibm.com/servers
Ticker: IBM (NYSE)
invoice ZeitlerSenior VP & community executive, systems GroupThe IBM lifer (he joined the enterprise in 1969 as a programmer) was establish in cost of every storage and server products in January 2003.
Susan M. WhitneyGeneral manager, eServer xSeriesResponsible for Intel-based server development, revenue, advertising and manufacturing businesses.
ProductsThe xSeries includes x200 servers (as much as 4 processors each and every), purchasable as towers or in rack-mountable chassis; x300 servers designed for information centers; and the x445, available with up to 32 processors. BladeCenter methods can proper up to eighty four two-processor server blades in a 7-foot rack. administration software contains Director, which tracks hardware configuration of remote programs and monitors add-ons equivalent to processors and disks.
Cendant travel back and forth Distribution ServicesRobert WisemanCTOrobert.email@example.comProject: commute-services enterprise ultimate yr migrated its fare-pricing gadget from an IBM mainframe to about one hundred xSeries servers.
primary Bucks school DistrictRay KaseDir., I.T.(267) 893-2100Project: The 24-faculty district in Pennsylvania spent about $250,000 in 2002 for 16 x300-collection servers, plus 1.eight terabytes of storage. It now runs 46 servers, together with a BladeCenter gadget with 14 server blades.
HuhtamakiBrendan CarltonSystems manager(913) 583-8744Project: Finnish packaging business's U.S. division, based mostly in De Soto, Kan., runs about sixty five xSeries home windows 2000 servers in 10 plant life and distribution centers.
J&B GroupKurt AndersonVP, I.T.(763) 497-3913Project: Wholesale meals distributor this yr changed seven Dell servers with an IBM x400 eight-processor device working Microsoft's trade and SQL Server, and other applications.
W.S. BadcockLeo HurtadoVP, I.T. & CIO(863) 425-7527Project: furniture retailer in Mulberry, Fla., consolidated applications on 47 servers—provided by artery of eight different companies—onto 16 IBM xSeries techniques.
Asian artwork Museum of san franciscoJames HorioDir., I.T.(415) 581-3580Project: Museum runs eight xSeries server blades running windows 2000 in a unique AS/four hundred-primarily based iSeries midrange device. Three standalone xSeries servers hasten an online Protocol telephony device from Cisco techniques.
Executives listed listed below are every users of IBM's items. Their willingness to talk has been proven by Baseline.2004YTD 2003 2002 income $forty five.40B $89.13B $eighty one.19B Gross margin 36.4% 37.0% 37.three% working income $5.13B $10.09B $6.80B internet revenue $3.59B $7.58B $three.58B net margin 7.9% 8.5% 4.4% revenue per share $2.08 $four.32 $2.06 R&D expenditure $2.79B $5.08B $four.75B
* Fiscal 12 months ends Dec. 31; YTD reflects first six monthsSource: company stories
total property - $ninety nine.58BStockholders' fairness - $28.83BCash and equivalents - $7.72BLong-time term debt - $14.42BShares extraordinary - 1.71BMarket value as of eight/25 - $142.51B
**As of June 30, 2004, apart from as noted
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(Family Features) Enhancing your home’s energy-efficient features is a savvy artery to Make the space more livable while moreover making a smaller impact on the environment and your bank account.
The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that the impartial American homeowner spends about $2,000 a year on energy for heating, cooling and other power needs throughout the house. However, inefficiencies caused by poorly operating systems, drafts and other energy drains may account for as much as 10-20 percent of wasted money each year.
Whether your motivation is reducing home energy expenses, creating a more earth-conscious lifestyle or both, there are numerous ways you can Make a significant impact on your home’s energy efficiency.
Faulty seals and cracks are amenable for as much as 20 percent of air infiltration into or out of the home, according to U.S. Department of Energy data. Windows are a major culprit for these types of leaks.
If a complete window replacement is out of your budget, there are quiet numerous ways you can improve the energy efficiency of existing windows. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that adding storm windows can reduce the amount of heat lost through windows by as much as 25-50 percent. Caulking and adding weather stripping around windows can moreover Make a noticeable difference, as can window coverings such as blinds or drapes that minimize the transfer of heat and icy through window panes.
If you add original windows, there are several variables to consider. Generally, the goal is to optimize heat gain during colder months and reduce heat gain in the summer. Energy performance ratings can back you understand how particular windows transfer heat and light so you can Make the best choices for your home’s location, including the climate and orientation to the sun.
Like windows, doors, and especially their perimeters, are a common source of lost energy. impecunious insulation due to faulty installation or simply wear over time can contribute to energy loss.
Aside from ensuring a properly installed, insulated and sealed doorway, the door itself can moreover Make a incompatibility when it comes to energy efficiency. For example, foam insulated entry doors tender greater energy conservation than wooden alternatives. moreover recollect that proper sealing and installation applies to every access points, including garage doors. For doors with great glass panes, such as patio doors, gawk for options that comprise a thermal demolish and multiple layers of glass to reduce energy transfer.
Fifth Wall (a.k.a., the Ceiling)
An often overlooked home element, but one homeowners and interior designers are increasingly turning attention to, is the ceiling, affectionately dubbed the “fifth wall.” Not only does this surface tender a blank slate for introducing original style to a room, it’s moreover an pattern space to integrate energy-efficient features such as skylights.
“Skylights bring much more than natural light into a space. They give occupants the ardor of being outdoors with elements dote a sky view, gentle breezes and the scent of fresh air,” said Ross Vandermark, national product manager for Velux America.
Skylights engage every of the senses while providing balanced, natural light that reduces reliance on powered light and ventilation fixtures. In addition, skylights can labor in concert with upright windows to create the “chimney effect” where cool, fresh air enters through upright windows and warm, stale air escapes from the skylights, cooling your home without using electricity.
Some models dote the Velux No Leak Solar Powered Fresh Air skylights, which along with installation costs are eligible for a 30 percent federal tax credit, are powered by solar energy, making them even more efficient. Additional features can further enhance the energy-saving benefits of installing skylights. For example, for added flare and light control, homeowners can add blinds to skylights, choosing from more than 100 colors and styles. Many models moreover tender remote control operation for convenience in raising and lowering the blinds and even opening skylights to let in fresh air.
Learn more about making the fifth wall allotment of your energy-saving plot at whyskylights.com.
Climate control accounts for as much as half of the impartial home’s annual energy costs, so while it’s a behind-the-scenes home feature, it’s an distinguished one.
An outdated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, or a system that isn’t noteworthy enough or tenacious enough for your home’s footprint, will draw more energy than necessary to maintain a desirable temperature. Regular service can back uphold systems operating smoothly, but eventually every HVAC systems necessity replacing.
A consultation with a certified technician can back you determine the right system for your home, as well as supplemental heating and cooling options dote attic fans that can reduce your overall energy reliance.
Keep in understanding that leaks and cracks delineate a substantial volume of lost energy, and even after windows and doors are sealed there are quiet plenty of places for air leaks to occur.
Common problem spots comprise attics and crawl spaces, as well as fireplaces and ductwork or ventilation systems. liquidate drafts and add insulation to reduce energy loss through these sources.
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January 24, 2000Web posted at: 12:11 p.m. EST (1711 GMT)
by John Bass and James Robinson, Network World Test Alliance
(IDG) -- It every boils down to what you're looking for in a network operating system (NOS).
Do you want it lanky and elastic so you can install it any artery you please? Perhaps administration bells and management whistles are what you necessity so you can deploy several hundred servers. Or maybe you want an operating system that's robust enough so that you sleep dote a baby at night?
The superb intelligence is that there is a NOS waiting just for you. After the rash of recent software revisions, they took an in-depth gawk at four of the major NOSes on the market: Microsoft's Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Novell's NetWare 5.1, Red Hat Software's Linux 6.1 and The Santa Cruz Operation's (SCO) UnixWare 7.1.1. Sun declined their invitation to submit Solaris because the company says it's working on a original version.
Microsoft's Windows 2000 edges out NetWare for the Network World Blue Ribbon Award. Windows 2000 tops the field with its management interface, server monitoring tools, storage management facilities and security measures.
However, if it's performance you're after, no product came near to Novell's NetWare 5.1's numbers in their exhaustive file service and network benchmarks. With its lightning-fast engine and Novell's directory-based administration, NetWare offers a noteworthy base for an enterprise network.
We organize the latest release of Red Hat's commercial Linux bundle led the list for flexibility because its modular design lets you pare down the operating system to suit the assignment at hand. Additionally, you can create scripts out of multiple Linux commands to automate tasks across a distributed environment.
While SCO's UnixWare seemed to lag behind the pack in terms of file service performance and NOS-based administration features, its scalability features Make it a tenacious candidate for running enterprise applications.The numbers are in
Regardless of the job you saddle your server with, it has to execute well at reading and writing files and sending them across the network. They designed two benchmark suites to measure each NOS in these two categories. To reflect the real world, their benchmark tests regard a wide reach of server conditions.
NetWare was the hands-down leader in their performance benchmarking, taking first dwelling in two-thirds of the file tests and earning top billing in the network tests.
Red Hat Linux followed NetWare in file performance overall and even outpaced the leader in file tests where the read/write loads were small. However, Linux did not execute well handling great loads - those tests in which there were more than 100 users. Under heavier user loads, Linux had a current to stop servicing file requests for a short term and then start up again.
Windows 2000 demonstrated impecunious write performance across every their file tests. In fact, they organize that its write performance was about 10% of its read performance. After consulting with both Microsoft and Client/Server Solutions, the author of the Benchmark Factory testing appliance they used, they determined that the impecunious write performance could subsist due to two factors. One, which they were unable to verify, might subsist a viable performance problem with the SCSI driver for the hardware they used.
More significant, though, was an issue with their test software. Benchmark Factory sends a write-through flag in each of its write requests that is conjectural to cause the server to update cache, if appropriate, and then obligate a write to disk. When the write to disk occurs, the write convene is released and the next request can subsist sent.
At first glance, it appeared as if Windows 2000 was the only operating system to veneration this write-through flag because its write performance was so poor. Therefore, they ran a second round of write tests with the flag turned off.
With the flag turned off, NetWare's write performance increased by 30%. This test proved that Novell does indeed veneration the write-through flag and will write to disk for each write request when that flag is set. But when the write-through flag is disabled, NetWare writes to disk in a more efficient manner by batching together contiguous blocks of data on the cache and writing every those blocks to disk at once.
Likewise, Red Hat Linux's performance increased by 10% to 15% when the write-through flag was turned off. When they examined the Samba file system code, they organize that it too honors the write-through flag. The Samba code then finds an optimum time during the read/write sequence to write to disk.
This second round of file testing proves that Windows 2000 is contingent on its file system cache to optimize write performance. The results of the testing with the write-through flag off were much higher - as much as 20 times faster. However, Windows 2000 quiet fell behind both NetWare and RedHat Linux in the file write tests when the write-through flag was off.
SCO honors the write-through flag by default, since its journaling file system is constructed to maximize data integrity by writing to disk for every write requests. The results in the write tests with the write-through flag on were very similar to the test results with the write-through flag turned off.
For the network benchmark, they developed two tests. Their long TCP transaction test measured the bandwidth each server can sustain, while their short TCP transaction test measured each server's aptitude to handle great numbers of network sessions with tiny file transactions.
Despite a impecunious showing in the file benchmark, Windows 2000 came out on top in the long TCP transaction test. Windows 2000 is the only NOS with a multithreaded IP stack, which allows it to handle network requests with multiple processors. Novell and Red Hat Tell they are working on integrating this capability into their products.
NetWare and Linux moreover registered tenacious long TCP test results, coming in second and third, respectively.
In the short TCP transaction test, NetWare came out the transparent winner. Linux earned second dwelling in spite of its want of uphold for abortive TCP closes, a method by which an operating system can quickly split down TCP connections. Their testing software, Ganymede Software's Chariot, uses abortive closes in its TCP tests.Moving into management
As enterprise networks grow to require more servers and uphold more halt users, NOS management tools become crucial elements in keeping networks under control. They looked at the management interfaces of each product and drilled down into how each handled server monitoring, client administration, file and print management, and storage management.
We organize Windows 2000 and NetWare provide equally useful management interfaces.
Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is the glue that holds most of the Windows 2000 management functionality together. This configurable graphical user interface (GUI) lets you snap in Microsoft and third-party applets that customize its functionality. It's a two-paned interface, much dote Windows Explorer, with a nested list on the left and selection details on the right. The console is easy to spend and lets you configure many local server elements, including users, disks, and system settings such as time and date.
MMC moreover lets you implement management policies for groups of users and computers using energetic Directory, Microsoft's original directory service. From the energetic Directory management appliance inside MMC, you can configure users and change policies.
The network configuration tools are organize in a sever application that opens when you click on the Network Places icon on the desktop. Each network interface is listed inside this window. You can add and change protocols and configure, enable and disable interfaces from here without rebooting.
NetWare offers several interfaces for server configuration and management. These tools tender duplicate functionality, but each is useful depending from where you are trying to manage the system. The System Console offers a number of tools for server configuration. One of the most useful is NWConfig, which lets you change start-up files, install system modules and configure the storage subsystem. NWConfig is simple, intuitive and predictable.
ConsoleOne is a Java-based interface with a few graphical tools for managing and configuring NetWare. Third-party administration tools can plug into ConsoleOne and let you manage multiple services. They reflect ConsoleOne's interface is a bit unsophisticated, but it works well enough for those who must savor a Windows- based manager.
Novell moreover offers a Web-accessible management application called NetWare Management Portal, which lets you manage NetWare servers remotely from a browser, and NWAdmin32, a relatively simple client-side appliance for administering Novell Directory Services (NDS) from a Windows 95, 98 or NT client.
Red Hat's overall systems management interface is called LinuxConf and can hasten as a graphical or text-based application. The graphical interface, which resembles that of MMC, works well but has some layout issues that Make it difficult to spend at times. For example, when you hasten a setup application that takes up a lot of the screen, the system resizes the application larger than the desktop size.
Still, you can manage pretty much anything on the server from LinuxConf, and you can spend it locally or remotely over the Web or via telnet. You can configure system parameters such as network addresses; file system settings and user accounts; and set up add-on services such as Samba - which is a service that lets Windows clients accept to files residing on a Linux server - and FTP and Web servers. You can apply changes without rebooting the system.
Overall, Red Hat's interface is useful and the underlying tools are powerful and flexible, but LinuxConf lacks the polish of the other vendors' tools.
SCO Admin is a GUI-based front halt for about 50 SCO UnixWare configuration and management tools in one window. When you click on a tool, it brings up the application to manage that item in a sever window.
Some of SCO's tools are GUI-based while others are text-based. The server required a reboot to apply many of the changes. On the plus side, you can manage multiple UnixWare servers from SCOAdmin.
SCO moreover offers a useful Java-based remote administration appliance called WebTop that works from your browser.An eye on the servers and clients
One distinguished administration assignment is monitoring the server itself. Microsoft leads the pack in how well you can uphold an eye on your server's internals.
The Windows 2000 System Monitor lets you view a real-time, running graph of system operations, such as CPU and network utilization, and remembrance and disk usage. They used these tools extensively to determine the result of their benchmark tests on the operating system. Another appliance called Network Monitor has a basic network packet analyzer that lets you perceive the types of packets coming into the server. Together, these Microsoft utilities can subsist used to compare performance and capacity across multiple Windows 2000 servers.
NetWare's Monitor utility displays processor utilization, remembrance usage and buffer utilization on a local server. If you know what to gawk for, it can subsist a powerful appliance for diagnosing bottlenecks in the system. Learning the import of each of the monitored parameters is a bit of a challenge, though.
If you want to gawk at performance statistics across multiple servers, you can tap into Novell's Web Management Portal.
Red Hat offers the yardstick Linux command-line tools for monitoring the server, such as iostat and vmstat. It has no graphical monitoring tools.
As with any Unix operating system, you can write scripts to automate these tools across Linux servers. However, these tools are typically cryptic and require a elevated flush of proficiency to spend effectively. A suite of graphical monitoring tools would subsist a noteworthy addition to Red Hat's Linux distribution.
UnixWare moreover offers a number of monitoring tools. System Monitor is UnixWare's simple but limited GUI for monitoring processor and remembrance utilization. The sar and rtpm command-line tools together list real-time system utilization of buffer, CPUs and disks. Together, these tools give you a superb overall scheme of the load on the server.Client administration
Along with managing the server, you must manage its users. It's no dumbfound that the two NOSes that ship with an integrated directory service topped the field in client administration tools.
We were able to configure user permissions via Microsoft's energetic Directory and the directory administration appliance in MMC. You can group users and computers into organizational units and apply policies to them.
You can manage Novell's NDS and NetWare clients with ConsoleOne, NWAdmin or NetWare Management Portal. Each can create users, manage file space, and set permissions and rights. Additionally, NetWare ships with a five-user version of Novell's ZENworks tool, which offers desktop administration services such as hardware and software inventory, software distribution and remote control services.
Red Hat Linux doesn't tender much in the artery of client administration features. You must control local users through Unix permission configuration mechanisms.
UnixWare is similar to Red Hat Linux in terms of client administration, but SCO provides some Windows binaries on the server to remotely set file and directory permissions from a Windows client, as well as create and change users and their settings. SCO and Red Hat tender uphold for the Unix-based Network Information Service (NIS). NIS is a store for network information dote logon names, passwords and home directories. This integration helps with client administration.Handling the staples: File and print
A NOS is nothing without the aptitude to partake file storage and printers. Novell and Microsoft collected top honors in these areas.
You can easily add and maintain printers in Windows 2000 using the print administration wizard, and you can add file shares using energetic Directory management tools. Windows 2000 moreover offers Distributed File Services, which let you combine files on more than one server into a unique share.
Novell Distributed Print Services (NDPS) let you quickly incorporate printers into the network. When NDPS senses a original printer on the network, it defines a Printer Agent that runs on the printer and communicates with NDS. You then spend NDS to define the policies for the original printer.
You define NetWare file services by creating and then mounting a disk volume, which moreover manages volume policies.
Red Hat includes Linux's printtool utility for setting up server-connected and networks printers. You can moreover spend this GUI to create printcap entries to define printer access.
Linux has a set of command-line file system configuration tools for mounting and unmounting partitions. Samba ships with the product and provides some integration for Windows clients. You can configure Samba only through a cryptic configuration ASCII file - a earnest drawback.
UnixWare provides a elastic GUI-based printer setup appliance called Printer SetUp Manager. For file and volume management, SCO offers a appliance called VisionFS for interoperability with Windows clients. They used VisionFS to allow their NT clients to access the UnixWare server. This service was easy to configure and use.Storage management
Windows 2000 provides the best tools for storage management. Its graphical Manage Disks appliance for local disk configuration includes software RAID management; you can dynamically add disks to a volume set without having to reboot the system. Additionally, a signature is written to each of the disks in an array so that they can subsist moved to another 2000 server without having to configure the volume on the original server. The original server recognizes the drives as members of a RAID set and adds the volume to the file system dynamically.
NetWare's volume management tool, NWConfig, is easy to use, but it can subsist a exiguous confusing to set up a RAID volume. Once they knew what they were doing, they had no problems formatting drives and creating a RAID volume. The appliance looks a exiguous primitive, but they give it elevated marks for functionality and ease of use.
Red Hat Linux offers no graphical RAID configuration tools, but its command line tools made RAID configuration easy.
To configure disks on the UnixWare server, they used the Veritas Volume Manager graphical disk and volume administration appliance that ships with UnixWare. They had some problems initially getting the appliance to recognize the drives so they could subsist formatted. They managed to labor around the disk configuration problem using an assortment of command line tools, after which Volume Manager worked well.Security
While they did not probe these NOSes extensively to expose any security weaknesses, they did gawk at what they offered in security features.
Microsoft has made significant strides with Windows 2000 security. Windows 2000 supports Kerberos public key certificates as its primary authentication mechanism within a domain, and allows additional authentication with smart cards. Microsoft provides a Security Configuration appliance that integrates with MMC for easy management of security objects in the energetic Directory Services system, and a original Encrypting File System that lets you designate volumes on which files are automatically stored using encryption.
Novell added uphold for a public-key infrastructure into NetWare 5 using a public certificate schema developed by RSA Security that lets you tap into NDS to generate certificates.
Red Hat offers a basic Kerberos authentication mechanism. With Red Hat Linux, as with most Unix operating systems, the network services can subsist individually controlled to expand security. Red Hat offers Pluggable Authentication Modules as a artery of allowing you to set authentication policies across programs running on the server. Passwords are protected with a shadow file. Red Hat moreover bundles firewall and VPN services.
UnixWare has a set of security tools called Security Manager that lets you set up varying degrees of intrusion protection across your network services, from no restriction to turning every network services off. It's a superb management time saver, though you could manually modify the services to achieve the selfsame result.Stability and fault tolerance
The most feature-rich NOS is of exiguous value if it can't uphold a server up and running. Windows 2000 offers software RAID 0, 1 and 5 configurations to provide fault tolerance for onboard disk drives, and has a built-in network load-balancing feature that allows a group of servers to gawk dote one server and partake the selfsame network title and IP address. The group decides which server will service each request. This not only distributes the network load across several servers, it moreover provides fault tolerance in case a server goes down. On a lesser scale, you can spend Microsoft's Failover Clustering to provide basic failover services between two servers.
As with NT 4.0, Windows 2000 provides remembrance protection, which means that each process runs in its own segment.
There are moreover backup and restore capabilities bundled with Windows 2000.
Novell has an add-on product for NetWare called Novell Cluster Services that allows you to cluster as many as eight servers, every managed from one location using ConsoleOne, NetWare Management Portal or NWAdmin32. But Novell presently offers no clustering products to provide load balancing for applications or file services. NetWare has an complicated remembrance protection scheme to segregate the remembrance used for the kernel and applications, and a Storage Management Services module to provide a highly elastic backup and restore facility. Backups can subsist all-inclusive, cover parts of a volume or store a differential snapshot.
Red Hat provides a load-balancing product called piranha with its Linux. This package provides TCP load balancing between servers in a cluster. There is no difficult circumscribe to the number of servers you can configure in a cluster. Red Hat Linux moreover provides software RAID uphold through command line tools, has remembrance protection capabilities and provides a rudimentary backup facility.
SCO provides an optional feature to cluster several servers in a load-balancing environment with Non-Stop Clustering for a elevated flush of fault-tolerance. Currently, Non-Stop Clustering supports six servers in a cluster. UnixWare provides software RAID uphold that is managed using SCO's On-Line Data Manager feature. every the yardstick RAID levels are supported. Computer Associates' bundled ArcServeIT 6.6 provides backup and restore capabilities. UnixWare has remembrance protection capabilities.Documentation
Because their testing was conducted before Windows 2000's general availability ship date, they were not able to evaluate its hard-copy documentation. The online documentation provided on a CD is extensive, useful and well-organized, although a Web interface would subsist much easier to spend if it gave more than a couple of sentences at a time for a particular back topic.
NetWare 5 comes with two manuals: a circumstantial manual for installing and configuring the NOS with superb explanations of concepts and features along with an overview of how to configure them, and a tiny spiral-bound booklet of quick start cards. Novell's online documentation is very helpful.
Red Hat Linux comes with three manuals - an installation guide, a getting started lead and a reference manual - every of which are easy to follow.
Despite being the most difficult product to install, UnixWare offers the best documentation. It comes with two manuals: a system handbook and a getting started guide. The system handbook is a reference for conducting the installation of the operating system. It does a superb job of reflecting this painful experience. The getting started lead is well-written and well-organized. It covers many of the tools needed to configure and maintain the operating system. SCO's online documentation looks nice and is easy to follow.Wrapping up
The bottom line is that these NOSes tender a wide reach of characteristics and provide enterprise customers with a noteworthy deal of option regarding how each can subsist used in any given corporate network.
If you want a good, general purpose NOS that can deliver enterprise-class services with every the bells and whistles imaginable, then Windows 2000 is the strongest contender. However, for elevated performance, enterprise file and print services, their tests demonstrate that Novell leads the pack. If you're willing to pay a higher cost for scalability and reliability, SCO UnixWare would subsist a safe bet. But if you necessity an inexpensive alternative that will give you bare-bones network services with decent performance, Red Hat Linux can certainly proper the bill.
The option is yours.
Bass is the technical director and Robinson is a senior technical staff member at Centennial Networking Labs (CNL) at North Carolina status University in Raleigh. CNL focuses on performance, capacity and features of networking and server technologies and equipment.RELATED STORIES:
Debate will focus on Linux vs. LinuxJanuary 20, 2000Some Windows 2000 PCs will jump the gunJanuary 19, 2000IBM throws Linux lovefestJanuary 19, 2000Corel Linux will hasten Windows appsJanuary 10, 2000Novell's eDirectory spans platformsNovember 16, 1999New NetWare embraces Web appsNovember 2, 1999Microsoft sets a date for Windows 2000October 28, 1999RELATED IDG.net STORIES:
Fusion's Forum: Square off with the vendors over who has the best NOS(Network World Fusion)How they did it: Details of the testing(Network World Fusion)Find out the tuning parameters(Network World Fusion)Download the Config files(Network World Fusion)The Shootout results(Network World Fusion)Fusion's NOS resources(Network World Fusion)With Windows 2000, NT grows up(Network World Fusion)Fireworks expected at NOS showdown(Network World Fusion)
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Novell, Inc.Microsoft Corp.The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. (SCO)Red Hat, Inc.
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Windows Server 2008 R2 provides several original benefits that back organizations better administer their networking environment. These original features provide better file and data management, better performance monitoring and reliability tracking tools to identify system problems and proactively address issues, a original image deployment tool, and a all original set of Group Policy Objects that back administrators better manage users, computers, and other energetic Directory objects.Improvements in the Group Policy Management
Windows Server 2008 R2 introduces over 1,000 original Group Policy Objects specific to Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7, along with several original components that expand on the core capabilities of Group Policy management that savor been allotment of Windows 2000/2003 energetic Directory. The basic functions of Group Policy haven't changed, so the Group Policy protest Editor (gpedit) and the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) are the same, but with more options and settings available.
As mentioned earlier, the Group Policy Management Console can either subsist hasten as a sever MMC tool, or it can subsist launched off the Features branch of the Server Manager console tree, as shown in motif 1.7. Group policies in Windows Server 2008 R2 provide more granular management of local machines, specifically having policies that propel down to a client that are different for administrator and non-administrator users.
Additionally, applications can now query or register with a network location awareness service within Group Policy management, which provides the identity where a user or computer protest resides. As an example, a policy can subsist written that allows users to savor access to applications and files if they are on a local network segment, but blocks users from accessing the selfsame content when they are on a remote segment for security and privacy reasons. This addition to group policies adds a third dimension to policies so that now administrators can not only define who and what someone has access to, but moreover circumscribe their access based on where they are.
Group policies are covered in detail in Chapter 27, "Group Policy Management for Network Clients," as well as in Chapter 19, "Windows Server 2008 R2 Group Policies and Policy Management."Introducing Performance and Reliability Monitoring Tools
Windows Server 2008 R2 introduces original and revised performance and reliability monitoring tools intended to back network administrators better understand the health and operations of Windows Server 2008 R2 systems. Just dote with the Group Policy Management Console, the original Reliability and Performance Monitor shows up as a feature in the Server Manager console. By clicking on the Performance Diagnostic Console, the appliance shows up in the right pane, as shown in motif 1.8.
Figure 1.8 Windows Reliability and Performance Monitor.
The original appliance keeps track of system activity and resource usage and displays key counters and system status on screen. The Reliability Monitor diagnoses potential causes of server instability by noting the ultimate time a server was rebooted, what patches or updates were applied, and chronologically when services savor failed on the system so that system faults can potentially subsist traced back to specific system updates or changes that occurred prior to the problem.
By combining what used to subsist three to four tools into a unique console, administrators are able to gawk at system performance, operational tasks, and historical event information in their analysis of a server problem or system operations instability. You can find more details on performance and reliability monitoring in Chapter 34.Leveraging File Server Resource Manager
File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) was a feature pack add-in to Windows 2003 R2 and has been significantly improved with the release of Windows Server 2008 R2. FSRM is a quota management system of files on network shares across an enterprise. Rather than allowing employees to copy the entire content of their laptop to a network, or potentially back up their MP3 audio files onto a network, FSRM provides the aptitude to not only circumscribe the amount of content stored on network shares, but moreover to set quotas (or circumscribe storage altogether) on certain file types. So, a user could subsist limited to store 200GB of files on a network share, but of that limit, only 2GB can subsist allocated to MP3 files.
FSRM, shown in motif 1.9, in Windows Server 2008 R2 has been improved to allow the nesting of quotas to ensure the most restrictive policy is applied. Quotas can moreover transcend subfolders, so as original folders are created, or as policies are applied at different levels in a folder hierarchy, the policies quiet apply, and the rules are combined to provide varying levels of quota allocation to user data. Additionally, quotas are now based on actual storage, so if a file is compressed when stored, the user will subsist able to store more files within their allocated quota.
File Server Resource Manager is covered in detail in Chapter 28.Leveraging the Best drill Analyzer
Included in Windows Server 2008 R2 is a built-in Best drill Analyzer. organize in the Server Manager console tool, the Best drill Analyzer runs a series of tests against energetic Directory roles, such as the Hyper-V role, the DNS role, and the Remote Desktop Services role, to assess whether the role has been installed and configured properly and to compare the installation with tested best practices.
Some of the results from the Best drill Analyzer could divulge an administrator they necessity to add more remembrance to a server, to slump a role to a sever server to improve role optimization, or to shift a database to a different drive on the server to deal disk performance demands on the system. More details on the Best drill Analyzer are covered in Chapter 20.Introduction of Windows Deployment Services
Windows Server 2008 introduced a original appliance called Windows Deployment Services (WDS), which was effectively an updated version of the Remote Installation Services (RIS) that has been available for the past several years. Unlike RIS, which was focused on primarily scripted installations and client images, WDS in Windows Server 2008 R2 can deal images of Windows 7 clients or Windows Server 2008 R2 servers in a significantly more elastic and modifiable deployment process.
Like with RIS, Windows Deployment Services allows a client system to initiate a Preboot Execution Environment (PXE), effectively "booting" to the WDS server to perceive a list of images that can subsist deployed on the system. Alternately, an organization can create a Windows PE boot disc and savor an image initiated from a CD or DVD.
With Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7, the image can subsist created in Windows Imaging (WIM) format, which allows for the injection of patches, updates, or even original code to a WIM file without even booting the image file. This provides the organization with more than just static images that accept pushed out dote in RIS, but rather a appliance that provides ongoing and manageable updates to image files.
WDS moreover supports the imaging of Windows 2003 servers and Windows XP client systems in the selfsame manner that RIS did in terms of pushing out images or using an unattend script file to forward images to systems.
Windows Deployment Services is covered in detail in Chapter 26, "Windows Server 2008 R2 Administration Tools for Desktops."
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