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000-634 kick Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 2

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000-634 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 2

Test Code : 000-634
Test title : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 2
Vendor title : IBM
: 72 actual Questions

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IBM kick Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented analysis and Design | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the publication 

evaluation emphasizes an investigation of the difficulty and necessities, as opposed to a solution. as an example, if a new online trading gadget is favored, how will it's used? What are its functions?

"evaluation" is a huge term, most trustworthy certified, as in requirements analysis (an investigation of the necessities) or object-oriented analysis (an investigation of the region objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual own (in application and hardware) that fulfills the requirements, in residence of its implementation. for instance, an outline of a database schema and application objects. Design concepts frequently exclude low-degree or "obtrusive" particulars—obtrusive to the supposed buyers. finally, designs may furthermore live applied, and the implementation (reminiscent of code) expresses the genuine and comprehensive realized design.

As with evaluation, the term is highest property certified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

useful analysis and design were summarized within the phrase sequel the remedy aspect (evaluation), and sequel the component remedy (design).


UNICOM Nabs Versant for Object-Oriented Databases | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

UNICOM increased into the thing oriented database records realm this month when it announced plans to purchase Versant, a publicly traded developer of a few object-oriented databases, for roughly $32 million.

situated in 1988 as kick Sciences Corp., Versant turned into an early proponent of kick oriented databases, which store statistics as objects. kick database management methods (ODBMS) convey performance advantages over relational database management systems (RDBMS) in powering functions that are written in kick oriented languages and require storing of involved objects.

Versant’s first product was the Versant kick Database (VOD), which began to benefit steam in the early Nineties and continues to live actively developed nowadays. VOD runs on Unix, Linux, and home windows working methods, and excels at running functions with tall concurrency and efficiency requirements akin to trading systems, telecom community management techniques, airline and apply reservation programs, and risk evaluation for banks, based on the Wikipedia entry on Versant.

Versant changed its identify to Versant kick technology in 1993, went public on the NASDAQ change in 1996, and altered its title to Versant Corp. in 1999. In 2004, it bought rhymester software, the German developer of an ODBMS called FastObjects. In 2008 Versant got one other ODBMS, called db40, which is an open supply ODBMS undertaking based in 2000 via Carl Rosenberger.

today, Versant continues to sell and enhance VOD, FastObjects, and db40. The enterprise has struggled to generate income over the ultimate a pair of years, as revenues possess dropped from $25.three million in 2008 to about $16.three million final yr. The business, which is based mostly in Redwood metropolis, California, has remained profitable, despite the fact, and continues to strengthen new application and are seeking for new consumers and OEM partnerships with ISVs.

Versant’s board accepted the sale to UNICOM. The deal requires Versant shareholders to live paid $eleven.50 per uninterested share, a 17 % premium on Versant’s closing cost on September 28. The transaction is expected to complete earlier than the conclusion of Versant’s latest quarter ending January 31, 2013. Versant is free to searching for option deals through October 29.

“This merger will carry premium value and liquidity to Versant’s shareholders. Versant is worked up to accomplice with UNICOM to proceed to extend the business’s market management place,” cited Versant president and CEO Bernhard Woebker in a statement.

The sentiment become echoed by artery of Corry Hong, founder, president, and CEO of Mission Hills, California-based UNICOM, who stated that Versant’s Redwood city and Hamburg places of travail “will boost their current presence in both California and Germany.”

UNICOM has bought a few application organizations over the final a number of years, together with SoftLanding systems, a developer of exchange management application for the IBM i server.

connected studies

UNICOM Wheels and deals for two Public companies

UNICOM Acquires ITSM and z/OS utility companies

UNICOM Loses enchantment of SoftLanding Lawsuit

SoftLanding announces Sale on New IBM i package

UNICOM Loses in courtroom, Forces SoftLanding clients to upgrade

UNICOM Acquires Macro four, Sees i OS Synergy with SoftLanding equipment

SoftLanding programs got by CICS professional Unicom systems

                     submit this myth to del.icio.us               post this myth to Digg    put up this myth to Slashdot


Frenemies: a quick inheritance of Apple and IBM Partnerships | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

even though Apple and IBM possess had their partake of fights through the years, this week's deal is not their first pairing.

IBM Apple Merger

Steve Jobs battled a number of tech rivals, however within the early 80s, his ire become largely directed at IBM. The skilled squabble dates again to at the least 1981 with Apple's "Welcome, IBM. seriously" ad, and reputedly ended simply the day before today with a joint contract to bring IBM's business software to iOS gadgets later this 12 months. but whereas the corporations possess certainly clashed over the closing 30 years, yesterday's pairing was no longer the primary time these two behemoths possess teamed up.

Take AIMJust 10 years after the primary salvo changed into fired between Apple and IBM, the two joined with Motorola in 1991 to boost a common for the PowerPC structure that could fade towards the Microsoft-Intel Wintel alliance. The Apple-Intel-Motorola (purpose) crew took IBM's energy instruction set architecture and turned it into a client-pleasant version that became manufactured by IBM and Motorola and used in Apple's Macintosh line from 1994 to 2006, when Apple - to which Jobs returned in 1997 - transitioned to Intel-based machines.

"it live been ten years because their transition to the PowerPC, and they believe Intel's technology will advocate us create the most efficient own computers for the next ten years," Jobs preeminent in asserting the circulate.

From OS to Oh NoIn the late 80s, Apple become working on an object-oriented working device, codenamed red. nevertheless it become having challenge pulling it every bit of together. within the wake of the aim alliance, Apple grew to become to IBM for information, and purple was reborn as a joint undertaking called Taligent with IBM's Joe Guglielmi at the helm.

The Taligent development team worked away for two years, eventually switching from an object-oriented OS to an object-oriented programming environment that could travail on any modern OS. however despite pilot from Hewlett-Packard, Taligent every bit of but fizzled by means of the mid-90s. Guglielmi left the company for Motorola in 1995, and after his successor, Dick Guarino, died of a heart assault later that 12 months, Taligent grew to become simply a different IBM subsidiary. It turned into officially dissolved in 1998.

Bullet and a TargetAfter being spurned with the aid of Microsoft on an kick linking and embedding undertaking, Apple approached IBM about working on it together in 1992. It resulted in the OpenDoc word-processing software and browser but did not possess what it took to fade in opposition t Java. When he back to Apple, Jobs "put a bullet through [OpenDoc's] head," as he spoke of.

The Enemy of My EnemyIn the ultimate 20 years, Apple and IBM possess taken sever paths. IBM jettisoned its computing device company and focused firmly on the business, making headlines along the artery for its synthetic intelligence travail on Watson. Apple, in the meantime, grew to become a buyer darling, with shoppers lining as much as nab the company's newest telephones and pills. via coming lower back collectively, though, Apple delves further into the enterprise with a partner it truly is close in that area, whereas IBM receives to tender up items with a confident "cool" factor and tap into the Apple mystique.

For greater, check out Apple and IBM Bury the Hammer and IBM and Apple imply company.


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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 2

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MET CS 770 Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

Last updated: November 13, 2002 Recent updates are often in red.

Contacting Eric Braude changed if this is red Materials changed if this is red Forums changed if this is red Overview changed if this is red Grading changed if this is red Project Organization changed if this is red Homework and Due Dates changed if this is red        Phase 3 Required Background changed if this is red Learning Objectives changed if this is red Syllabus and Dates for Classes changed if this is red Overview

A major engineering problem today is the predictable development of trustworthy software-intensive systems. The object-oriented paradigm is an critical fragment of such development.

Object-oriented methods can live divided into languages, distribution, and analysis and design. There change in the language category, particularly Java and C#. Distribution includes the exhaust of vendor libraries of classes and furthermore distributed objects as specified by the kick Management Group etc.  Basic to the entire enterprise, however, are analysis and design, which has remained remarkable stable for years. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design includes the overall goals of the kick paradigm, the selection of classes, the relationships among them, and their utilization to implement systems.

Required Background

A information of C++ or Java (MET CS 565) and software engineering methods (MET CS 673) are required.   It is preferable to possess taken Design Patterns (MET CS 665).

Materials and references

The recommended textbook is “Applying UML and Patterns: An Introduction to Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, and the Unified Process ” by Larman (Prentice Hall) 2nd edition, Published July 2001, 627 pages, ISBN 0130925691.  This is the first time that this instructor has used this book, and it is not transparent how much the bespeak will live used.

The instructor will provide notes for every bit of classes.

Other references:

  • The Unified Modeling Language User pilot by Booch et al (Prentice Hall) ISBN0-201-57168-4
  • The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual James Rumbaugh, Ivar Jacobson, Grady Booch Addison-Wesley Pub Co; ISBN: 020130998X
  • Design Patterns by Gamma et al
  • Object-Oriented Software Engineering by I Jacobson
  • Object-Oriented Analysis & Design by G. Booch
  • Modeling the world in data by S. Schlaer and S. Mellor
  • Modeling the world in states by S. Schlaer and S. Mellor
  • The Unified method draft www.rational.com
  • Object-oriented Analysis by P. Coad and E. Yourdon
  • Object-oriented Design by P. Coad and E. Yourdon
  • Object-oriented Programming by P. Coad and A Nicola
  • Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric Braude
  • Learning Objectives

    Students will live able to …

  • … dissect problems from an kick perspective
  • … create OO designs which are ready for coding
  • … implement a pilot OO project
  • Grading

    The course will consist of homework and a project, weighted as follows:

    1.      Homework:                  30%

    2.      Project:                        70%

    There are three phases for the project, graded as follows:

  • phase 1 (problem statement):                            1/9
  • phase 2 (analysis):                                             2/9
  • phase 3 (design):                                               1/3
  • phase 4 (implementation and critical review): 1/3
  • Parts are evaluated equally unless otherwise stated.

    Late homework is not accepted unless there is a intuition why it was impossible for you. If there is such an impossibility, the travail will live graded on a pass/fail basis.

    Project Organization

    You will live required to submit an analyzed, designed and implemented project according to the deadlines shown in the schedule. particular requirements will follow.

    With the instructor’s permission, it may live viable to substitute every bit of or fragment of the project with an investigation of tools for OOA&D such as Rational Rose or Together.  This will require a particular evaluation and an investigation of how these tools are being used extensively in a particular company.

    Teams two are permitted, and will live evaluated at a higher standard. every bit of members must know every bit of parts.

    You will live required to give a presentation on at least two of the phases in your project.

    Syllabus:

    This syllabus is matter to about 15% modification.

    The order of topics will live driven by the notes, which the instructor will hand out, not by the textbook. The textbook will serve as background and reference.

    Wk. Date Topic Text

    chapters

    Project

    Times are approximate.  contemplate “date homework due” section for final dates

    1 9/3
  • Review Syllabus
  • Review Software development Process
  • Notes 0-1 Phase 1 assigned 2 9/10
  • Introduction, Overview, and Goals of Design
  • UML as required
  • Extreme programming and refactoring
  • Notes 1-3 3 9/17
  • Requirements I: exhaust Cases
  • Notes 13 fragment 1 Presentations;

    Assign aspect 2

    4 9/24
  • Requirements II: Sequence Diagrams
  • Notes 13 fragment 2 Phase 1 due; 5 10/1
  • Requirements III:  Completing Domain Classes
  • Writing particular Requirements
  • Review Student Designs
  • Notes 13 fragment 3

    Larman 10

    6 10/8 Notes 14 fragment 1 Assign aspect 3 7 10/22 To live determined Presentations; aspect 2 due; 8 10/29
  • Review Design Patterns as required
  • Discussion of Tools
  • Review Student Designs
  • Notes 4-6 9 11/5
  • Frameworks
  • Review Student Designs
  • Presentations on architectures 10 11/12
  • Design Topics
  • Review Student Designs
  • Notes 14 fragment 2 Assign aspect 4

    Phase 3 due

    11 11/19 Presentations on particular designs 12 11/26
  • Detailed Design
  • Review Student Designs
  • Presentations 13 12/3
  • Implementing OO designs
  • Shlaer-Mellor
  • Presentation of results (1 of 2) 14 12/10
  • Presentations on Finished Applications
  • Phase 4 due Presentation of results (2 of 2)
  • Notes are from Software Design (Braude, to live published by Wiley in March 2002)
  • ** Applying UML and Patterns: … (Larman)
  • Dates Homework is due

    Num-ber Name Due date Project aspect 1 9/24 1 “Design Issues” 9/17 1 3.4 (Pass Fail) 9/17 Project aspect 2: (10/2/2002

    )

    1.Attach first a copy of your aspect 1.  Respond specifically to whatever comments I may possess made on your aspect 1.   You can write these directly on the copy.

    2.

    Show the sequence diagrams for at least the two exhaust cases you possess introduced.  Key them to the exhaust case steps, which you should number.3.List requirements by “domain class” paragraphs, including

    — The testable functionality that the application will definitely accomplish

    –What you would like to possess the application accomplish if time permits

    Criterion: a. Requirements clearly written. (A = very transparent description of application’s goals; no detail omitted)

    4.Provide a class diagram for your project consisting of every bit of of the domain classes as well as the domain packages that you will use.

    Criteria:

    b. Clarity and completeness Sufficiency of key classes for committed requirements and exhaust cases (A = very transparent class meanings; no domain class missing no other domain classes required)

    g. Economy (A = no redundancy at every bit of in the class model)

    Here are some typical improvements.

    Most scope for improvement

    1.      execute your domain names specific to your application; e.g., PetStoreTransaction, FootballGame, FootballTeam rather than Transaction or Game or Team.

    2.      exhaust the “entities” section correctly.  This applies when there are specific entities that the application is required to have. It does not include entities that will live created at runtime that you can’t specify entirely at requirements time.

    3.      Many internal classes possess corresponding GUI classes.  For example, PetStoreAccount entities may acquire their data from a PetStoreAccountGUI entity.  Specify the latter in its own category rather than under PetStoreAccount.

    4.      In your requirements, distinguish between the initiator and the core of functionality.

    For example, under “Courses” a functionality might live “12.1.5 The application shall live able to array the catalog description of each course in the following format …”  (Corresponds to class Course).  Under the “Course GUI” paragraph an event might live “When the array course button is pressed, the functionality described in section 12.1.5 is initated.”  Under the “Student GUI” paragraph an event might live “When the present course button is pressed, the functionality described in section 12.1.5 is initated.” Etc.

    Do not philosophize “12.1.5 When the array course button is pressed on the Course GUI, the application can array the catalog description of each course in the following format …”  Otherwise you will possess a maintenance nightmare and a destitute mapping to the design and implementation.

    5.

    Room for improvement

    1. Most

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    7.

    objects are not sensitive to events unless they are GUI objects.  Buttons are examples.  Many objects possess functionality that may live invoked as a result of an event on an

    other object.  For example, a customer’s information may live displayed when the button is clicked.  But “display” is a office of Customer: Any one of clients can invoke it, some event-sensitive and others not.  The kick with (direct) event reaction is the button, not the customer.

    2. In your requirements document, don’t philosophize “The customer shall include a title …” (which is insane English).  Instead: “The application shall maintain the title of customers ….”

    3. Distinguish between objects and kick aggregates.  For example, you could possess a “Customers” requirements paragraph with functionality such as “App shall live able to transmit a customer profile to the central database.”  This will correspond to a class Customer.  You could furthermore possess a “Customer List”  paragraph with functionality such as “It shall live viable to add new customers …”  This will correspond to a class such as CustomerList.

    4. Don’t squander words. In particular, give a sentence or two under each paragraph that adds value.

    NOT:

    1.4 Customers

    This section describes the requirements for customers.

    BUT

    1.4 Customers

    The application shall track the customers of the video store as follows. …

    1.

    10/22 3 Clown problem 10/9/02

    Draw a class model for an application for drawing human figures.  The picture shown is a typical product of the application.  The figures are always neck-upward; mouths are always lines, necks always rectangles, etc. – the shapes that parade in the figure.  Assume that the business will never change — but they want to live able to easily upgrade the shop’s capability within these constraints (e.g., draw necks with various colors, new kinds of brim lines).  The class model should execute pattern drawing convenient (e.g., allowing the retrieval of previously constructed pattern parts). present attributes or operations whenever they clarify your solution.  include useful abstractions (but to extend the current business).

    There is no requirement to occupy into account the GUI for the application (icons, menu’s etc.)

    Here is a scenario:

    The user … pulls onto the monitor “abeLincolnFace14” (which excludes the ears and neck)

    … adds “ear123” on the left by dragging to its vicinity and releasing

    The application places ear123 in a remedy position

    The user invokes the “complete with suitable parts” command.

    The application

    … completes the pattern with a neck and hat that it considers most suitable.

    … creates an ear on the right, complete with matching position, interior texture and color, and styles of brim lines

    Criteria: a. completeness relative to requirements (A = enough classes for requirements, including usurp generalizations)

    b. economy of classes (A = no more than necessary for requirements)

    10/29 4 14.1 – 14.6 11/5 see more below see below

    Project aspect 3: Due 11/12

    1.  Attach a copy of your aspect 2 as graded by me, with specific responses to whatever comments I may possess made on your aspect 2.

    2. Provide a class diagram for your project, showing inheritance and aggregation.  present key methods, key dependencies, and inheritance and aggregation.   exhaust your packages and Facades to avoid a unique overwhelming figure.

    3. present at least one additional model that completes your design.

    Criteria:

    a. Clarity of the model (A = very transparent class meanings; very transparent organization; no unnecessary details)

    b. Adequacy of class model for effecting the requirements.  (A= particular enough to clearly allow an implementation that satisfies the requirements.)

    g. Completeness **** of models to specify the entire design. (A=right models selected; clearly no gaps in description)

    Most scope for improvement

    1. If you exhaust a data flux diagram, witness the data types that flow.

    2. If you exhaust a data flux diagram, witness the functionality at each processing node.

    3. In the interest of clarity, present the relationships among the packages.  You can employ <<uses>> relationships.  Omit the classes from such a figure.

    Room for improvement

    1. In this course they did not give signification to solid lines with arrows.  define what you suggest by them, or don’t exhaust them.

    2. live specific about associations: sequel you suggest two-way aggregations?

    3. You possess introduced a class whose title does not witness a transparent purpose and which is not a domain class.  define it’s purpose.

    A minute scope for improvement

    1. …..

    Project aspect 4:     Due 12/10

    Section 1 Attach Phases 2 and 3. Response to my comments on aspect 3. ( not graded, but required)

    Section 2 present representative input and output.

    Section 3 define the application of every bit of of the steps covered in the notes — define if they did not apply.

    (criterion: a. Clarity and completeness — A = every bit of relevant steps thoroughly implemented where applicable and explained where not)

    Section 4 Provide a complete class diagram and other usurp model(s), structure on the models you submitted for aspect 3.

    (criterion: b. clarity and completeness — A = very clearly chosen and arranged models)

    Section 5 Account of the degree to which you accomplished your requirements as given in aspect 2.  delight mention to them by number (e.g., 11.3.5).

    (criterion: g. degree of accomplishment.  A = excellent functional capabilities for a graduate course)

    Section 6. Source code.

    (d. criterion: clarity — A = extremely transparent layout & code; each fragment easily traceable to the corresponding design element)

    Please …

    note that your class diagrams and code must live consistent;

    indicate every bit of differences with prior design decisions;

    indicate every bit of sections using numbered tabs (e.g., Post-it notes)

    Forums — past and present

    Fall 2001

    Fall 2002 email to the group is: 770F02@yahoogroups.com


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, fragment 2 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    LWN.net needs you!

    Without subscribers, LWN would simply not exist. delight regard signing up for a subscription and helping to withhold LWN publishing

    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first fragment of this analysis they looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular they examined method dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where sever vtables were eschewed in preference for storing office pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion they will explore a second critical aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The contour that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most like subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" ilk inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. They will convene this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can live said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can live create in the Linux kernel, and every bit of can live seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but furthermore the least flexible, is to declare a union as one ingredient of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained blank until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in 2.4.14.2 when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is furthermore well clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every new filesystem implementation needs to add an extra sphere to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not seem like a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will live the identical size and will live big enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as they will contemplate shortly. The second is a actual problem and the general ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 development progression this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u furthermore added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only usurp memory to store its own structure without any requisite to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to live solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first difficulty is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always residence the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of ilk safety and makes it harder to disarrange fields in the inode to acquire optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to exhaust the list_entry() macro to perform the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to exhaust this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the insane name. This practice lasted until 2.5.28 when a new container_of() macro was added which implemented the identical functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more ilk safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second difficulty was that the filesystem had to live answerable for allocating the inode - it could no longer live allocated by common code as the common code did not possess enough information to usurp the remedy amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As preeminent earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding new filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more sphere that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer sphere called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and usurp a sever structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced new problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it furthermore required writing more error-handling code. furthermore there was memory used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra memory dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often requisite to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra memory dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad exhaust of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is noiseless in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the identical purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only artery to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux include files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data ilk by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could live converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an efficient vehicle to interlard these three patterns they sequel not array the full scope of any of them so it is useful to inspect further afield and contemplate what else they can learn.

    A survey of the exhaust of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide compass of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a minuscule fixed number of subtypes of the groundwork ilk and there is minute expectation of more being added. A simple example of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file mention information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the dissimilarity encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the identical information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever live extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal ilk has a different ilk of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to live the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not transparent whether these examples should live considered as the identical pattern as the original struct inode. sequel they really depict different subtypes of a groundwork type, or is it just one ilk with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not advocate variant types at every bit of except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to treat every bit of usages of union as a contour of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to execute a choice. So the own is not clear.

    For their purposes it doesn't really matter what they convene it as long as they know where to exhaust each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly present that when every bit of of the variants are understood by a unique module, then a union is a very usurp mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to mention to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely sever pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The exhaust of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an example of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so smooth to classify. It would probably live unprejudiced to philosophize that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can live very useful but they can furthermore lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you inspect at a void pointer, like looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is like a "goto destination" command - almost pointless without reading lots of context.

    Examining every bit of the different uses that void pointers can live attach to would live well beyond the scope of this article. Instead they will restrict their attention to just one new usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it arduous to recognize their exhaust in data inheritance. The example they will exhaust to define this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it smooth to synthesize simple text files like some of those in /proc. The "seq" fragment of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a unique line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a new seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data sphere of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward example of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the groundwork ilk and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private sphere which is a void pointer and it can live used by clients of seq_file to add extra condition to the file. For example md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private sphere of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a unique pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to mention to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private sphere itself. This certainly seems like a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a unique pointer would live a squander - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you inspect at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To execute it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being like a union of every different viable pointer type. If the value that needs to live stored is a pointer, it can live stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a unique pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when they contemplate a void pointer being used it may not live obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally live embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure noiseless has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private exhaust by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will live realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a shroud device which stores your filesystem might live realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't requisite to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would live embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which exhaust this field, one appears to result that intent while the other two exhaust it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to live used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately transparent that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is transparent is that an apparently "private" void pointer can live intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as they possess seen in two different circumstances, they may not live used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly deep examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before they leave unions and void pointers behind a inspect at struct page may live interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden well due to historical baggage. This example is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux memory is divided into pages, and these pages are attach to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to own kmalloc() requests. Others are simply fragment of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to live used. Each of these different exhaust cases could live seen as a subtype of the general class of "page", and in most cases requisite some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the identical struct page describing it, so if the efficient ilk of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of memory change over time - the ilk of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many ilk systems are designed assuming that the ilk of an kick is immutable, they find here that the kernel has a very actual requisite for ilk mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first plane of subtyping there are only a minuscule number of different subtypes as listed above; these are every bit of known to the core memory management code, so a union would live pattern here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over every bit of three, thus hiding the actual structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in exhaust has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private sphere that can live used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the identical size and this is one of them. Most users of this sphere actually store a pointer here and possess to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and acquire this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative example of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can live used, and where the list of viable subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to live increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a full understanding of it they will again requisite to explore a minute bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly lively going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second exhaust is the data inheritance embedding that they possess already discussed. The third is like it but importantly different. This third exhaust is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The exhaust of an embedded anchor like struct list_head can live seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a unique kick can possess several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if they include the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to deem of this sort of embedding more like a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can live mixed-in to other objects, an arbitrary number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the being of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not live shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every kick with an independent being will possess a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more specific struct kref. When an kick is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could live buried quite deeply. For example a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in circle live embedded in a structure for some specific device) does possess a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These possess no reference counter, possess no independent being and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when attach this way, it is useful to bethink that a unique kick cannot possess two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to possess two counters like s_active and s_count in struct super_block which weigh different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only contour of multiple inheritance that can travail is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It furthermore means that, when designing a data structure, it is critical to deem about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should possess its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an kick in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really new and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an critical dissimilarity with void pointers is that it is relatively smooth to change your intuition later and switch an extension structure to live a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the privilege decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing new instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() office is called which can optionally usurp and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to live allocated by the lowest plane device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode example from above which has an alloc_inode() method in the super_block to request allocation, they find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() advocate functions. The first of these is used when the previous exhaust of a piece of memory is unknown, the second is enough by itself when they know that the memory was previously used for some other inode. They contemplate this identical pattern of an initializer office sever from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can live recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.

    Conclusion

    In exploring the exhaust of method dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel they find that while some patterns seem to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost every bit of data inheritance could live implemented using structure embedding, unions provide actual value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very critical and the talent to delegate methods to a related kick can live valuable.

    We furthermore find that there are patterns in exhaust with minute to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may possess an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can intuition confusion, and could nearly always live replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to witness default behavior is similarly a destitute selection - when the default is critical there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is furthermore a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to actual problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to abet better their mind, and pursue the latter to abet better the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might live of interest to some.

    Exercises
  • As inodes now exhaust structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not live necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was preeminent in the text, struct seq_file can live extended both through "void pointer" and a limited contour of "union" data inheritance. define how seq_open_private() allows this structure to furthermore live extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an example by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". regard submitting a patch if this appears to live an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a kick to contain fields that not every bit of users are interested in. This can witness that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can live represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could live a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more general exhaust of the proposed open() method for inodes might abet here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an kick model that would meet every bit of the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

  • (Log in to post comments)

    Java and Object-Oriented Programming | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the bespeak 

    Many seasoned Java developers will scoff at the fact that this section even exists in this book. It is here for two very critical reasons. The first is that I continually hasten across Java applications built with a procedural mind-set. The fact that you know Java doesn't suggest that you possess the talent to transform that information into well-designed object-oriented systems. As both an instructor and consultant, I contemplate many data-processing shops transmit COBOL and/or Visual Basic developers to a three-day class on UML and a five-day class on Java and await miracles. Case in point: I was recently asked to review a Java application to assess its design architecture and create that it had only two classes—SystemController and ScreenController—which contained over 70,000 lines of Java code.

    The second intuition for the stress on how the language maps to object-oriented principles is that people like language comparisons and how they stack up to their counterparts. To appease those that live and die by language comparisons, let's attach Java under the scrutiny of what constitutes an object-oriented language.

    No definitive definition of what makes a language object-oriented is globally accepted. However, a common set of criteria I personally find useful is that the language must advocate the following:

  • Classes
  • Complex types (Java reference types)
  • Message passing
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • These are discussed in the next subsections.

    Java and Classes

    Java allows classes to live defined. There are no stray functions floating around in Java. A class is a static template that contains the defined structure (attributes) and behavior (operations) of a real-world entity in the application domain. At runtime, the class is instantiated, or brought to life, as an kick born in the image of that class. In my seminars, when several folks new to the kick world are in attendance, I often exhaust the analogy of a cookie cutter. The cookie cutter is merely the template used to stamp out what will become individually decorated and unique cookies. The cookie cutter is the class; the unique blue, green, and yellow gingerbread man is the kick (which I dependence supports a champ operation).

    Java exposes the class to potential outside users through its public interface. A public interface consists of the signatures of the public operations supported by the class. A signature is the operation title and its input parameter types (the recur type, if any, is not fragment of the operation's signature).

    Good programming practice encourages developers to declare every bit of attributes as private and allow access to them only via operations. As with most other languages, however, this is not enforced in Java. pattern 2-1 outlines the concept of a class and its interface.

    FIGURE 2-1 Public interface of a class

    The pattern uses a common eggshell metaphor to record the concept of the class's interface, as well as encapsulation. The internal details of the class are hidden from the outside via a well-defined interface. In this case, only four operations are exposed in the classes interface (Operation_A, B, C, and D). The other attributes and operations are protected from the outside world. Actually, to the outside world, it's as if they don't even exist.

    Suppose you want to create an Order class in Java that has three attributes—orderNumber, orderDate, and orderTotal—and two operations—calcTotalValue() and getInfo(). The class definition could inspect like this:

    /** * Listing 1 * This is the Order class for the Java/UML book */ package com.jacksonreed; import java.util.*; public class Order { private Date orderDate; private long orderNumber; private long orderTotal; public Order() { } public boolean getInfo() { recur true; } public long calcTotalValue() { recur 0; } public Date getOrderDate() { recur orderDate; } public void setOrderDate(Date aOrderDate) { orderDate = aOrderDate; } public long getOrderNumber() { recur orderNumber; } public void setOrderNumber(long aOrderNumber) { orderNumber = aOrderNumber; } public long getOrderTotal() { recur orderTotal; } public void setOrderTotal(long aOrderTotal) { orderTotal = aOrderTotal; } public static void main(String[] args) { Order order = new Order(); System.out.println("instantiated Order"); System.out.println(order.getClass().getName()); System.out.println(order.calcTotalValue()); try { Thread.currentThread().sleep(5*1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) {} } }

    A few things are notable about the first bit of Java code presented in this book. Notice that each of the three attributes has a acquire and a set operation to allow for the retrieval and setting of the Order object's properties. Although doing so is not required, it is common practice to provide these accessor-type operations for every bit of attributes defined in a class. In addition, if the Order class ever wanted to live a JavaBean, it would possess to possess "getters and setters" defined in this way.

    Some of the method code in the main() operation does a few things of note. Of interest is that a try shroud exists at the finish of the operation that puts the current thread to sleep for a bit. This is to allow the console array to freeze so that you can contemplate the results.

    If you ilk in this class and then compile it and execute it in your favorite development implement or from the command prompt with

    javac order.java //* to compile it java order //* to hasten it

    you should acquire results that inspect like this:

    instantiated Order com.jacksonreed.Order 0

    NOTE

    Going forward, I vow you will contemplate no code samples with class, operation, or mention names of foo, bar, or foobar.

    More on Java and Classes

    A class can furthermore possess what are called class-level operations and attributes. Java supports these with the static keyword. This keyword would fade privilege after the visibility (public, private, protected) component of the operation or attribute. Static operations and attributes are needed to invoke either a service of the class before any actual instances of that class are instantiated or a service that doesn't directly apply to any of the instances. The classic example of a static operation is the Java constructor. The constructor is what is called when an kick is created with the New keyword. Perhaps a more business-focused example is an operation that retrieves a list of Customer instances based on particular search criteria.

    A class-level mention can live used to store information that every bit of instances of that class may access. This mention might be, for example, a weigh of the number of objects currently instantiated or a property about Customer that every bit of instances might requisite to reference.

    Java and involved Types (Java Reference Types)

    A involved type, which in Java is called a reference type, allows variables typed as something other than primitive types (e.g., int and boolean) to live declared. In Java, these are called reference types. In object-oriented systems, variables that are "of" a particular class, such as Order, Customer, or Invoice, must live defined. Taken a step further, Order could consist of other class instances, such as OrderHeader and OrderLine.

    In Java, you can define different variables that are references to runtime objects of a particular class type:

    Public Order myOrder; Public Customer myCustomer; Public Invoice myInvoice;

    Such variables can then live used to store actual kick instances and subsequently to serve as recipients of messages sent by other objects. In the previous code fragment, the variable myOrder is an instance of Order. After the myOrder kick is created, a message can live sent to it and myOrder will respond, provided that the operation is supported by myOrder's interface.

    Java and Message Passing

    Central to any object-oriented language is the talent to pass messages between objects. In later chapters you will contemplate that travail is done in a system only by objects that collaborate (by sending messages) to accomplish a goal (which is specified in a use-case) of the system.

    Java doesn't allow stray functions floating around that are not attached to a class. In fact, Java demands this. Unfortunately, as my previous myth suggested, just proverb that a language requires everything to live packaged in classes doesn't suggest that the class design will live robust, let solitary correct.

    Java supports message passing, which is central to the exhaust of Java's object-oriented features. The format closely resembles the syntax of other languages, such as C++ and Visual Basic. In the following code fragment, assume that a variable called myCustomer, of ilk Customer, is defined and that an operation called calcTotalValue() is defined for Customer. Then the calcTotalValue() message being sent to the myCustomer kick in Java would inspect like this:

    myCustomer.calcTotalValue();

    Many developers feel that, in any other structured language, this is just a fancy artery of calling a procedure. Calling a procedure and sending a message are similar in that, once invoked, both a procedure and a message implement a set of well-defined steps. However, a message differs in two ways:

  • There is a designated receiver, the object. Procedures possess no designated receiver.

  • The interpretation of the message—that is, the how-to code (called the method) used to respond to the message—can vary with different receivers. This point will become more critical later in the chapter, when polymorphism is reviewed.

  • The concepts presented in this bespeak depend heavily on classes and the messaging that takes residence between their instances, or objects.

    Java and Encapsulation

    Recall that a class exposes itself to the outside world via its public interface and that this should live done through exposure to operations only, and not attributes. Java supports encapsulation via its talent to declare both attributes and operations as public, private, or protected. In UML this is called visibility.

    Using the code from the previous Order example, suppose you want to set the value of the orderDate attribute. In this case, you should sequel so with an operation. An operation that gets or sets values is usually called a getter or a setter, respectively, and collectively such operations are called accessors. The local copy of the order date, orderDate, is declared private. (Actually, every bit of attributes of a class should live declared private or protected, so that they are accessible only via operations exposed as public to the outside world.)

    Encapsulation provides some powerful capabilities. To the outside world, the design can cloak how it derives its mention values. If the orderTotal mention is stored in the Order object, the corresponding acquire operation defined previously looks like this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { recur orderTotal; }

    This snippet of code would live invoked if the following code were executed by an interested client:

    private long localTotal; private Order localOrder; localOrder = New Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    However, suppose the mention orderTotal isn't kept as a local value of the Order class, but rather is derived via another mechanism (perhaps messaging to its OrderLine objects). If Order contains OrderLine objects (declared as a Vector or ArrayList of OrderLine objects called myOrderLines) and OrderLine knows how to obtain its line totals via the message getOrderLineTotal(), then the corresponding acquire operation for orderTotal within Order will inspect like this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myOrderLines.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myOrderLines[i].getOrderLineTotal(); } recur totalAmount; }

    This code cycles through the myOrderLines collection, which contains every bit of the Orderline objects related to the Order object, sending the getOrderLineTotal() message to each of Order's OrderLine objects. The getOrderTotal() operation will live invoked if the following code is executed by an interested client:

    long localTotal; Order myOrder; myOrder = new Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    Notice that the "client" code didn't change. To the outside world, the class noiseless has an orderTotal attribute. However, you possess hidden, or encapsulated, just how the value was obtained. This encapsulation allows the class's interface to remain the identical (hey, I possess an orderTotal that you can query me about), while the class retains the flexibility to change its implementation in the future (sorry, how they sequel business has changed and now they must derive orderTotal like this). This kindhearted of resiliency is one of the compelling business reasons to exhaust an object-oriented programming language in general.

    Java and Inheritance

    The inclusion of inheritance is often the most cited intuition for granting a language object-oriented status. There are two kinds of inheritance: interface and implementation. As they shall see, Java is one of the few languages that makes a transparent distinction between the two.

    Interface inheritance (Figure 2-2) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface will live answerable for implementing every bit of of the method code of each operation defined in that interface. Only the signatures of the interface are inherited; there is no method or how-to code.

    FIGURE 2-2 Interface inheritance

    Implementation inheritance (Figure 2-3) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface may, at its option, exhaust the method code implementation already established for the interface. Alternatively, it may choose to implement its own version of the interface. In addition, the class inheriting the interface may extend that interface by adding its own operations and attributes.

    FIGURE 2-3 Implementation inheritance

    Each ilk of inheritance should live scrutinized and used in the usurp setting. Interface inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The groundwork class presents a generic facility, such as a table lookup, or a derivation of system-specific information, such as operating-system semantics or unique algorithms.

  • The number of operations is small.

  • The groundwork class has few, if any, attributes.

  • Classes realizing or implementing the interface are diverse, with minute or no common code.

  • Implementation inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The class in question is a domain class that is of primary interest to the application (i.e., not a utility or controller class).

  • The implementation is complex, with a big number of operations.

  • Many attributes and operations are common across specialized implementations of the groundwork class.

  • Some practitioners contend that implementation inheritance leads to a symptom called the brittle groundwork class problem. Chiefly, this term refers to the fact that over time, what were once common code and attributes in the superclass may not wait common as the business evolves. The result is that many, if not all, of the subclasses, override the behavior of the superclass. Worse yet, the subclasses may find themselves overriding the superclass, doing their own work, and then invoking the identical operation again on the superclass. These practitioners espouse the idea of using only interface inheritance. Particularly with the advent of Java and its raising of the interface to a first-class type, the concept and usage of interface-based programming possess gained tremendous momentum.

    As this bespeak evolves, keeping in intuition the pointers mentioned here when deciding between the two types of inheritance will live helpful. Examples of both constructs will live presented in the theme project that extends throughout this book.

    Implementation Inheritance

    Java supports implementation inheritance with the extends keyword. A class wanting to occupy advantage of implementation inheritance simply adds an extendsClassName statement to its class definition. To continue the previous example, suppose you possess two different types of orders, both warranting their own subclasses: Commercial and Retail. You would noiseless possess an Order class (which isn't instantiated directly and which is called abstract). The previous fragment showed the code for the Order class. Following is the code for the Commercial class.

    package com.jacksonreed; public class Commercial extends Order { public Commercial() { } /* Unique Commercial code goes here */ }

    Implementation inheritance allows the Commercial class to utilize every bit of attributes and operations defined in Order. This will live done automatically by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in conjunction with the language environment. In addition, implementation inheritance has the talent to override and/or extend any of Order's behavior. Commercial may furthermore add completely new behavior if it so chooses.

    Interface Inheritance

    Java supports interface inheritance with the implements keyword. A class wanting to realize a given interface (actually being answerable for the method code) simply adds an implements InterfaceName statement. However, unlike extension of one class by another class, implementation of an interface by a class requires that the interface live specifically defined as an interface beforehand.

    Looking again at the previous example with Order, let's assume that this system will contain many classes—some built in this release, and some built in future releases—that requisite the talent to expense themselves. bethink from earlier in this chapter that one of the indicators of using interface inheritance is the situation in which there is minute or no common code but the functional intent of the classes is the same. This pricing functionality includes three services: the abilities to pattern tax, to pattern an extended price, and to pattern a total price. Let's convene the operations for these services calcExtendedPrice(), calcTax(), and calcTotalPrice(), respectively, and allot them to a Java interface called IPrice. Sometimes interface names are prefixed with the note I to distinguish them from other classes:

    package com.jacksonreed; interface IPrice { long calcExtendedPrice(); long calcTax(); long calcTotalPrice(); }

    Notice that the interface contains only operation signatures; it has no implementation code. It is up to other classes to implement the actual behavior of the operations. For the Order class to implement, or realize, the IPrice interface, it must include the implements keyword followed by the interface name:

    public class Order implements IPrice { }

    If you try to implement an interface without providing implementations for every bit of of its operations, your class will not compile. Even if you don't want to implement any method code for some of the operations, you noiseless must possess the operations defined in your class.

    One very powerful aspect of interface inheritance is that a class can implement many interfaces at the identical time. For example, Order could implement the IPrice interface and perhaps a search interface called ISearch. However, a Java class may extend from only one other class.

    Java and Polymorphism

    Polymorphism is one of those $50 words that dazzles the uninformed and sounds really impressive. In fact, polymorphism is one of the most powerful features of any object-oriented language.

    Roget's II: The New Thesaurus cross-references the term polymorphism to the main entry of variety. That will sequel for starters. Variety is the key to polymorphism. The Latin root for polymorphism means simply "many forms." Polymorphism applies to operations in the object-oriented context. So by combining these two thoughts, you could philosophize that operations are polymorphic if they are identical (not just in title but furthermore in signatures) but tender variety in their implementations.

    Polymorphism is the talent of two different classes each to possess an operation that has the identical signature, while having two very different forms of method code for the operation. Note that to occupy advantage of polymorphism, either an interface inheritance or an implementation inheritance relationship must live involved.

    In languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, defining a routine to have the identical title as another routine will intuition a compile error. In object-oriented languages such as Java and C++, several classes might possess an operation with the identical signature. Such duplication is in fact encouraged because of the power and flexibility it brings to the design.

    As mentioned previously, the implements and extends keywords let the application occupy advantage of polymorphism. As they shall see, the sample project presented later in this bespeak is an order system for a company called Remulak Productions. Remulak sells musical equipment, as well as other types of products. There will live a Product class, as well as Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies classes.

    Suppose, then, that differences exist in the fundamental algorithms used to determine the best time to reorder each ilk of product (called the economic order quantity, or EOQ). I don't want to let too much out of the bag at this point, but there will live an implementation inheritance relationship created with Product as the ancestor class (or superclass) and the other three classes as its descendants (or subclasses). The scenario that follows uses implementation inheritance with a polymorphic example. Note that interface inheritance would defer the identical benefits and live implemented in the identical fashion.

    To facilitate extensibility and live able to add new products in the future in a sort of plug-and-play fashion, they can execute calcEOQ() polymorphic. To sequel this in Java, Product would define calcEOQ() as abstract, thereby informing any inheriting subclass that it must provide the implementation. A key concept behind polymorphism is this: A class implementing an interface or inheriting from an ancestor class can live treated as an instance of that ancestor class. In the case of a Java interface, the interface itself is a sound type.

    For example, assume that a collection of Product objects is defined as a property of the Inventory class. Inventory will advocate an operation, getAverageEOQ(), that needs to pattern the uninterested economic order quantity for every bit of products the company sells. To sequel this requires that they iterate over the collection of Product objects called myProducts to acquire each object's unique economic order quantity individually, with the goal of getting an average:

    public long getAverageEOQ() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myProducts.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myProducts[i].calcEOQ(); } recur totalAmount / myProducts.length; }

    But wait! First of all, how can Inventory possess a collection of Product objects when the Product class is abstract (no instances were ever created on their own)? bethink the maxim from earlier: Any class implementing an interface or extending from an ancestor class can live treated as an instance of that interface or extended class. A Guitar "is a" Product, SheetMusic "is a" Product, and Supplies "is a" Product. So anywhere you reference Guitar, SheetMusic, or Supplies, you can substitute Product.

    Resident in the array myProducts within the Inventory class are individual concrete Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies objects. Java figures out dynamically which kick should acquire its own unique calcEOQ() message. The beauty of this construct is that later, if you add a new ilk of Product—say, Organ—it will live totally transparent to the Inventory class. That class will noiseless possess a collection of Product types, but it will possess four different ones instead of three, each of which will possess its own unique implementation of the calcEOQ() operation.

    This is polymorphism at its best. At runtime, the class related to the kick in question will live identified and the remedy "variety" of the operation will live invoked. Polymorphism provides powerful extensibility features to the application by letting future unknown classes implement a predictable and well-conceived interface without affecting how other classes deal with that interface.



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