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000-633 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - participate 1

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Test cognomen : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - participate 1
Vendor cognomen : IBM
: 105 existent Questions

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IBM kick Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented evaluation and Design | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the booklet 

evaluation emphasizes an investigation of the vicissitude and necessities, in preference to an answer. as an instance, if a unique online trading outfit is desired, how will it subsist used? What are its services?

"analysis" is a large time period, surest qualified, as in requirements evaluation (an investigation of the requirements) or object-oriented evaluation (an investigation of the domain objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual solution (in software and hardware) that fulfills the requirements, rather than its implementation. for example, a description of a database schema and application objects. Design concepts regularly exclude low-degree or "evident" particulars—glaring to the intended consumers. eventually, designs can subsist implemented, and the implementation (akin to code) expresses the proper and complete realized design.

As with analysis, the term is optimal qualified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

positive analysis and design had been summarized within the phrase achieve the confiscate aspect (evaluation), and achieve the constituent revise (design).

Python GUI Programming initiatives using Tkinter and Python three - Simpliv | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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Object-Oriented evaluation And Design — Introduction (half 1) | existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The conception Of Object-Orientation

Object-orientation is what’s called a programming paradigm. It’s now not a language itself however a group of ideas it's supported by many languages.

in case you aren’t prevalent with the ideas of object-orientation, you may prefer a glance on the chronicle of Object-Oriented Programming.

If every thing they achieve in these languages is object-oriented, it capacity, we're oriented or focused around objects.

Now in an object-oriented language, this one gigantic application will in its plot subsist fracture up aside into self contained objects, basically like having a few mini-classes, every kick representing a different a participate of the software.

and every kick consists of its personal information and its own logic, and that they communicate between themselves.

These objects aren’t random. They signify the passage you talk and deem concerning the vicissitude you are trying to remedy for your existent life.

They signify issues like personnel, images, fiscal institution bills, spaceships, asteroids, video phase, audio files, or whatever thing exists for your application.

Object-Oriented analysis And Design (OOAD)

It’s a structured system for analyzing, designing a gadget with the aid of applying the article-orientated ideas, and strengthen a group of graphical gadget fashions during the construction life cycle of the application.

OOAD within the SDLC

The application existence cycle is usually divided up into degrees going from summary descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.

The earliest ranges of this process are analysis (requirements) and design.

The inequity between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.

In evaluation developers travail with users and locality experts to define what the gadget is meant to do. Implementation particulars are purported to subsist in general or completely left out at this phase.

The aim of the analysis participate is to create a mannequin of the device regardless of constraints reminiscent of applicable technology. this is usually completed via expend situations and abstract definition of the most censorious objects using conceptual model.

The design facet refines the evaluation mannequin and applies the necessary technology and other implementation constrains.

It makes a speciality of describing the objects, their attributes, behavior, and interactions. The design model should acquire the entire particulars required so that programmers can set in oblige the design in code.

They’re most useful performed in an iterative and incremental software methodologies. So, the activities of OOAD and the developed models aren’t performed as soon as, they can revisit and refine these steps at complete times.

Object-Oriented analysis

within the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit requirements: define what does the software need to do, and what’s the vicissitude the utility trying to solve.
  • Specify necessities: picture the necessities, usually, the usage of expend cases (and scenarios) or consumer studies.
  • Conceptual model: determine the Important objects, refine them, and contour their relationships and habits and draw them in a simple diagram.
  • We’re not going to cover the first two activities, just the ultimate one. These are already explained in constituent in requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis section identifies the objects, their relationship, and deportment using the conceptual model (an abstract definition for the objects).

    whereas in design section, they picture these objects (by creating classification diagram from conceptual diagram — continually mapping conceptual model to sort diagram), their attributes, habits, and interactions.

    besides making expend of the utility design ideas and patterns which can subsist coated in later tutorials.

    The input for object-oriented design is supplied with the aid of the output of object-oriented evaluation. but, analysis and design may additionally ensue in parallel, and the results of 1 undertaking may likewise subsist used by means of the different.

    within the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the courses and their relationships the usage of classification diagram.
  • Describe the interplay between the objects the expend of sequence diagram.
  • observe utility design concepts and design patterns.
  • a class diagram gives a visible illustration of the courses you want. And right here is where you pick up to subsist in fact confident about object-oriented ideas like inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between those objects allows you to superior sustain in intelligence the obligations of the distinctive objects, the behaviors they need to have.

    — other diagrams

    there are many different diagrams they will expend to model the gadget from distinctive views; interactions between objects, constitution of the gadget, or the habits of the system and how it responds to routine.

    It’s at complete times about determining the right diagram for the revise need. originate confident to understand which diagrams could subsist advantageous when brooding about or discussing a condition that isn’t clear.

    system modeling and the diverse models they are able to expend may subsist mentioned next.

    equipment Modeling

    device modeling is the mode of developing models of the system, with every mannequin representing a different perspectives of that device.

    probably the most censorious aspect a brace of device mannequin is that it leaves out aspect; It’s an summary representation of the equipment.

    The models are continually according to graphical notation, which is almost always in keeping with the notations within the Unified Modeling Language (UML). other models of the system like mathematical mannequin; a minute outfit description.

    fashions are used during the analysis system to back to elicit the necessities, right through the design process to picture the outfit to engineers, and after implementation to doc the gadget structure and operation.

    distinctive perspectives

    We may additionally increase a model to characterize the device from distinctive perspectives.

  • external, the plot you model the context or the ambiance of the system.
  • interaction, the plot you mannequin the interplay between components of a system, or between a outfit and other programs.
  • Structural, the plot you mannequin the solid of the equipment, or the structure of the information being processed by using the device.
  • Behavioral, the plot you model the dynamic deportment of the system and how it respond to activities.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language whirl into the ordinary modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, besides the fact that children, probably the most diagrams which are ordinary are:

  • Use case diagram: It indicates the interplay between a outfit and it’s ambiance (users or methods) inside a specific condition.
  • type diagram: It indicates the discrete objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It suggests the interactions between the different objects in the equipment, and between actors and the objects in a equipment.
  • State machine diagram: It suggests how the device reply to exterior and inside movements.
  • pastime diagram: It indicates the flow of the facts between the tactics in the equipment.
  • that you would subsist able to achieve diagramming travail on paper or on a whiteboard, as a minimum within the initial tiers of a mission. however there are some diagramming tools on the passage to aid you to attract these UML diagrams.

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    Object Oriented Analysis and Design - participate 1

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    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (Part 1) | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Who does this thing? Does it acquire any benefit? If I achieve this, will my boss deem that I am wasting my time or making excuses to not work? acquire these thoughts ever promote to your intelligence when you were desperate to properly design your next software?

    It is likewise possible that you acquire tried designing some piece of software before, but you create that it was too just time-consuming and it had no benefits. But throughout your career, you might acquire had these recurring thoughts that you should learn more about design patterns, mastering MVC, and designing something reusable, modular, and smooth to read.

    In this multi-part article series, I will cover the basics about how you can properly design your next software even if you acquire failed final time.

    What Will You Learn?
  • Why your final design attempt failed
  • How to ply your manager/boss when you wanted to design
  • How to succeed in designing
  • The software evolution process
  • What is object-oriented analysis?
  • What is object-oriented design?
  • What are design patterns?
  • And anything in between that is confusing you
  • What Will You Not Learn?
  • You will not learn the syntax of Java, C#, or C++
  • You will not learn the inequity between functions and variables
  • You will not subsist overwhelmed with a list of design patterns
  • You will not learn object-oriented programming here
  • "What?" you might content after reading the final line. "No kick oriented programming? Then why am I wasting my time here?" This post is about object-oriented design, but not programming. They complete know about object-oriented programming, i.e., how to write a class in C#.

    As one quote says, “Knowing how to hold a hammer does not originate you an architect.” True? Similarly, learning Java programming will not originate you a obliging software engineer (or software programmer or developer or software architect).


    During the initial years of my undergraduate programs, I thought designing was the very as writing an algorithm because I did not study object-oriented programming. Later, when I erudite about object-oriented programming, I thought someone could conquer the world if they just erudite everything that is there in 1,000 pages of a Deitel and Deitel book.

    object oriented programming book

    But that was not the case. I could not write a program without tearing my hair apart. I likewise noticed that if I opened my program again after six months, it looked like such a mystery that even Sherlock Holmes could not unravel it.

    Then, in my fourth semester, I erudite about object-oriented analysis and design as a subject. But unfortunately, the focus was on UML modeling. I thought that UML was a frosty thing — you just generate some diagrams and hand them over to developers and they will promote up with code using your designs (which will originate you proud).

    But there was even an option in the UML modeling utensil that their class was using at that time to automatically generate the code from your UML class diagrams. What a beauty, I thought. I could design using UML models and then generate the code, compile it, ship it to a customer, and pick up rich like Bill Gates. Awesome.


    Afterward, reality set in. I was never able to generate designs that were modular, smooth to extend, and smooth to understand (The code generated from these tools was never compiled, since it only generated stubs). Then, a age of chaos began.

    Later in my undergraduate study, I erudite subjects related to software engineering, software architecture, software process models and software project management. But I was unable to meet complete things together until very late.

    Still, I survey people struggling with these concepts, unable to meet things together. They are overwhelmed with the unstructured data available to them. One key to comprehending complete this information is to involve yourself in a project. The only output for that project should subsist a software that your users can use.

    In this post, I will participate some basic object-oriented analysis and design principles, practices, and some of my experiences that you can expend in your next project.

    Introduction to Software evolution Process Models

    We complete expend some process or steps to develop software. The simplest process model that I expend is just writing 6 lines on the back of a piece of paper and convene them feature list. Then, I open Visual Studio and start writing code. That's it. It's a process model I used during my college years.

    I wrote my first commercial software (which had 1 user, who abandoned it later) using Visual Basic 6.0 in my second year of college using this process model.

    There are many software evolution process models that I acquire studied and applied throughout many projects.

    One process model (which is scolded by many authorities) is waterfall, which uses the process of gathering requirements, analysis, design, implementation, and testing.

    The problem with the waterfall process model is that you achieve complete the things in the very exact sequence as written above. First, complete the requirements are collected from the customers. A team analyzes requirements, then documents and prepares specifications for the design team. The design team then develops the design using the specification and hands over the design to the implementation team. The implementation team writes code with respect to the design. Finally, test team tests the software against the specifications.

    software process model

    Everything is done sequentially, and a lot of time is spent (months and even years) before the final product is shipped to the customer. Statistics recount us that when a product is shipped to the customer using waterfall process models, a huge number of customers rejected it = because it did not meet their requirements.

    You may acquire heard the phrase, “The customer is always right.” This truly applies to software development. If the customer does not like the final product, then complete the pains (months and years) is wasted.

    To cater to this problem, there is another philosophy — iterative and evolutionary development. Based on this philosophy, there are many software evolution process models. Some examples are Scrum, extreme programming(XP), and Rational Unified Process. They are the Agile evolution processes.

    The concept of iterative evolution is simple. Software evolution is organized into a succession of minuscule projects called iterations. Each iteration has its analysis, design, implementation, and testing. At the linger of each iteration, the customer input is taken. If a customer did not agree, then the loss is minimal (usually weeks) as compared to waterfall process model.

    Now you understand the basic inequity between iterative and sequential process models. Many organizations now expend iterative evolution process models, as the concept is to minimize blow (months vs. weeks).

    Why I need to Understand Process Models

    For a long time, I believed that designing software was something like that: I design everything in the climb and then, using this design, start coding. Then, once it compiles, I handed over the running software to the linger user.

    It turns out that this is not the best approach. You will acquire to change your design strategy, which evolves over time. Therefore, the incremental and evolutionary process model is Important to understand. Flawless design is a myth. After subsequent iterations, one may realize that his or her initial design sucks.

    Another point is that one should not design for complete the requirements at the beginning. originate a minute design map for the iteration you're currently working on.

    Therefore, the key takeaway is that you should expend an iterative evolution process where the complete design is not done at the start of the project. Similarly, whatever you design will not perfect and will subsist changed or evolved during the lifecycle of the project.

    This ends the first article of this four-part series. In this article, I discussed the importance of process models in object-oriented design. I likewise mentioned the common misconception attached to UML.

    In participate 2, you will learn the following

  • Difference between process and methodology

  • 2 most Important object-oriented design principles that everyone should know

  • 1 edge of OOP that every developer would worship to acquire in his or her code

  • To learn more about kick oriented programming visit here.

    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, participate 1 | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 1, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    Despite the fact that the Linux Kernel is mostly written in C, it makes broad expend of some techniques from the domain of object-oriented programming. Developers wanting to expend these object-oriented techniques receive diminutive advocate or guidance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is often the case, this is a double-edged sword. The developer has enough flexibility to achieve really frosty things, and equally the flexibility to achieve really slow things, and it isn't always limpid at first glance which is which, or more accurately: where on the spectrum a particular approach sits.

    Instead of looking to the language to provide guidance, a software engineer must glimpse to established exercise to find out what works well and what is best avoided. Interpreting established exercise is not always as smooth as one might like and the effort, once made, is worth preserving. To preserve that pains on your author's part, this article brings another installment in an occasional succession on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns in the Linux Kernel which result an object-oriented style of programming.

    Rather than providing a brief introduction to the object-oriented style, tempting though that is, they will assume the reader has a basic knowledge of objects, classes, methods, inheritance, and similar terms. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are plenty of resources to subsist create elsewhere on the web.

    Over two weeks they will glimpse for patterns in just two areas: mode dispatch and data inheritance. Despite their clear-cut simplicity they lead to some rich veins for investigation. This first article will focus on mode dispatch.

    Method Dispatch

    The large variety of styles of inheritance and rules for its usage in languages today seems to suggest that there is no uniform understanding of what "object-oriented" really means. The term is a bit like "love": everyone thinks they know what it means but when you pick up down to details people can find they acquire very different ideas. While what it means to subsist "oriented" might not subsist clear, what they signify by an "object" does look to subsist uniformly agreed upon. It is simply an abstraction comprising both condition and behavior. An kick is like a record (Pascal) or struct (C), except that some of the names of members refer to functions which act on the other fields in the object. These office members are sometimes referred to a "methods".

    The most obvious passage to implement objects in C is to declare a "struct" where some fields are pointers to functions which prefer a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling convention for mode "foo" in kick "bar" would simply be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); While this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the dominant pattern so they will leave discussion of it until a diminutive later.

    As methods (unlike state) are not normally changed on a per-object basis, a more common and only slightly less obvious approach is to collect complete the methods for a particular class of objects into a sunder structure, sometimes known as a "virtual office table" or vtable. The kick then has a separate pointer to this table rather than a sunder pointer for each method, and consequently uses less memory.

    This then leads to their first pattern - a sheer vtable being a structure which contains only office pointers where the first argument of each is a pointer to some other structure (the kick type) which itself contains a pointer to this vtable. Some simple examples of this in the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations structure which contains two office pointers each of which prefer a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which contains four office pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples panoply an obvious naming pattern - the structure holding a vtable is named for the structure holding the kick (possibly abbreviated) followed by "_operations". While this pattern is common it is by no means universal. Around the time of 2.6.39 there are approximately 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" structures, most if not complete of which are vtables of some sort. There are likewise several structs such as struct mdk_personality which are essentially vtables but achieve not acquire particularly helpful names.

    Among these nearly 200 vtable structures there is plenty of variability and so plenty of scope to glimpse for fascinating patterns. In particular they can glimpse for common variations from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and determine how these variations contribute to their understanding of kick expend in Linux.

    NULL office pointers

    The first observation is that some office pointers in some vtables are allowed to subsist NULL. Clearly trying to convene such a office would subsist futile, so the code that calls into these methods generally contains an explicit test for the pointer being NULL. There are a few different reasons for these NULL pointers. Probably easiest to justify is the incremental evolution reason. Because of the passage vtable structures are initialized, adding a unique office pointer to the structure definition causes complete existing table declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. Thus it is possible to add a caller of the unique mode before any instance supports that method, and acquire it check for NULL and execute a default behavior. Then as incremental evolution continues those vtable instances which need it can pick up non-default methods.

    A recent case is entrust 77af1b2641faf4 adding set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent entrust 42ab616afe8844 defines that mode for a particular device. This is simply the most recent case of a very common theme.

    Another common intuition is that confident methods are not particularly meaningful in confident cases so the calling code simply tests for NULL and returns an confiscate mistake when found. There are multiple examples of this in the virtual filesystem (VFS) layer. For instance, the create() office in inode_operations is only meaningful if the inode in question is a directory. So inode_operations structures for non-directories typically acquire NULL for the create() office (and many others) and the calling code in vfs_create() checks for NULL and returns -EACCES.

    A final intuition that vtables sometimes hold NULL is that an constituent of functionality might subsist being transitioned from one interface to another. A obliging case of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a unique method, unlocked_ioctl() was added which was called without the expansive kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when complete drivers and filesystems had been converted to expend unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() was finally removed. During this transition a file system would typically define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

    A slightly more subtle case of this is read() and aio_read(), likewise in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() was introduced to advocate asynchronous IO, and if it is provided the regular synchronous read() is not needed (it is effected using do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() method). In this case there appears to subsist no aim of ever removing read() - it will remain for cases where async IO is not relevant such as special filesystems like procfs and sysfs. So it is noiseless the case that only one of each pair need subsist defined by a filesystem, but it is not simply a transition, it is a long-term state.

    Though there look to subsist several different reasons for a NULL office pointer, almost every case is an case of one simple pattern - that of providing a default implementation for the method. In the "incremental development" examples and the non-meaningful mode case, this is fairly straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is simply to revert an error. In the interface transition case it is only slightly less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would subsist to prefer the kernel lock and then convene the ioctl() method. The default for read() is exactly do_sync_read() and some filesystems such as ext3 actually provide this value explicitly rather than using "NULL" to testify a default.

    With that in mind, a diminutive reflection suggests that if the existent goal is to provide a default, then maybe the best approach would subsist to explicitly give a default rather than using the circuitous route of using a default of NULL and interpreting it specially.

    While NULL is certainly the easiest value to provide as a default - as the C touchstone assures us that uninitialized members of a structure achieve pick up set to NULL - it is not very much harder to set a more meaningful default. I am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the observation that C99 allows fields in a structure to subsist initialized multiple times with only the final value taking result and that this allows smooth setting of default values such as by following the simple model:

    #define FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = { FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, };

    This will declare my_foo with a predefined default value for baz and a localized value for bar. Thus for the minuscule cost of defining a few "default" functions and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each declaration, the default value for any domain can easily subsist chosen when the domain is first created, and automatically included in every expend of the structure.

    Not only are meaningful defaults smooth to implement, they can lead to a more efficient implementation. In those cases where the office pointer actually is NULL it is probably faster to test and offshoot rather than to originate an indirect office call. However the NULL case is very often the exception rather than the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not usual practice. In the more common case when the office pointer is not NULL, the test for NULL is simply a blow of code space and a blow of execution time. If they disallow NULLs they can originate complete convene sites a diminutive bit smaller and simpler.

    In general, any testing performed by the caller before calling a mode can subsist seen as an instance of the "mid-layer mistake" discussed in a previous article. It shows that the mid-layer is making assumptions about the deportment of the lower level driver rather than simply giving the driver liberty to behave in whatever passage is most suitable. This may not always subsist an expensive mistake, but it is noiseless best avoided where possible. Nevertheless there is a limpid pattern in the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can sometimes subsist NULLable, typically though not always to enable a transition, and the convene sites should in these cases test for NULL before proceeding with the call.

    The observant reader will acquire noticed a cavity in the above logic denouncing the expend NULL pointers for defaults. In the case where the default is the common case and where performance is paramount, the reasoning does not hold and a NULL pointer could well subsist justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an case of such a case for their examination.

    One of the data structures used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a cognomen in the filesystem, and so each "dentry" has a parent, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is sunder from the inode because a separate file can acquire multiple names (so an "inode" can acquire multiple "dentry"s). There is a dentry_operations vtable with a number of operations including, for example, "d_compare" which will compare two names and "d_hash" which will generate a hash for the cognomen to steer the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems achieve not need this flexibility. They treat names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default compare and hash functions are the common case. A few filesystems define these to ply case-insensitive names but that is not the norm.

    Further, filename lookup is a common operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. Thus these two operations appear to subsist obliging candidates where a test for NULL and an inlined default operation might subsist appropriate. What they find though is that when such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself enough. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a brace of other dentry operations) does not test these functions for NULL directly. Rather they require that a few flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) in the "dentry" are set up to testify whether the common default should subsist used, or whether the office should subsist called. As the flag domain is likely to subsist in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations structure will often subsist not needed at all, this avoids a memory fetch in a chafed´ path.

    So they find that the one case where using a NULL office pointer to testify a default could subsist justified, it is not actually used; instead, a different, more efficient, mechanism is used to testify that the default mode is requested.

    Members other than office pointers

    While most vtable-like structures in the kernel hold exclusively office pointers, there are a significant minority that acquire non-function-pointer fields. Many of these appear on the surface quite capricious and a few closer inspections suggest that some of them result of penniless design or bit-rot and their removal would only improve the code.

    There is one exception to the "functions only" pattern that occurs repeatedly and provides existent value, and so is worth exploring. This pattern is seen in its most general contour in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In particular this structure contains an "owner", a "name", and a "list". The "owner" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables acquire string names, some acquire numeric names, and it is often called something different like "version", "family", "drvname", or "level". But conceptually it is noiseless a name. In the present case there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

    The "list", while participate of the very functionality, is less common. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the next struct file_system_type. The underlying concept here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "final" definition of a class) to subsist usable, it must subsist registered in some passage so that it can subsist found. Further, once it has been create it must subsist possible to ensure that the module holding the implementation is not removed while it is in use.

    There look to subsist nearly as many styles of registration against an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register against, so finding sturdy patterns there would subsist a difficult task. However it is fairly common for a "vtable" to subsist treated as the primary ply on a particular implementation of an interface and to acquire an "owner" pointer which can subsist used to pick up a reference on the module which provides the implementation.

    So the pattern they find here is that a structure of office pointers used as a "vtable" for kick mode dispatch should normally hold only office pointers. Exceptions require limpid justification. A common exception allows a module pointer and possible other fields such as a cognomen and a list pointer. These fields are used to advocate the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there is no list pointer it is very likely that the entire vtable will subsist treated as read-only. In this case the vtable will often subsist declared as a const structure and so could even subsist stored in read-only memory.

    Combining Methods for different objects

    A final common divergence from the "pure vtable" pattern that they survey in the Linux kernel occurs when the first argument to the office is not always the very kick type. In a sheer vtable which is referenced by a pointer in a particular data structure, the first argument of each office is exactly that data structure. What intuition could there subsist for deviating from that pattern? It turns out that there are few, some more fascinating than others.

    The simplest and least fascinating explanation is that, for no clear-cut reason, the target data structure is listed elsewhere in the argument list. For case complete functions in struct fb_ops prefer a struct fb_info. While in 18 cases that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the last. There is nothing obviously wrong with this choice and it is unlikely to muddle developers. It is only a problem for data miners like your author who need to filter it out as an extraneous pattern.

    A slight divergence on this pattern is seen in struct rfkill_ops where two functions prefer a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *data. Further investigation shows that this opaque data is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->data, so set_block() could easily subsist defined to prefer a struct rfkill and simply to result the ->data link itself. This divergence is sufficiently non-obvious that it could conceivably muddle developers as well as data miners and so should subsist avoided.

    The next divergence in seen for case in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a few others. These prefer an odd assortment of arguments with no obvious pattern. However these are really very different sorts of vtable structures in that the kick they belong to are singletons. There is only one energetic platform, only one profiler, only one security policy. Thus the "object" on which these operations act is participate of the global condition and so does not need to subsist included in the arguments of any functions.

    Having filtered these two patterns out as not being very fascinating they are left with two that achieve serve to recount us something about kick expend in the kernel.

    quota_format_ops and export_operations are two different operations structures that operate on a variety of different data structures. In each case the clear-cut primary kick (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable structure dedicated to it (such as super_operations or dentry_operations) and these unique structures add unique operations. In each case the unique operations contour a cohesive unit providing a related set of functionality - whether supporting disk quotas or NFS export. They don't complete act on the very kick simply because the functionality in question depends on a variety of objects.

    The best term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is probably the "mixin". Though the meet may not subsist perfect - depending on what your exact understanding of mixin is - the concept of bringing in a collection of functionality without using strict hierarchical inheritance is very proximate to the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

    Once they know to subsist on the lookout for mixins like these they can find quite a few more examples. The pattern to subsist alert for is not the one that led us here - an operations structure that operates on a variety of different objects - but rather the one they create where the functions in an "operations" structure operate on objects that already acquire their own "operations" structure. When an kick has a large number of operations that are relevant and these operations naturally group into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into sunder vtable-like structures. There are several examples of this in the networking code where for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already got a minuscule set of dedicated operations.

    So the pattern of a "mixin" - at least as defined as a set of operations which apply to one or more objects without being the primary operations for those objects - is a pattern that is often create in the kernel and appears to subsist quite valuable in allowing better modularization of code.

    The final pattern which explains non-uniform office targets is probably the most interesting, particularly in its contrast to the obvious application of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this pattern abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops complete appearing as useful examples. However they will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, particularly super_operations and inode_operations.

    There is a sturdy hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by a "super_block" - has a number of files (struct inode) which may acquire a number of names or links (struct dentry). Further each file might store data in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a number of individual pages (struct page). There is a sense in which complete of these different objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page needs to subsist loaded with data from a file, the filesystem knows how to achieve that, and it is probably the very mechanism for every page in every file. Where it isn't always the same, the filesystem knows that too. So they could conceivably store every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could know what to achieve in each case.

    In exercise that extreme is not really helpful. It is quite likely that while there are similarities between the storage of a regular file and a directory, there are likewise Important differences and being able to encode those differences in sunder vtables can subsist helpful. Sometimes minuscule symbolic links are stored directly in the inode while larger links are stored like the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for the two cases can originate the code a lot more readable.

    While the extreme of every operation attached to the one central structure is not ideal, it is equally steady that the contrary extreme is not ideal either. The struct page in Linux does not acquire a vtable pointer at complete - in participate because they want to sustain the structure as minuscule as possible because it is so populous. Rather the address_space_operations structure contains the operations that act on a page. Similarly the super_operations structure contains some operations that apply to inodes, and inode_operations contains some operations that apply to dentries.

    It is clearly possible to acquire operations structures attached to a parent of the target kick - providing the target holds a reference to the parent, which it normally does - though it is not quite so limpid that it is always beneficial. In the case of struct page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the capitalize is clear. In the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the capitalize of having some operations (such as destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

    As there are several vtable structures where any given office pointer could subsist stored, the actual choice is in many cases diminutive more than historical accident. Certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations seems to subsist largely due to the fact that some of them used to act directly on the inode, but changes in the VFS eventually required this to change. For case in 2.1.78-pre1, each of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and some others which are now defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to prefer a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to subsist in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr were added for 2.3.48, it probably seemed completely natural to include them in inode_operations despite the fact that they acted primarily on a dentry.

    Possibly they could simplify things by getting rid of dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not hasten them complete there? While dentries are not as populous as struct page there are noiseless a lot of them and removing the "d_op" domain could reclaim 5% of the memory used by that structure (on x86-64).

    With two exceptions, every energetic filesystem only has a separate dentry operations structure in effect. Some filesystem implementations like "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one energetic per super-block. So it would look that the operations in dentry_operations could subsist moved to super_operations, or at least accessed through "s_d_op". The two exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems expend different d_revalidate() operations in different parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - different d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions could easily subsist made in per-superblock versions of these operations. achieve these cases justify the 5% space cost? Arguably not.

    Directly embedded office pointers

    Finally it is confiscate to reflect on the alternate pattern mentioned at the start, where office pointers are stored directly in the kick rather than in a sunder vtable structure. This pattern can subsist seen in struct request_queue which has nine office pointers, struct efi which has ten office pointers, and struct sock which has six office pointers.

    The cost of embedded pointers is obviously space. When vtables are used, there is only one copy of the vtable and multiple copies of an kick (in most cases) so if more than one office pointer is needed, a vtable would reclaim space. The cost of a vtable is an extra memory reference, though cache might reduce much of this cost in some cases. A vtable likewise has a cost of flexibility. When each kick needs exactly the very set of operations a vtable is good, but if there is a need to individually tailor some of the operations for each object, then embedded office pointer can provide that flexibility. This is illustrated quite nicely by the observation with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

    /* Zoom video behaviour is so chip specific its not worth adding this to _ops */

    So where objects are not very populous, where the list of office pointers is small, and where multiple mixins are needed, embedded office pointers are used instead of a sunder vtable.

    Method Dispatch Summary

    If they combine complete the pattern elements that they acquire create in Linux they find that:

    Method pointers that operate on a particular sort of kick are normally collected in a vtable associated directly with that object, though they can likewise appear:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects related functionality which may subsist selectable independently of the basis sort of the object.
  • In the vtable for a "parent" kick when doing so avoids the need for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • Directly in the kick when there are few mode pointers, or they need to subsist individually tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables rarely hold anything other than office pointers, though fields needed to register the kick class can subsist appropriate. Allowing these office pointers to subsist NULL is a common but not necessarily ideal technique for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code they acquire create that even though it is not written in an object-oriented language, it certainly contains objects, classes (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It likewise contains concepts not normally create in object-oriented languages such as delegating kick methods to a "parent" object.

    Hopefully understanding these different patterns and the reasons for choosing between them can lead to more uniform application of the patterns across the kernel, and hence originate it easier for a newcomer to understand which pattern is being followed. In the second participate of their examination of kick oriented patterns they will explore the various ways that data inheritance is achieved in the Linux kernel and contend the strengths and weaknesses of each approach so as to survey where each is most appropriate.

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    Java and Object-Oriented Programming | existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the bespeak 

    Many seasoned Java developers will scoff at the fact that this section even exists in this book. It is here for two very Important reasons. The first is that I continually dash across Java applications built with a procedural mind-set. The fact that you know Java doesn't signify that you acquire the competence to transform that knowledge into well-designed object-oriented systems. As both an instructor and consultant, I survey many data-processing shops ship COBOL and/or Visual Basic developers to a three-day class on UML and a five-day class on Java and hope miracles. Case in point: I was recently asked to review a Java application to assess its design architecture and create that it had only two classes—SystemController and ScreenController—which contained over 70,000 lines of Java code.

    The second intuition for the emphasis on how the language maps to object-oriented principles is that people like language comparisons and how they stack up to their counterparts. To appease those that live and die by language comparisons, let's set Java under the scrutiny of what constitutes an object-oriented language.

    No definitive definition of what makes a language object-oriented is globally accepted. However, a common set of criteria I personally find useful is that the language must advocate the following:

  • Classes
  • Complex types (Java reference types)
  • Message passing
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • These are discussed in the next subsections.

    Java and Classes

    Java allows classes to subsist defined. There are no stray functions floating around in Java. A class is a static template that contains the defined structure (attributes) and deportment (operations) of a real-world entity in the application domain. At runtime, the class is instantiated, or brought to life, as an kick born in the image of that class. In my seminars, when several folks unique to the kick world are in attendance, I often expend the analogy of a cookie cutter. The cookie cutter is merely the template used to stamp out what will become individually decorated and unique cookies. The cookie cutter is the class; the unique blue, green, and yellow gingerbread man is the kick (which I confidence supports a champ operation).

    Java exposes the class to potential outside users through its public interface. A public interface consists of the signatures of the public operations supported by the class. A signature is the operation cognomen and its input parameter types (the revert type, if any, is not participate of the operation's signature).

    Good programming exercise encourages developers to declare complete attributes as private and allow access to them only via operations. As with most other languages, however, this is not enforced in Java. motif 2-1 outlines the concept of a class and its interface.

    FIGURE 2-1 Public interface of a class

    The motif uses a common eggshell metaphor to picture the concept of the class's interface, as well as encapsulation. The internal details of the class are hidden from the outside via a well-defined interface. In this case, only four operations are exposed in the classes interface (Operation_A, B, C, and D). The other attributes and operations are protected from the outside world. Actually, to the outside world, it's as if they don't even exist.

    Suppose you want to create an Order class in Java that has three attributes—orderNumber, orderDate, and orderTotal—and two operations—calcTotalValue() and getInfo(). The class definition could glimpse like this:

    /** * Listing 1 * This is the Order class for the Java/UML book */ package com.jacksonreed; import java.util.*; public class Order { private Date orderDate; private long orderNumber; private long orderTotal; public Order() { } public boolean getInfo() { revert true; } public long calcTotalValue() { revert 0; } public Date getOrderDate() { revert orderDate; } public void setOrderDate(Date aOrderDate) { orderDate = aOrderDate; } public long getOrderNumber() { revert orderNumber; } public void setOrderNumber(long aOrderNumber) { orderNumber = aOrderNumber; } public long getOrderTotal() { revert orderTotal; } public void setOrderTotal(long aOrderTotal) { orderTotal = aOrderTotal; } public static void main(String[] args) { Order order = unique Order(); System.out.println("instantiated Order"); System.out.println(order.getClass().getName()); System.out.println(order.calcTotalValue()); try { Thread.currentThread().sleep(5*1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) {} } }

    A few things are notable about the first bit of Java code presented in this book. Notice that each of the three attributes has a pick up and a set operation to allow for the retrieval and setting of the Order object's properties. Although doing so is not required, it is common exercise to provide these accessor-type operations for complete attributes defined in a class. In addition, if the Order class ever wanted to subsist a JavaBean, it would acquire to acquire "getters and setters" defined in this way.

    Some of the mode code in the main() operation does a few things of note. Of interest is that a try obscure exists at the linger of the operation that puts the current thread to sleep for a bit. This is to allow the console panoply to freeze so that you can survey the results.

    If you sort in this class and then compile it and execute it in your favorite evolution utensil or from the command prompt with

    javac //* to compile it java order //* to dash it

    you should pick up results that glimpse like this:

    instantiated Order com.jacksonreed.Order 0


    Going forward, I swear you will survey no code samples with class, operation, or assign names of foo, bar, or foobar.

    More on Java and Classes

    A class can likewise acquire what are called class-level operations and attributes. Java supports these with the static keyword. This keyword would hasten right after the visibility (public, private, protected) component of the operation or attribute. Static operations and attributes are needed to invoke either a service of the class before any existent instances of that class are instantiated or a service that doesn't directly apply to any of the instances. The classic case of a static operation is the Java constructor. The constructor is what is called when an kick is created with the unique keyword. Perhaps a more business-focused case is an operation that retrieves a list of Customer instances based on particular search criteria.

    A class-level assign can subsist used to store information that complete instances of that class may access. This assign might be, for example, a count of the number of objects currently instantiated or a property about Customer that complete instances might need to reference.

    Java and intricate Types (Java Reference Types)

    A intricate type, which in Java is called a reference type, allows variables typed as something other than primitive types (e.g., int and boolean) to subsist declared. In Java, these are called reference types. In object-oriented systems, variables that are "of" a particular class, such as Order, Customer, or Invoice, must subsist defined. Taken a step further, Order could consist of other class instances, such as OrderHeader and OrderLine.

    In Java, you can define different variables that are references to runtime objects of a particular class type:

    Public Order myOrder; Public Customer myCustomer; Public Invoice myInvoice;

    Such variables can then subsist used to store actual kick instances and subsequently to serve as recipients of messages sent by other objects. In the previous code fragment, the variable myOrder is an instance of Order. After the myOrder kick is created, a message can subsist sent to it and myOrder will respond, provided that the operation is supported by myOrder's interface.

    Java and Message Passing

    Central to any object-oriented language is the competence to pass messages between objects. In later chapters you will survey that travail is done in a system only by objects that collaborate (by sending messages) to accomplish a goal (which is specified in a use-case) of the system.

    Java doesn't allow stray functions floating around that are not attached to a class. In fact, Java demands this. Unfortunately, as my previous chronicle suggested, just adage that a language requires everything to subsist packaged in classes doesn't signify that the class design will subsist robust, let lonesome correct.

    Java supports message passing, which is central to the expend of Java's object-oriented features. The format closely resembles the syntax of other languages, such as C++ and Visual Basic. In the following code fragment, assume that a variable called myCustomer, of sort Customer, is defined and that an operation called calcTotalValue() is defined for Customer. Then the calcTotalValue() message being sent to the myCustomer kick in Java would glimpse like this:


    Many developers feel that, in any other structured language, this is just a fancy passage of calling a procedure. Calling a procedure and sending a message are similar in that, once invoked, both a procedure and a message implement a set of well-defined steps. However, a message differs in two ways:

  • There is a designated receiver, the object. Procedures acquire no designated receiver.

  • The interpretation of the message—that is, the how-to code (called the method) used to respond to the message—can vary with different receivers. This point will become more Important later in the chapter, when polymorphism is reviewed.

  • The concepts presented in this bespeak confidence heavily on classes and the messaging that takes plot between their instances, or objects.

    Java and Encapsulation

    Recall that a class exposes itself to the outside world via its public interface and that this should subsist done through exposure to operations only, and not attributes. Java supports encapsulation via its competence to declare both attributes and operations as public, private, or protected. In UML this is called visibility.

    Using the code from the previous Order example, suppose you want to set the value of the orderDate attribute. In this case, you should achieve so with an operation. An operation that gets or sets values is usually called a getter or a setter, respectively, and collectively such operations are called accessors. The local copy of the order date, orderDate, is declared private. (Actually, complete attributes of a class should subsist declared private or protected, so that they are accessible only via operations exposed as public to the outside world.)

    Encapsulation provides some powerful capabilities. To the outside world, the design can cloak how it derives its assign values. If the orderTotal assign is stored in the Order object, the corresponding pick up operation defined previously looks like this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { revert orderTotal; }

    This snippet of code would subsist invoked if the following code were executed by an interested client:

    private long localTotal; private Order localOrder; localOrder = unique Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    However, suppose the assign orderTotal isn't kept as a local value of the Order class, but rather is derived via another mechanism (perhaps messaging to its OrderLine objects). If Order contains OrderLine objects (declared as a Vector or ArrayList of OrderLine objects called myOrderLines) and OrderLine knows how to obtain its line totals via the message getOrderLineTotal(), then the corresponding pick up operation for orderTotal within Order will glimpse like this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myOrderLines.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myOrderLines[i].getOrderLineTotal(); } revert totalAmount; }

    This code cycles through the myOrderLines collection, which contains complete the Orderline objects related to the Order object, sending the getOrderLineTotal() message to each of Order's OrderLine objects. The getOrderTotal() operation will subsist invoked if the following code is executed by an interested client:

    long localTotal; Order myOrder; myOrder = unique Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    Notice that the "client" code didn't change. To the outside world, the class noiseless has an orderTotal attribute. However, you acquire hidden, or encapsulated, just how the value was obtained. This encapsulation allows the class's interface to remain the very (hey, I acquire an orderTotal that you can inquire me about), while the class retains the flexibility to change its implementation in the future (sorry, how they achieve trade has changed and now they must derive orderTotal like this). This kind of resiliency is one of the compelling trade reasons to expend an object-oriented programming language in general.

    Java and Inheritance

    The inclusion of inheritance is often the most cited intuition for granting a language object-oriented status. There are two kinds of inheritance: interface and implementation. As they shall see, Java is one of the few languages that makes a limpid distinction between the two.

    Interface inheritance (Figure 2-2) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface will subsist liable for implementing complete of the mode code of each operation defined in that interface. Only the signatures of the interface are inherited; there is no mode or how-to code.

    FIGURE 2-2 Interface inheritance

    Implementation inheritance (Figure 2-3) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface may, at its option, expend the mode code implementation already established for the interface. Alternatively, it may choose to implement its own version of the interface. In addition, the class inheriting the interface may extend that interface by adding its own operations and attributes.

    FIGURE 2-3 Implementation inheritance

    Each sort of inheritance should subsist scrutinized and used in the confiscate setting. Interface inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The basis class presents a generic facility, such as a table lookup, or a derivation of system-specific information, such as operating-system semantics or unique algorithms.

  • The number of operations is small.

  • The basis class has few, if any, attributes.

  • Classes realizing or implementing the interface are diverse, with diminutive or no common code.

  • Implementation inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The class in question is a domain class that is of primary interest to the application (i.e., not a utility or controller class).

  • The implementation is complex, with a large number of operations.

  • Many attributes and operations are common across specialized implementations of the basis class.

  • Some practitioners contend that implementation inheritance leads to a symptom called the delicate basis class problem. Chiefly, this term refers to the fact that over time, what were once common code and attributes in the superclass may not linger common as the trade evolves. The result is that many, if not all, of the subclasses, override the deportment of the superclass. Worse yet, the subclasses may find themselves overriding the superclass, doing their own work, and then invoking the very operation again on the superclass. These practitioners espouse the idea of using only interface inheritance. Particularly with the advent of Java and its raising of the interface to a first-class type, the concept and usage of interface-based programming acquire gained tremendous momentum.

    As this bespeak evolves, keeping in intelligence the pointers mentioned here when deciding between the two types of inheritance will subsist helpful. Examples of both constructs will subsist presented in the theme project that extends throughout this book.

    Implementation Inheritance

    Java supports implementation inheritance with the extends keyword. A class wanting to prefer edge of implementation inheritance simply adds an extendsClassName statement to its class definition. To continue the previous example, suppose you acquire two different types of orders, both warranting their own subclasses: Commercial and Retail. You would noiseless acquire an Order class (which isn't instantiated directly and which is called abstract). The previous fragment showed the code for the Order class. Following is the code for the Commercial class.

    package com.jacksonreed; public class Commercial extends Order { public Commercial() { } /* Unique Commercial code goes here */ }

    Implementation inheritance allows the Commercial class to utilize complete attributes and operations defined in Order. This will subsist done automatically by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in conjunction with the language environment. In addition, implementation inheritance has the competence to override and/or extend any of Order's behavior. Commercial may likewise add completely unique deportment if it so chooses.

    Interface Inheritance

    Java supports interface inheritance with the implements keyword. A class wanting to realize a given interface (actually being liable for the mode code) simply adds an implements InterfaceName statement. However, unlike extension of one class by another class, implementation of an interface by a class requires that the interface subsist specifically defined as an interface beforehand.

    Looking again at the previous case with Order, let's assume that this system will hold many classes—some built in this release, and some built in future releases—that need the competence to cost themselves. bethink from earlier in this chapter that one of the indicators of using interface inheritance is the situation in which there is diminutive or no common code but the functional intent of the classes is the same. This pricing functionality includes three services: the abilities to compute tax, to compute an extended price, and to compute a total price. Let's convene the operations for these services calcExtendedPrice(), calcTax(), and calcTotalPrice(), respectively, and assign them to a Java interface called IPrice. Sometimes interface names are prefixed with the epistle I to distinguish them from other classes:

    package com.jacksonreed; interface IPrice { long calcExtendedPrice(); long calcTax(); long calcTotalPrice(); }

    Notice that the interface contains only operation signatures; it has no implementation code. It is up to other classes to implement the actual deportment of the operations. For the Order class to implement, or realize, the IPrice interface, it must include the implements keyword followed by the interface name:

    public class Order implements IPrice { }

    If you try to implement an interface without providing implementations for complete of its operations, your class will not compile. Even if you don't want to implement any mode code for some of the operations, you noiseless must acquire the operations defined in your class.

    One very powerful aspect of interface inheritance is that a class can implement many interfaces at the very time. For example, Order could implement the IPrice interface and perhaps a search interface called ISearch. However, a Java class may extend from only one other class.

    Java and Polymorphism

    Polymorphism is one of those $50 words that dazzles the uninformed and sounds really impressive. In fact, polymorphism is one of the most powerful features of any object-oriented language.

    Roget's II: The unique Thesaurus cross-references the term polymorphism to the main entry of variety. That will achieve for starters. Variety is the key to polymorphism. The Latin root for polymorphism means simply "many forms." Polymorphism applies to operations in the object-oriented context. So by combining these two thoughts, you could content that operations are polymorphic if they are identical (not just in cognomen but likewise in signatures) but present variety in their implementations.

    Polymorphism is the competence of two different classes each to acquire an operation that has the very signature, while having two very different forms of mode code for the operation. Note that to prefer edge of polymorphism, either an interface inheritance or an implementation inheritance relationship must subsist involved.

    In languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, defining a routine to have the very cognomen as another routine will antecedent a compile error. In object-oriented languages such as Java and C++, several classes might acquire an operation with the very signature. Such duplication is in fact encouraged because of the power and flexibility it brings to the design.

    As mentioned previously, the implements and extends keywords let the application prefer edge of polymorphism. As they shall see, the sample project presented later in this bespeak is an order system for a company called Remulak Productions. Remulak sells musical equipment, as well as other types of products. There will subsist a Product class, as well as Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies classes.

    Suppose, then, that differences exist in the fundamental algorithms used to determine the best time to reorder each sort of product (called the economic order quantity, or EOQ). I don't want to let too much out of the bag at this point, but there will subsist an implementation inheritance relationship created with Product as the forefather class (or superclass) and the other three classes as its descendants (or subclasses). The scenario that follows uses implementation inheritance with a polymorphic example. Note that interface inheritance would submit the very benefits and subsist implemented in the very fashion.

    To facilitate extensibility and subsist able to add unique products in the future in a sort of plug-and-play fashion, they can originate calcEOQ() polymorphic. To achieve this in Java, Product would define calcEOQ() as abstract, thereby informing any inheriting subclass that it must provide the implementation. A key concept behind polymorphism is this: A class implementing an interface or inheriting from an forefather class can subsist treated as an instance of that forefather class. In the case of a Java interface, the interface itself is a cogent type.

    For example, assume that a collection of Product objects is defined as a property of the Inventory class. Inventory will advocate an operation, getAverageEOQ(), that needs to compute the objective economic order quantity for complete products the company sells. To achieve this requires that they iterate over the collection of Product objects called myProducts to pick up each object's unique economic order quantity individually, with the goal of getting an average:

    public long getAverageEOQ() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myProducts.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myProducts[i].calcEOQ(); } revert totalAmount / myProducts.length; }

    But wait! First of all, how can Inventory acquire a collection of Product objects when the Product class is abstract (no instances were ever created on their own)? bethink the maxim from earlier: Any class implementing an interface or extending from an forefather class can subsist treated as an instance of that interface or extended class. A Guitar "is a" Product, SheetMusic "is a" Product, and Supplies "is a" Product. So anywhere you reference Guitar, SheetMusic, or Supplies, you can substitute Product.

    Resident in the array myProducts within the Inventory class are individual concrete Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies objects. Java figures out dynamically which kick should pick up its own unique calcEOQ() message. The beauty of this construct is that later, if you add a unique sort of Product—say, Organ—it will subsist totally transparent to the Inventory class. That class will noiseless acquire a collection of Product types, but it will acquire four different ones instead of three, each of which will acquire its own unique implementation of the calcEOQ() operation.

    This is polymorphism at its best. At runtime, the class related to the kick in question will subsist identified and the revise "variety" of the operation will subsist invoked. Polymorphism provides powerful extensibility features to the application by letting future unknown classes implement a predictable and well-conceived interface without affecting how other classes deal with that interface.

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