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000-516 DB/2 Administration for OS/390

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000-516 exam Dumps Source : DB/2 Administration for OS/390

Test Code : 000-516
Test designation : DB/2 Administration for OS/390
Vendor designation : IBM
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IBM IBM DB/2 Administration for

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This chapter is from the publication 

IBM statistics Studio is blanketed in each DB2 version. IBM facts Studio provides a solitary integrated environment for database administration and application development. that you could operate projects which are regarding database modeling and design, setting up database applications, administering and managing databases, tuning SQL performance, and monitoring databases total in one solitary device. it's an excellent device that can enormously capitalize a crew ambiance with several roles and duties.

IBM records Studio comes in three favors: replete client, administration customer, and net console.

the replete customer contains both the database administrative and the software evolution capabilities. The evolution ambiance is Eclipse-based. This presents a collaborative evolution environment via integrating with other advanced Eclipse-primarily based equipment similar to InfoSphere information Architect and InfoSphere Optim pureQuery Runtime. breathe cognizant that some of the advanced InfoSphere equipment are most efficient covered within the DB2 superior editions and the DB2 Developer edition. that you may also separately buy the superior tools.

The administration customer is a subset of the replete client. It nevertheless offers a wide array of database administrative performance similar to DB2 illustration administration, expostulate management, facts management, and question tuning. fundamental utility construction initiatives such as SQL Builder, question formatting, visible clarify, debugging, modifying, and running DB2 routines are supported. utilize the entire client for advanced application evolution features.

The web console, because the designation implies, it is a web-based browser interface that offers health monitoring, job administration, and connection management.

IBM records Studio Workspace and the assignment Launcher

when you've got correctly establish in the IBM statistics Studio, you are requested to give a workspace identify. A workspace is a folder that saves your drudgery and tasks. It refers back to the laptop evolution ambiance, which is an Eclipse-primarily based concept.

project Launcher is displayed, which highlights prerogative here class of initiatives:

  • Design
  • boost
  • Administer
  • Tune
  • video display
  • each category is described in additional aspect in its own tab. click any tab, and you discern the key and first projects listed in the sphere on the left. discern determine 4.26 to pick up an view on how to navigate the assignment Launcher.

    as an instance, the determine shows you the strengthen initiatives. that you may locate the key construction projects on the left. On the suitable correct, it lists more projects regarding construction. On the backside correct, IBM facts Studio provides a few documentation hyperlinks the location that you could breathe taught more about building. the location acceptable, it also suggests the advanced equipment attainable within the InfoSphere Optim portfolio that succeed to the assignment you own got chosen.

    Connection Profiles

    every assignment you were to operate towards a database requires to first establish a database connection. To connect to a database from IBM information Studio, open the Database Administration perspective. On the proper amend nook, click on the Open viewpoint icon and select Database Administration.

    On the Administration Explorer, right-click on the white zone or under the brand fresh menu, elect fresh Connection to a database. From the fresh Connection window, you discern so you might utilize the IBM records Studio to hook up with diverse IBM data sources, as well as non-IBM information sources. select the database manager and enter the integral connection parameters. determine four.28 indicates an illustration.

    Figure 4.27

    figure 4.27 Open the Database Administration viewpoint

    Pull down the JDBC driver drop-down menu, and you'll elect the type of JDBC driver to use. JDBC class four driver is used through default.

    Use the test Connection button to breathe sure the connection suggestions you enter is legitimate. click on conclude.

    At this factor, you own got created a connection profile. Connection profiles embrace assistance about how to connect to a database reminiscent of indicating the category of authentication to breathe used when connecting the database, specifying default schema, and configuring tracing alternatives. different group members can import the connection profiles to their own IBM records Studio and breathe in a position to deploy a collection of consistent connection settings.

    To replace the connection profile, correct-click on the database and elect homes. residences for the database are displayed as proven in determine four.29.

    ordinary Database Administration equipment

    There are few other advantageous administration initiatives purchasable within the menu illustrated in device 4.29.

    The control Connection characteristic allows for you to rename the connection profile, delete the connection profile, trade the consumer identity and password, and reproduction the profile. The lower back Up and restore function makes it workable for you to setup a database or table zone backups. within the acceptable editor, which you could specify the type of backup, zone of the backup photos, and performance options for the backup. Database backup and recovery is mentioned in Chapter 10, “conserving, Backing Up, and improving facts.”

    The install and Configure characteristic permits you to configure the database. Database configuration and this IBM information Studio feature are covered in aspect in Chapter 5. notice from the menu, you could launch the Configure automatic protection editor. DB2 offers computerized protection capabilities for performing database backups, reorganizing tables and indexes, and updating the database records as fundamental. The editor allows you customise the automated maintenance coverage (see determine 4.30).

    Figure 4.30

    determine four.30 select the computerized maintenance policy alternate options

    The control Database function enables you to delivery and forestall the database. In DB2, that competence activating and deactivating the database. Activating a database allocates the entire vital database memory and functions or strategies required. Deactivating a database releases the reminiscence and stops DB2 capabilities and processes.

    The monitor characteristic launches the IBM data Studio net Console. argue with the section, “IBM information Studio internet Console,” for introduction of the device.

    The Generate DDL feature makes utilize of the DB2 command-primarily based instrument db2look to extract the data Definition Language (DDL) statements for the recognized database objects or the complete database. This function and power near effortless if you occur to wish to mimic a database, a collection of database objects, or the database statistics to yet another database. as a result of the Generate DDL characteristic in IBM statistics Studio or the DB2 command db2look, you pick up hold of a DDL script. The script includes statements to re-create the database objects you own selected. discern determine 4.31 for a reference of the forms of statements that you would breathe able to generate using the IBM records Studio.

    Figure 4.31

    figure 4.31 Generate DDL characteristic within the IBM statistics Studio

    For finished alternate options for the DB2 command db2look, advert to the DB2 counsel middle.

    The start Tuning function configures the database to permit query tuning. You may receive a warning indicating that you deserve to prompt the InfoSphere Optim question Workload Tuner (OQWT) license for superior tuning skill. word that IBM DB2 advanced business Server version comes with OQWT. succeed the guidance to apply the product license or click on sure to configure the database server for tuning with the features complementary in the IBM information Studio.

    When the database is configured to utilize the tuning advisors and tools, you're presented with the query Tuner Workflow Assistant, as shown in determine 4.32.

    From the question Tuner Workflow Assistant, you could acquire an announcement from quite a lot of sources and tune the remark. in the capture view, it gives you a listing of sources the location you can trap the statements. device four.33 suggests an illustration on capturing the SQL statements from the equipment Cache. This illustration captures over one hundred statements. correct-click the statement in which you own an interest and elect demonstrate SQL commentary or flee Single-question Advisors and tools on the selected remark.

    Run the question advisors and equipment on the chosen observation. that you would breathe able to now enter the Invoke view. The device collects information and information and generates a data access arrangement (see determine 4.34).

    When the question tuning actions are finished, you are brought to the overview view. It presents you the analysis results and an pilot recommendation, such because the one shown in determine 4.35. The instrument documentation recommends gathering and re-accumulating total of apropos information of the query.

    you can also evaluate the entry arrangement graph generated with the aid of the DB2 interpret function (see determine four.36 for an illustration). breathe cognizant to shop the analysis for future references and examine them if essential.

    The manage Privileges characteristic allows you to appoint database privileges to the clients. argue with Chapter 8, “enforcing security,” for details about privileges and database access controls.

    normal Database evolution equipment

    IBM records Studio consolidates the database administration and database pile capabilities. From the assignment Launcher – strengthen, you locate a list of key evolution projects reminiscent of developing and running SQL statements, debugging saved processes, and user-defined capabilities (UDFs). each project brings you to a device that helps you accomplish it.

    SQL and XQuery Editor

    The SQL and XQuery editor helps you create and flee SQL scripts that contain more than one SQL and XQuery statements. To launch the editor, open the facts project Explorer; under SQL Scripts elect fresh > SQL or XQuery Script. As shown in determine four.37, a pattern SQL script is entered. that you could configure the flee options for the script.

    The editor codecs the SQL statements nicely and offers syntax highlights for more convenient analyzing as you enter the SQL statements. The performance content material aid is additionally very positive. It lists the entire current schemas within the database so so that you can simply select one from the drop-down menu. The editor also parses the commentary and validates the statement syntax. that you can validate the syntax in scripts with several database parsers and flee scripts against varied database connections.

    SQL question Builder

    The SQL query Builder allows for you to create a solitary SQL commentary, but it surely does not succor XQuery. because the designation implies, the device helps you build an SQL commentary. It helps you gawk at the underlying database schema or build an expression, as shown in determine four.38.

    Database Routines Editor and Debugger

    kept tactics and consumer-defined services (UDFs) are database utility objects that encapsulate software logic at the database server in preference to in software-level code. utilize of application objects champion gash back overhead of SQL statements and the consequences which are handed during the community. saved processes and UDFs are also called routines. IBM facts Studio helps routines pile and debugging.

    From the records venture Explorer, create a fresh statistics pile challenge. in the assignment, that you can create various styles of database utility objects similar to kept techniques and UDFs (see device 4.39). To debug a pursuits, appropriate-click on the activities and elect Debug.


    IBM CEO hopes "new collar" knowledge will bridge digital divide | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    this article, IBM CEO hopes "new collar" handicap will bridge digital divide, initially appeared on CBSNews.com

    IBM can breathe at another turning ingredient in its storied heritage. In October, the business announced it was for $34 billion in its largest tech deal ever. IBM is also investing $1 billion in initiatives fancy apprenticeships to educate worker's for what it calls "new collar" jobs – a phrase coined via IBM president and CEO Ginni Rometty for staff who own expertise competencies but now not a 4-year school degree.

    "I deem it really gets at probably the most largest issues of their time as a result of these fresh technologies are terrific, they're going to resolve many complications… however they additionally create a huge digital divide – just about a own and haven't," Rometty mentioned Tuesday on "CBS This Morning." 

    "americans often talk about jobs being removed via [artificial intelligence]. I in fact feel of it as jobs are going to breathe one hundred percent changed by passage of AI. So each and every of us is going to drudgery with AI by some means of doing their job."

    The "new collar" jobs might latitude from working at a designation hub to establishing apps or fitting a cyber-analyst at IBM after going through a P-TECH (Pathways in technology Early school inordinate school) program, which takes six years beginning with inordinate college and an affiliate's degree.  

    "there's bit of a method. it is, company gives the faculty and helps with the curriculum, mentors, internships, and they now own obtained 550 corporations assisting along with IBM total over this country prerogative now," Rometty noted.

    requested about the Trump administration's tax guidelines, Rometty mentioned it turned out to breathe a "tax headwind" for IBM.

    "but they were a strong supporter of it as a result of for the long run, it is in reality the prerogative issue to do. however even in this type of envelope and the location the world is at the moment, they nevertheless discern superb chance accessible. And as I stated, what they own finished, they now own made a dedication around helping retrain 100,000 americans in this economic climate for jobs both at IBM and in different places that can basically drudgery during this fresh period."

    IBM CEO Ginni Rometty: Tax code is "uncompetitive" and "obsolete"

    flow CBSN, a 24/7 reside word channel from CBS information for free.


    internal IBM's records Server supervisor and other database efficiency equipment | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    IBM presents a few database efficiency equipment, including IBM information Server supervisor, which is an integrated database management platform for DB2 databases. DBAs can utilize it to monitor performance, music configuration alterations, administer databases, and proactively or reactively optimize their database environment the usage of one built-in, conclusion-to-end tool.

    facts Server supervisor's capabilities vary for DB2 for LUW and DB2 for z/OS. When managing DB2 for z/OS, database directors can utilize IBM statistics Server manager base edition V1.1.2.1 to relate and operate base operations. The product additionally integrates with DB2 question Workload Tuner for z/OS for superior question tuning and with the DB2 Utilities respond Pack for z/OS for configuration management.

    information Server supervisor allows DBAs and different IT gurus to auto-discover DB2 for LUW databases by means of instance, in addition to predefined, customizable performance thresholds and alerts. Its enterprise dashboard can scale to interpret metrics for lots of of databases. This includes true-time and historic performance data in addition to specified metrics for SQL statements, locking, workload, reminiscence, I/O and storage. Its constructed-in sage alert detection offers brief identification of poorly performing queries, missing indexes and buffer pool hit ratios.

    The product additionally offers advisors and access arrangement graphs that provide thoughts and evaluation for tuning poorly performing statements or workloads, together with indexes, data and optimizations. It also allows DBAs to resolve storage access patterns for potential storage discount rates.

    The platform become designed to breathe business-competent, with the skill to control hundreds of databases. It runs through a browser and may breathe install on a computing device, on the facts server being monitored or on a part laptop. Nothing else has to breathe installed on the information server being managed.

    IBM statistics Server supervisor licensing, pricing and support

    statistics Server supervisor comes in two variations: the bottom version is included with DB2 for LUW specific, Workgroup and commercial enterprise versions. The enterprise edition is protected with DB2 for LUW superior commercial enterprise and DB2 for LUW superior Workgroup variants. The commercial enterprise version can even breathe delivered to the non-advanced editions with the performance management providing for DB2 for LUW.

    For DB2 for z/OS, the statistics Server supervisor base edition is free for down load from IBM DeveloperWorks. DB2 question Workload Tuner for z/OS and DB2 Configuration supervisor for z/OS (part of DB2 Utilities solutions Pack for z/OS) are one after the other priced add-ons.

    assist is equipped as a partake of the DB2 for LUW pilot with the aid of DB2 edition.

    further IBM database performance tools

    IBM statistics Studio is an Eclipse-primarily based platform for database administration and performance management that can also breathe used for DB2 for LUW and DB2 for z/OS. fancy the IBM information Server manager, a number of of the SQL question tuning and performance equipment can also breathe accessed and used within the facts Studio product.

    The IBM DB2 performance respond Pack for z/OS is an built-in set of database efficiency tools that allow DBAs to determine, diagnose, lucid up and avert performance problems in a DB2 for z/OS atmosphere. The solution pack contains here software:

  • IBM Tivoli OMEGAMON XE for DB2 performance professional on z/OS, which is a database gadget efficiency video array for DB2 for z/OS databases and functions. IBM also presents OMEGAMON displays for z/OS, IMS, CICS and other device utility.
  • IBM DB2 question monitor for z/OS, which is a SQL monitoring and tuning device for tracking and picking poorly performing SQL.
  • IBM DB2 SQL performance Analyzer for z/OS, which gives the capability to research the efficiency of SQL queries while not having to execute them.
  • IBM InfoSphere Optim query Workload Tuner for DB2 for z/OS, which -- as outlined above -- displays and tunes SQL workloads in response to skilled suggestions.
  • For DB2 for z/OS, the REORG and RUNSTATS utilities, which might breathe used to accumulate facts about DB2 statistics and reorganize desk areas and indexes, are available from IBM as partake of the DB2 Utilities respond Pack for z/OS.
  • For DB2 for LUW, IBM presents the IBM DB2 efficiency administration providing, a group of equipment to computer screen, manage and extend database and application performance. available for DB2 business Server version, DB2 Workgroup Server version and DB2 express Server version, the DB2 efficiency administration offering helps DBAs establish problems and pick up hold of notifications of degrading performance or rising resource bottlenecks. This lets them diagnose the foundation intuition for concerns and seclude issues across functions, networks and databases, and to lucid up efficiency complications the utilize of tuning options for a complete workload.

    IBM InfoSphere Optim pureQuery Runtime, which is accessible for each z/OS and LUW, provides an information access platform that can better performance, security and manageability of database client functions. It uses a runtime atmosphere and an API that enhances the performance of present in-condo functions while not having to regulate them.

    Contact IBM for suggestions on the a considerable number of product bundles and pricing for its database performance tools.


    000-516 DB/2 Administration for OS/390

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    000-516 exam Dumps Source : DB/2 Administration for OS/390

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    DB/2 Administration for OS/390

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    DB2 Security with total the Trimmings | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    DB2 Security with total the Trimmings

    At a major fresh England-area insurance provider, a database engineer who asked not to breathe identified in this article, describes the management of security for her mainframe databases as "a nearly-impossible, labor-intensive stint - if total they had to utilize were IBM's own security administration utilities."

    She reports that her company has over 600 IBM DB2 databases running in 13 LPARs across eight mainframes distributed across two, geographically part data centers.

    "About 8,000 wait users at the company own controlled access to the literally hundreds of volumes of DB2 data on systems which they are migrating to DB2 version 5.1. They are also in the process of migrating from [IBM] MVS to the OS/390 operating system to achieve Year 2000 compliance," says the engineer.

    "While IBM did a mighty job with DB2, its security administration tools are inadequate to retain up with the changes that occur in their environment on an almost daily basis: changes in user access, the maintenance of expostulate security and the securing of access to fresh transactions. Their database administrators (DBAs) would breathe spending total of their time just doing security drudgery if total they had were DB2's own security utilities. It is just not an option not to own a second [security] administration package for DB2."

    To enhance the security administration capabilities delivered with IBM DB2, the engineer reports that her company uses RC/Secure from Platinum Technology Inc. (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). With RC/Secure, she says, "We can let their security administration personnel accomplish the busywork of [granting and revoking access to DB2 database objects], while letting the DBAs focus on the intelligence drudgery of database design. Platinum's product provides for cleaner security operations and productivity improvements over endemic DB2 security applications."

    In DB2's defense, the engineer concedes that her company has not looked closely at any changes in DB2 security delivered with the fresh version of the IBM database. Platinum's RC/Secure has become a fixture at the company over a era of years and she has runt incentive to change something that works.

    DB2 Security: An chance to Enhance

    IBM, which has delivered DB2 since its branding in 1994 to more than 11,000 organizations and more than 40 million wait users worldwide, has been actively evolving the product from an MVS-only mainframe database to a universal data base, according to Hershel Harris, Director of Database Technology with IBM's Software Solutions Division.

    Harris briefly recounts some watershed accomplishments in the evolution of DB2. "In 1994, they released an AIX and OS/2 version of the product. In 1995, they provided a parallel edition for data warehousing and a UNIX edition for Sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard. In 1997, they released the Universal Database (UDB) edition, adding expostulate extensions, champion for OLAP and OLTP applications and additional champion for parallel databases that enabled data to breathe split across multiple nodes in a clustered environment. This year, they announced OS/390 DB2 UDB. Version 6, which should breathe available in 1999, extends the capability of UDB to understand objects. The family of products now runs across multiple operating environments, including NT, UNIX, OS/390, AIX and other flavors of UNIX. They are no longer a only mainframe product, but they are proud of their mainframe heritage."

    Built around the relational database model, says Hershel, DB2 delivers "built-in security based on privileges." He explains that, for every user with a convincing ID or group membership, DB2 DBAs can utilize the product's endemic security features to control what the user can accomplish with the database objects.

    "This goes beyond access. For every expostulate and every user, specific privileges can breathe set up, including read, write, delete, update and run. The objects can breathe tables, views or procedures, and the privileges can breathe defined at a very granular level."

    Hershel says that generic SQL data control language statements such as vouchsafe and REVOKE may breathe used readily to control expostulate access. He adds that IBM will do available in Version 6 of the OS/390 DB2 UDB product a suite of Administrative Tools similar to those that already ship with distributed platform versions of the product, "We own in Version 5.2 [of their distributed systems product], an easy-to-use, NT-based Administration instrument that allows both graphical and Web-based administration of total distributed DB2 servers. This instrument set is being added to [our OS/390 DB2 product] with its release in 1999."

    Hershel is cognizant of the availability and utilize of third party products in conjunction with the IBM database, which he describes as "complimentary to the product."

    "IBM encourages complimentary product evolution by other companies. In the zone of DB2 security administration, there are probably a number of companies that deliver products to enhance the capabilities delivered with DB2. These tools may provide a graphical user interface to security administration using IBM's application programming interface. Some products emphasize enhanced query capabilities or enhanced reporting. Some try to integrate system flat security with DB2. One company showed me a demonstration recently of an application that enabled speech recognition technology and its utilize with DB2 database security administration. In general, they are very supportive of these efforts."

    Opportunities to enhance DB2 in a complimentary manner own been exploited by numerous companies, including Platinum Technology, according to Pete Peterson, Vice President for Database Administration Products at Platinum.

    Peterson says that RC/Secure answers a requisite within companies to simplify the model for managing authority, "With DB2 version 5, IBM allows RACF or external security products to breathe used in administering security within DB2. It is not a very straightforward procedure and it is difficult to create application and user domains using IBM utilities. Companies can gain a lot of [security administration efficiency] if they had a simple passage to pass a hierarchy of privileges from one user to another without having to redo everything."

    RC/Secure, according to Peterson, is designed as a "management layer on top of DB2 - but not a run-time layer." He explains that changes made to security privileges may breathe applied on an ad hoc basis or in batch mode and suggests that the latter routine continues to breathe preferred by security administrators. He adds that Platinum's RC/Query product also enhances DB2's query facilities and may breathe employed in connection with RC/Secure to verify updated objects within user and application domains.

    Peterson anticipates a continuing exact for DB2 enhancement products despite IBM's title that Version 6 will eliminate the requisite for certain types of enhancement products. Says Peterson, while IBM is trying to high-tail toward a goal of a Universal Database to enable administration across platforms, "there are differences in the mainframe DB2 product that were establish there to cater to the MVS folks and to capitalize on the characteristics of that platform that will continue to impede this goal."

    Computer Associates: Enhancement Equals Replacement

    Mark Combs agrees that IBM opened doors to third parties with version 5 of its DB2 implementation on MVS. Combs, who is Senior Vice President for Research and evolution with Computer Associates (CA) in Islandia, NY, sees the chance created less in terms of enhancing DB2 than as an chance to replace RACF with either ACF2 or Top covert - both CA mainframe security management products.

    "Companies requisite to high-tail to real, rules-based security - that is, a situation in which business rules determine access. Today, in many mainframe environments, about 75 percent of the rules are controlled by system management products such as CA-ACF2, CA-Top covert or RACF from IBM. Another 25 percent are actually established or enforced using much less robust SQL database security capabilities in products fancy DB2. What is needed is an integrated management infrastructure that enable centralized, rules-based security across the entire environment and that provide administrative tools on the mainframe, as well as graphical user interface-based tools on the desktop," says Combs.


    How to pick up DB2 admin certified | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    I'm interested in doing certification in DB2 administration for OS/390. I would fancy to master the subject, not just pick up the certification.

    Well, the best passage to master any subject is by doing it. So, with that in mind, you should secure a position where you own access to DB2 and requisite to drudgery with it to execute your job. But, I'm guessing that your objective is to pick up a job and that you are looking to pick up certified to obtain one. If that is the case, then there are some steps you can take. First of all, admiration obtaining the following books for study and reference: DB2 Developer's Guide, 5th edition by Craig S. Mullins Db2 For The Z/os Version 8 Certification by Susan Lawson DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 v7.1 Application Certification pilot by Susan Lawson You should also download, and review, total of the DB2 for z/OS manuals from the IBM Web site. Additionally, regularly review the in-depth technical articles published by IBM at its developerWorks site. Other honorable Web sites to bookmark and review embrace Search390.com, SearchDatabase.com, dbazine.com, DB2 for OS390, and DB2 Times. Regarding your final question, I would mumble that the best passage to obtain my DBA reserve is via amazon.com.

    Editor's note: accomplish you agree with this expert's response? If you own more to share, post it in one of their .VO7aaqqaAFk.0@/search390>discussion forums.


    Basic SQL Coding for DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Take a gawk at the four primary statements of DML: Select, Update, Insert, and Delete. You will learn the function each of these can play in your efforts to master DB2. You will also gawk at various aspects of SQL, a necessary language to understand though the comprehension flat will vary depending on the user's activity.

    This chapter is from the reserve 

    In the previous chapter, they discussed the definitions of various database objects using the Data Definition Language (DDL). In this chapter, they start manipulating the database objects using the portion of SQL known as Data Manipulation Language (DML). They will breathe populating (inserting) data into the database and retrieving the data using many powerful methods. Depending on the sophistication of the database users, they can utilize SQL to query the database. The majority of the SQL statements within a DB2 application involve DML statements. Therefore, application developers must understand the various methods of inserting, updating, and retrieving data from the database. They will start with simple retrieval statements and gradually interpose more tangled methods of data manipulation. The DB2 Certification database will breathe used for most of the examples. There are four main DML SQL statements they consider: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

    SQL is based on mathematical principles, specifically on set theory and relational algebra. The data is stored in the database as unordered sets of data records. SQL is a set-oriented language, and many of its language elements are directly related to relational algebraic terms, such as permutation, projection, restriction, and join.

    A set of data is represented in a DB2 database as a table or a view and is stored in a DB2 table without admiration to order. To retrieve data in a particular order, an ORDER BY phrase must breathe added to a SELECT statement. Similarly, if the data is to breathe grouped, then a GROUP BY phrase must breathe added to the statement.

    Now, let's review the DB2CERT database design defined in the previous chapter and exploit data using various SQL statements. There are three main tables: CANDIDATE, TEST, and TEST_CENTER. Each table represents a set of records that correspond to a test candidate (person), a test, and a test hub (location).

    There is an associative table, known as the TEST_TAKEN table, that is used to reflect the relationships among the three main tables. The TEST_TAKEN table is used to schedule the test candidates and also to maintain their test scores.

    NOTE

    The longest SQL statement is 32,765 bytes.

    Remember that to execute any operation, the user must own the necessary privileges.

    Retrieving the Entire Table

    The most basic of total retrieval command involves the SELECT statement with no operators other than the designation of the table. This SQL statement retrieves total of the candidates who own taken a DB2 Certification exam. The information requested is contained in the table TEST_TAKEN.

    SELECT * FROM db2cert.test_taken

    SQL is a data access language that consists of language statements and clauses. There are many optional clauses that can breathe used to modify the output. The output of a SELECT statement is known as a result set or result table. The results from the SELECT statement are shown next. In this example, using an asterisk or star character (*) for column selection, the columns will breathe returned to the user in the order in which they are defined in the table.

    CID TCID NUMBER DATE_TAKEN START_TIME FINISH_TIME SCORE PASS_FAIL SEAT_NO --- ---- ------ ---------- ---------- ----------- ----- --------- ------- 111 TX01 500 01/01/2000 11:30:00 12:30:00 65 Y 1 111 TX01 501 02/02/2000 10:30:00 11:45:00 73 Y 1 111 TX01 502 03/03/2000 12:30:00 13:30:00 67 Y 1 222 TR01 500 01/01/2000 14:00:00 15:30:00 55 N 2 222 TR01 502 01/02/2000 09:00:00 10:15:00 53 N 2 222 TR01 502 02/18/2000 10:00:00 11:30:00 75 Y 2 333 TX01 500 03/01/2000 11:30:00 13:00:00 82 Y 2 333 TX01 501 12/29/2000 14:00:00 - - - 1 333 TX01 502 03/02/2000 14:00:00 14:30:00 92 Y 1 9 record(s) selected.

    In SQL, the * is used to witness that total columns of a table are being referenced. In this example, the SQL statement refers to total of the columns defined for the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table. If the table is altered and a fresh column is added to the table definition, the result set would contain the fresh column.

    NOTE

    Adding a fresh column to an existing table will result in default values being populated for the existing rows.

    Since the output of the SQL statement using * character varies according to the table definition, it is recommended that you specify total of the column names you want to discern in the SELECT statement. They could own obtained the same result as the statement using SELECT * with the following SQL statement.

    SELECT cid, tcid, number,date_taken,start_time, finish_time,score,seat_no FROM db2cert.test_taken;

    NOTE

    The * character is used to advert to total of the columns defined for a table. The order of the columns in the result table is the same order as specified in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement.

    What is returned to the user is known as the result set. If the result set is large it is advisable to breathe sure to filter the data using a WHERE predicate.

    The FROM clause is required for the DML SQL statement, since it describes the location (table or view) of the data. Their example references a solitary table called DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN. The SELECT and FROM clauses are required in total data retrieval statements. The list of columns following the SELECT keyword is referred to as the select list.

    Projecting Columns from a Table

    Projection is a relational operation that allows you to retrieve a subset of the defined columns from a table. The next example restricts the output from the SELECT command so that only the candidate ID, test center, and test number attributes from the TEST_TAKEN table are shown.

    SELECT cid,tcid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken

    The output of this SELECT statement is shown below.

    CID TCID NUMBER --- ---- ------ 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 222 TR01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 333 TX01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 9 record(s) selected.

    The order of the columns in the result table will always match the order in the select list. The order of the columns as they were defined in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement is ignored when a select list is provided in the SQL statement. In this example, the order of the columns is similar to the order in the CREATE TABLE statement, since the CID column was defined prior to TCID and NUMBER columns.

    Changing the Order of the Columns

    Permutation is the relational operation that allows you to change the order of the columns in your result table. Permutation is used every time you select columns in an order different than the order defined in the CREATE TABLE statement. For example, to array the test hub ID prior to the candidate IDs and the test number, you could execute the following:

    SELECT tcid,cid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken

    The result of this SELECT statement specifies a select list in a different order than was defined in the table definition.

    TCID CID NUMBER ---- --- ------ TX01 111 500 TX01 111 501 TX01 111 502 TR01 222 500 TR01 222 502 TR01 222 502 TX01 333 500 TX01 333 501 TX01 333 502 9 record(s) selected.

    NOTE

    We advert to the output of a SELECT statement as the result table because the output of total SELECT statements can breathe considered a relational table.

    Restricting Rows from a Table

    Restriction is a relational operation that will filter the resulting rows of a table. Restriction can breathe accomplished through the utilize of predicates defined in a SQL WHERE clause. To restrict the result set, they requisite to add a WHERE clause to the SQL statement.

    NOTE

    A predicate is a condition placed on the data. The result of the condition is TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN.

    The WHERE clause specifies conditions or predicates that must breathe evaluated by DB2 before the result table is returned to the wait user. There are many convincing types of predicates that can breathe used. In the following example, the equality (=) predicate is used to restrict the records to only those candidates who own taken a DB2 Certification test at the test hub TR01.

    SELECT tcid,cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid ='TR01'

    The WHERE clause also accepts other comparison operators, such as greater than (>), less than (<), greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (<=), and not equal to (<>).This statement is an example of a basic predicate. A basic predicate compares two values. In addition, more tangled predicates, such as LIKE, BETWEEN, and IN, are also convincing and will breathe discussed later.

    NOTE

    Trying to execute this example SQL statement will result in a data type compatibility error, because the column TCID is defined with a user-defined data type (UDT).

    Predicate Evaluation for UDTs

    The column TCID was defined as a user-defined data type. To do the comparison in the WHERE clause valid, a casting function needs to breathe used. This is not mandatory if the comparison is to a literal or host variable. This technique is however demonstrated below:

    SELECT tcid, cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid=CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id)

    Predicate evaluation requires that the data types breathe compatible (same data type or a compatible data type). They can accomplish the data type conversion (cast) using one of two methods:

  • Use the CAST expression.
  • Use a casting function.
  • Refer to Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming," for more information on casting for UDTs.

    NOTE

    Although not always mandatory, casting is recommended to ensure compatible data types are compared, including length and scale. This allows DB2 to resolve these as indexable rather than stage 2 predicates.

    Restricting Rows Using Multiple Conditions

    It is workable to combine multiple conditions (predicates) in a solitary SQL statement. The predicates can breathe combined using Boolean operators, such as the AND or OR operators. These operators allow you to combine multiple conditions in a solitary SQL statement. The order of the predicate evaluation will not influence the result set (known as set closure).

    The next example retrieves the records for the test candidates who took a test at test hub TR01 and achieved a score greater than 65. The rows that meet the predicates are known as the qualifying rows. The following example is an SQL statement using multiple predicates:

    SELECT tcid,cid,score FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid= CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id) AND score > 65 Selecting Columns from Multiple Tables

    There are basically two operations that combine columns from multiple tables in a solitary SQL statement. These operations are

    Cartesian Product

    A Cartesian product is a relational operation that will merge total the values from one table with total the values from another table. This operation is not used frequently because the result table can breathe very large. The number of rows in the result table is always equal to the product of the number of rows in the qualifying rows for each of the tables being accessed.

    NOTE

    The DB2 optimizer may elect to utilize a Cartesian product of unrelated tables if this is deemed to breathe an efficient routine of accessing multiple tables. An example would breathe two single-row tables that are joined with a large table. The cross-product of 1 ∴ 1 = 1; thus the large table access is deferred as late as possible, with a potential extend in the restrictive predicates that can breathe applied without incurring the overhead of a large Cartesian result. This routine of table access is typical in processing queries against a star schema data model.

    The following example is a Cartesian product of total test numbers and test names from the TEST table, with total candidates from the TEST_TAKEN table. First, select from the TEST table.

    SELECT number, designation FROM db2cert.test NUMBER NAME ------ -------------------------------------------------- 500 DB2 Fundamentals 501 DB2 Administration 502 DB2 Application Development 3 record(s) selected. Next select of total candidates from the test_taken table. SELECT cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken CID TCID --- ---- 222 TR01 222 TR01 222 TR01 111 TX01 111 TX01 111 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 9 record(s) selected.

    Then combine the two tables to shape a Cartesian product result table.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 27 record(s) selected.

    There are two tables referenced in the FROM clause of this query. The tables are separated by commas. There is no relationship expression in the WHERE clause. This type of query results in a Cartesian product.

    The result table is a representation of total workable combinations of the input tables. The TEST table has three rows, and the TEST_TAKEN table has nine rows. Therefore, the SELECT statement shown above returns 27 rows. Note the first column designation in this query. It is necessary to fully qualify the column designation by providing the schema designation and table designation with the column designation because this column exists in both the TEST table and TEST_TAKEN table. In this case, they needed to specify that the NUMBER column is to breathe retrieved from the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table and not from the DB2CERT.TEST table.

    By adding a predicate to a Cartesian product SQL query, the result table can represent a more useful representation of the data. In the example below, the query represents total of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid='111' NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 9 record(s) selected.

    Adding a WHERE clause to your query does not always provide the desired result. In the example shown above, you want to know total of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111, and the query returns nine rows. But they know from previous queries that the candidate took only three tests. The query in the example above has a WHERE clause to filter out the candidate whose ID is 111 from the TEST_TAKEN table, but there was no filter on the TEST_CENTER table. Therefore, the result of the query would always breathe a multiple of the number of testing centers. Usually, when multiple tables are referenced, you should embrace a cross-table relationship using a table merge or relate method, as shown in the following example. They will examine table relate methods further in the next section.

    SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid= '111' AND db2cert.test_taken.number=db2cert.test.number NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 3 record(s) selected.

    To avoid data redundancy, it is recommended that the database tables breathe normalized. Following a normalization process, a number of related tables will exist. To meet some of the required queries, the tables must breathe reconstructed. The tables are reconstructed temporarily, using a table relate strategy to defer a single-result table.

    The result tables in the previous examples usually provided candidate ID numbers and not the complete designation of the test candidates. The candidate IDs are stored in the TEST_TAKEN table, and the replete names are stored in the CANDIDATE table. To obtain the designation of a candidate, the data must breathe retrieved from the CANDIDATE table, using a relationship or relate strategy.

    Consider an example that will list the names and phone numbers of candidates who were registered to hold a DB2 Certification test in 2000. To accomplish this, they requisite to select data from two different tables:

  • db2cert.candidate
  • db2cert.test_taken
  • Let's retrieve a list of candidate names, phone numbers, and IDs from the CANDIDATE table. The candidate names were stored in multiple columns to allow for simple retrieval by terminal name.

    SELECT fname,initial,lname,hphone,cid FROM db2cert.candidate

    The output of this example follows. Pay special attention to the values in the CID column. It will breathe used as the relate column in the next example.

    FNAME INITIAL LNAME HPHONE CID -------- ------- ---------- ---------- --- Bill B Wong 1115551234 111 George Baklarz 2226543455 222 Susan M Visser 4442314244 333 Glen R Sheffield 5552143244 444 Jim G Stittle 6662341234 555 Kevin W Street 7773142134 666 Bert F Nicol 8886534534 777 Paul C Zikopoulos 9992112212 888 8 record(s) selected.

    Now, let's retrieve the ID numbers of those candidates who were registered to hold the test in 2000.

    SELECT several cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 CID --- 222 111 333 3 record(s) selected.

    The candidate IDs in the TEST_TAKEN table must correspond to a candidate ID in the CANDIDATE table because of the declarative referential integrity constraints. The parent table in the relationship is the CANDIDATE table and the child table (dependent table) is the TEST_TAKEN table.

    The result table from the above query does not embrace the test candidate 444, since that candidate did not own a test scheduled for 2000. They requisite to relate the two result tables based on the candidate ID values. This column is known as the relate column.

    NOTE

    Query performance can significantly better if the relate columns are appropriately indexed.

    The following solitary query will meet the end-user requirement.

    SELECT several fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.candidate WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND db2cert.test_taken.cid=db2cert.candidate.cid

    A table relate requires a predicate that includes an expression based on columns from the tables referenced in the FROM clause. This is known as a relate predicate. The FROM clause has not changed from the Cartesian product examples. The only disagreement is in the relate predicate (test_taken.cid = candidate.cid).

    NOTE

    An alternative shape of the FROM clause for joins involves explicitly coding the relate keyword between the tables (rather than using a comma) and coding the relate predicates in the ON clause rather than in the WHERE clause. This routine of coding will breathe covered in more detail in Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding."

    The table names needed to breathe explicitly stated because there is a column named CID in both of the referenced tables. When multiple tables are being accessed in a solitary query, any selected columns that occur in more than one table must breathe qualified with the table name.

    NOTE

    An error will occur if the columns being referenced are enigmatic (not properly qualified).

    The maximum number of base tables that can breathe in a solitary SQL statement is 225; however, you are limited to 15 tables in a relate (the FROM clause).

    NOTE

    The 15-table confine can breathe increased by updating the macro SPRMMXT to a value greater than 15.

    This kindhearted of relate operation shown in the above example is also known as an inner join. An inner relate displays only the rows that are present in both of the joined tables.

    Using Correlation Names

    If each of the columns needed to breathe fully qualified with the table name, such as tableschema.tablename.columnname, the queries would become very large and cumbersome to drudgery with. Fortunately, there is an easier passage to qualify the enigmatic columns resulting from a multitable SELECT statement.

    The columns can breathe qualified using a correlation name. A correlation designation is a temporary alias for the tables referenced in an SQL statement. They rewrite the previous query using correlated names as follows:

    SELECT several fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken tt, db2cert.candidate c WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND tt.cid = c.cid

    The correlation designation immediately follows the designation of the table as stated in the FROM clause. In this example, the correlated designation for the TEST_TAKEN table is tt, and the correlated designation for the CANDIDATE table is c.

    NOTE

    Correlation names can breathe optionally prefixed with the AS keyword, such as DB2CERT.CANDITATE AS C. This is purely for readability.

    The correlated names are accessible within the SQL statement only. Following the execution of the SQL statement, the correlation designation is no longer defined. Once a correlation designation has been defined, it can breathe referenced in the leisure of the query instead of the table name. However, the table designation can soundless breathe referenced.

    NOTE

    Use simple, easy-to-remember correlation names. Table initials are honorable candidates for correlation names.

    Sorting Your Output

    We own been retrieving data from one or more tables. The order of the result table has not been specified in any of the SQL statements. Therefore, the data is retrieved in an undetermined order if there is no ORDER BY clause in the SQL statement.

    NOTE

    The only guaranteed passage to revert data in the required sequence is with the ORDER BY clause. Any data retrieval that is currently returned in sequence without this clause is purely based upon the data retrieval routine at the time. A future access path change may not revert the data in the same sequence.

    The following example produces a list of the test candidates in alphabetical order by terminal designation for the candidates who own taken a DB2 Certification test at the TR01 test center.

    SELECT lname,initial,fname FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY lname

    This example contains a fresh clause, ORDER BY. After the ORDER BY clause, you can list the columns that will specify the sort order and the type of sort.

    NOTE

    Appropriate indexing may allow DB2 to avoid sorting the data to match the ORDER BY clause. If the data is already sequenced via the index, DB2 may elect to utilize the index and avoid sorting the data. DB2 cannot avoid a sort for an ORDER BY involving columns from more than one table. Where possible, embrace columns from only one table in the ORDER BY to give DB2 greater chance for sort avoidance.

    The SQL can breathe modified so that the output is changed to descending order by terminal designation and a secondary order column on the first designation in ascending order.

    SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid= 'TR01' ORDER BY lname DESC, fname

    In this example, the DESC keyword that follows the lname column indicates that the result table should breathe in descending order based on the terminal name. More than one record can own the same terminal name. This situation is quite common. There is a second column specified in the ORDER BY clause, fname. There is no keyword specifying the sort sequence based on the fname column. Therefore, the default ordering sequence (ascending) is used.

    The next example contains three columns lname, fname, and hphone. You can reference the column that should breathe used to sort the data using the column designation or by specifying its position in the select list. Using the column position is useful when the column in the select list is made up of derived columns (calculated columns) that own no express name.

    SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2

    In this example, the sort order is specified using the column position. Therefore, the query result is exactly the same as the in previous example.

    You can also apportion an alternative column designation using column renaming. The assigned designation can then breathe referenced in the ORDER BY clause, and it appears as the column heading where appropriate.

    NOTE

    Although useful, coding a column position rather than a column (or renamed column) in the ORDER BY clause may lead to a different sequence if another column is inadvertently added to the query that alters the column positioning.

    The ORDER BY clause must succeed total subselects in the FULLSELECT statement. The only clauses that can succeed the ORDER BY clause are the for FOR FETCH ONLY, FOR READ ONLY, OPTIMIZE, WITH QUERYNO, FETCH FIRST n ROWS clauses.

    Derived Columns

    There are some cases when you will requisite to execute calculations on the data. The SQL language has some basic mathematical and string functions built in. Mathematical operations embrace yardstick addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

    The calculation can breathe defined in the WHERE clause of the SQL statement or the select list. Suppose that you requisite to reckon a passing rate for a DB2 test. The passing rate is defined as the percentage of candidates that pass the test (totalpassed*100/totaltaken). The following SQL statement will accomplish this for us for test number 500:

    SELECT number, totalpassed*100/totaltaken FROM test WHERE number='500'

    In this example, the second column of the output list is a calculated column. recollect that you must utilize the column position if you want to utilize this calculated column for the ORDER BY clause unless you designation it (as they now discuss).

    NOTE

    Occasionally, the results of a derived column may not array as expected. The example using totalpassed*100/totaltaken will result in a value of 66 being retrieved. Since both the totalpassed and totaltaken columns are integers, the final result is also an integer, and the fractional partake is discarded. If this is not your desired result, you should utilize other functions (like decimal) to change the passage the calculation is performed or displayed.

    Naming Derived/Calculated Columns

    You can specify a column designation for any expression. When you provide the derived (calculated) column with a name, the ORDER BY clause can reference the derived designation to allow for a more readable SQL statement.

    The following SQL calculates the percentage of people that own passed the DB2 Certification exams and orders the output in descending order of the passing rate.

    SELECT number,totalpassed*100/totaltaken AS PassedRate FROM test ORDER BY PassedRate DESC

    The AS clause is used to rename the default designation of an ingredient in the select list. In this example, they are giving the designation of PassedRate to the result of the division of columns totalpassed by totaltaken. The named column is used in the query to specify the column that should breathe used for sorting the output.

    NOTE

    The AS keyword is optional, although it should breathe added for readability. Without the AS clause, it may breathe unclear whether the objective was to rename a column or a comma was missed between two retrieved columns.

    Functions

    In DB2, there are different types of functions provided. For example, two types of functions provided by DB2 are scalar and column functions (a third type of function called a table function is discussed in Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming."

  • Scalar functions (also known as row functions) provide a result for each row of the result table. A scalar function can breathe used any location an expression is allowed.

  • Column functions (also known as vector functions) drudgery with a group of rows to provide a result. The group is specified using a FULLSELECT and optionally grouped using the GROUP BY clause.

  • In this section, they interpose you to some of the SQL functions provided with DB2. SQL functions are categorized by their implementation type. Either the functions are built in or they are extensions of DB2 and are known as user-defined functions (UDFs).

  • Built-in functions are defined within the SQL standards, and they are provided by DB2. These can breathe either scalar or column functions.

  • UDFs are not defined within the SQL standards because they are extensions of the current SQL language. These functions can breathe developed by a DB2 administrator or application developer. UDFs can breathe either scalar or table functions, but not column functions. Once the UDFs own been created, they can breathe invoked by any wait user with the proper privileges. For more information about UDFs, advert to Chapter 15.

  • Scalar Functions

    Scalar functions are applied to each row of data, and there is a per-row result provided. If they want to retrieve only the first three digits of telephone numbers for each candidate, they could utilize a scalar function. The function that is used is called SUBSTR. The arguments for this function embrace a string data type column, a beginning offset, and length. The output data type and credit of the function depend on the input data type and attribute. The following example retrieves the telephone zone code for the column wphone.

    SELECT lname, SUBSTR(CHAR(wphone),1,3) FROM db2cert.candidate

    The SUBSTR function is a scalar function. In this example, SUBSTR returns a character string of three characters. The result string corresponds to the first three characters of the wphone column. This function is known as a string function because it works with any string data type. If they wanted to provide the output column with a meaningful name, they could provide an alias, as was done for calculated columns.

    In the example above, the substring starts from the beginning of the string, because they witness one (1) as the second parameter of the function. The length of the resulting string is indicated in the third argument. In their example, the length is three. Note that the data type of the wphone column is phone, so a casting function is used to transform the phone data type to the char data type.

    The following query will provide the month when the exam was taken. The input for this function is a DATE string, and the output is an integer.

    SELECT fname, MONTH (date_taken) FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid Column Functions

    Column functions provide a solitary result for a group of qualifying rows for a specified table or view. Many common queries can breathe satisfied using column functions where they embrace common tasks, such as finding the smallest value, the largest value, or the mediocre value for a group of data records. In the following example you can obtain the maximum length of time of any of the DB2 Certification exams:

    SELECT MAX("length") FROM test

    Because the length column shares its designation with the length scalar function, the column designation is encased within double-quotes to distinguish this as a column and not a function.

    If they added a WHERE clause to this example, the maximum would represent the maximum length for the qualifying rows, since the predicate is used to filter the data prior to the application of the MAX function.

    This next example calculates the mediocre of the number of seats for total of the test centers. Notice the column function AVG is used in this example:

    SELECT AVG(noseats) FROM test_center

    DB2 provides many more built-in functions. If you are interested in calculating statistical information, you can utilize statistical functions, such as VARIANCE, STDDEV, or a sampling of these functions.

    NOTE

    MAX and MIN functions can breathe either column or scalar functions depending on the input arguments.

    Grouping Values

    Many queries require some flat of aggregated data. This is accomplished in SQL through the utilize of the GROUP BY clause. The following SQL obtains the mediocre number of seats for each country:

    SELECT country, AVG(noseats) FROM test_center GROUP BY country

    This SQL statement obtains the mediocre number of seats per country, and the GROUP BY clause tells DB2 to group together the rows that own the same values in the columns indicated in the GROUP BY list. In their example, they are grouping countries into subsets. As the subsets are created, DB2 calculates the mediocre of each of those groups or subsets, in this case, by each country.

    When you combine column functions and other elements, such as column names, scalar functions, or calculated columns, you must utilize the GROUP BY clause. In this case, you must embrace every ingredient that is not a column function in the GROUP BY list. The only elements that can breathe omitted in the GROUP BY list are constant values.

    The next SQL statement obtains a list that includes the mediocre gash score and minimum test length for the DB2 Certification exams. They group this list by the type of exam, as follows:

    SELECT type, AVG(cut_score), MIN("length") FROM test GROUP BY type

    NOTE

    Appropriate indexing can allow DB2 to avoid a sort to group the data rows to match the GROUP BY clause.

    It is workable to sort the output of the previous example using an ORDER BY clause.

    NOTE

    GROUP BY may revert data in the same order as an ORDER BY, but this is not guaranteed and is based upon the access path. The only routine to guarantee data sequence is with an ORDER BY.

    Restricting the utilize of Sets of Data

    Up to now, they own discussed how to restrict output based on row conditions. With SQL, it is also workable to restrict that output using column functions and the GROUP BY clause. Suppose you want a list of total the test centers that own administered more than five DB2 Certification exams. To do it easier to understand, let's first pick up the number of tests that own been taken in each test center.

    SELECT tcid, count(*) FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid

    We utilize the matter column function to pick up the total number of tests that own been taken in each test center. When you utilize an asterisk (*) with the matter function, you are indicating that you want the number of rows in a table that meet the criteria established in the SQL statement. In this example, they are grouping by TCID because they own a number of occurrences for total the test centers in the TEST_TAKEN table. The TEST_TAKEN table has an entry for every DB2 Certification exam that has been taken. Finally, the output is restricted to only those test centers that own administered more than four exams.

    SELECT tcid FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid HAVING COUNT(*) > 4

    This example introduces the HAVING clause. The HAVING clause is equivalent to the WHERE clause for groups and column functions. The HAVING clause will restrict the result set to only the groups that meet the condition specified in it. In their example, only the test centers that own administered more than four DB2 Certification exams will breathe displayed.

    Eliminating Duplicates

    When you execute a query, you might pick up duplicate rows in the respond set. The SQL language provides a special clause to remove the duplicate rows from your output. The following SQL generates a list of names and phone numbers for total the candidates who own taken a test. In the following example, they eliminate the duplicate rows from their output list using the several clause.

    SELECT several fname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c,test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid

    The several clause can also breathe used with the matter function. When you utilize several inside a matter function, it will not matter the duplicate entries for a particular column. The following example allows you to matter how many different test centers own candidates registered.

    SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT tcid) FROM test_taken

    This example provides the number of test centers that are registered in the TEST_TAKEN table. recollect that total the candidates who own registered for DB2 Certification exams are stored in this table. do sure that you understand the disagreement between COUNT(*), COUNT(colname), and COUNT(DISTINCT colname). They are very similar in syntax but vary in function.

    NOTE

    COUNT(*) returns a matter of total rows that qualify against the WHERE clause. COUNT(colname) returns a matter of total rows that qualify against the WHERE clause, with null occurrences of colname removed. COUNT(DISTINCT colname) counts several occurrences of colname, with nulls removed.

    Searching for String Patterns

    SQL has a powerful predicate that allows you to search for patterns in character string columns. This is the fancy predicate. Suppose you want to generate a list of the candidates whose first designation starts with the letter G.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname fancy 'G%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    In this query, they utilize a wildcard character with the fancy predicate. In SQL, the percent character (%) is a substitute for zero or more characters. The search string G% can breathe substituted with names fancy George, Gary, Ginger, and so on (since the percent character can substitute zero or more characters, the search string can also breathe a solitary letter G).

    The percent character can breathe used any location in the search string. It also can breathe used as many times as you requisite it. The percent token is not case-sensitive, so it can hold the location of uppercase or lowercase letters. However, the constant characters included in your search string are case-sensitive.

    Another wildcard character used with the fancy predicate is the underline character (_). This character substitutes one and only one character. The underline character can hold the location of any character. However, the underline character cannot breathe substituted for an blank character.

    NOTE

    If the pattern needs to search for occurrences of the wildcard characters % and _ as their actual values, then the evade clause is used to specify a character that precedes the percent or underscore in the pattern.

    The previous SQL can breathe modified to embrace total candidates' names and the telephone numbers for those candidates whose designation has a lowercase letter "a" as its second letter.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname fancy '_a%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    This example uses two wildcard characters that drudgery with the fancy predicate. The search string in this example can embrace names, such as Paul, Gabriel, or Natalie. (The first character may breathe any character, the lowercase letter "a" is the second character in the string, and the string ends with any number of characters.)

    NOTE

    When the pattern in a fancy predicate is a fixed-length host variable, the amend length must breathe specified for the string to breathe returned. 'G%' assigned to an 8-byte variable (LIKE :variable) will search for total occurrences of 'G% ' (G, followed by any character, followed by 6 blank characters). To find rows that commence with a G, then 'G%%%%%%%' should breathe assigned to the fixed-length variable.

    Searching for Data in Ranges

    SQL also offers us a scope operator. This operator is used to restrict rows that are in a particular scope of values. admiration the requirement to list those candidates whose scores in the DB2 Certification exam are between 60 and 75.

    SELECT several fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75

    The BETWEEN predicate includes the values that you specify for searching your data. An notable fact about the BETWEEN predicate is that it can drudgery with character ranges as well.

    In addition to the score requirement, this example modifies the SQL to embrace only those candidates whose terminal designation begins with a letter between B and G.

    SELECT several fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75 AND lname BETWEEN 'B' AND 'GZ'

    In this example, the second BETWEEN predicate contains character values. They requisite to specify the GZ value to embrace total the workable names that start with the letter G. This was done assuming that the letter Z is the terminal workable value in the alphabet.

    NOTE

    The arguments of the BETWEEN clause are not interchangeable; the first must specify the low value, and the second, the tall value. BETWEEN 1 AND 2 will revert total values within the scope (inclusive of 1 and 2). BETWEEN 2 AND 1 will revert zero rows.

    Searching for Null Values

    Null values represent an unknown value for a particular event of an entity. They can utilize a null value in the cases where they don't know a particular value of a column. Let's mumble that they want a list of total those candidates whose score is not yet input. This condition is represented with a null value.

    SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score IS NULL

    The IS predicate is used to search for the null value in this example. recollect that the null value means "unknown." Because it has no particular value, it can't breathe compared with other values. You can't utilize conditional operands, such as equal (=) or greater than (>), with null values.

    Searching for Negative Conditions

    The BETWEEN, IS, and fancy predicates always gawk for the values that meet a particular condition. These predicates can also breathe used to gawk for values that don't meet a particular criterion.

    The NOT predicate can breathe used to gawk for the antithetical condition, combined with the LIKE, BETWEEN, and IS predicate, to accomplish negative searches, as shown in the following example. This example has a fancy predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want a list of those candidates whose terminal names accomplish not start with the letter S.

    SELECT several fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE lname NOT fancy 'S%' ORDER BY lname,fname

    The next example has a BETWEEN predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want the list of those candidates whose score, in any test, is not in the scope 60 to 75.

    SELECT several fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND integer(score) NOT BETWEEN 60 and 75

    In this example, the NOT predicate will exclude total the values that are in the scope 60 to 75.

    Negation can also breathe applied to the null value. This SQL produces a report that searches for those candidates that own a seat number assigned. This is expressed with a NOT NULL value.

    SELECT several fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND seat_no IS NOT NULL

    NOTE

    The NOT operator can also breathe used to negate the yardstick comparison operators, =, <, <=, >, and >=.

    When dealing with nulls, NOT or negation may not revert the antithetical of the positive logic. For example, WHERE SEAT_NO = 1 will revert only the rows for seat number 1. Any value other than 1 is discarded, as these rows are FALSE, including nulls, since these are unknown. WHERE SEAT_NO <> 1 excludes rows where the seat number is 1, and also discards nulls because these are unknown.

    Searching for a Set of Values

    In SQL, it is workable to establish a restriction condition based on a set of values. Suppose that you requisite a list of the test centers that own candidates registered for the DB2 Fundamentals test and for the DB2 Application evolution test. This can breathe queried with the following statement:

    SELECT several name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND (number = '500' or number ='502')

    To simplify pile multiple OR conditions when multiple values for the same column are being compared, it is workable to rewrite the statement using the IN clause.

    SELECT several name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND number IN ('500','502')

    The IN clause is used to denote a set of values. In this example, they utilize a constant set of values.

    You can also utilize the NOT predicate with the IN clause. In this case, the condition will breathe true when a value is not present in the set of values provided to the IN clause. You can utilize as many values as you wish in the IN clause, within the defined limits of the size of a SQL statement.

    Advanced Selection Functionality

    In Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding," they will gawk at more of the functionality and power of the SELECT statement. They will cover topics such as

  • Subqueries
  • Inner and outer joins
  • Nested table expressions
  • CASE expressions
  • Row expressions
  • Unions


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