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000-448 IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2

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000-448 exam Dumps Source : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2

Test Code : 000-448
Test denomination : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2
Vendor denomination : IBM
: 142 real Questions

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IBM IBM Content Collector (ICC)

IBM cloud and analytics empower fanatics at Cricket World Cup | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM India on Wednesday preeminent its cloud and superior analytics technology is empowering fanatics at the ICC Cricket World Cup 2015 via offering reside match analysis, player performance and companionable insights.

IBM companionable Sentiment Index leverages IBM Watson content material Analytics to aggregate and analyze public opinions shared as tweets and different companionable conversations. The IBM device will analyze records to generate predictions on the groups without doubt to win the tournament, spotlight probably the most observed avid gamers and groups and greater.

ICC Cricket World Cup 2015

The Wisden influence Index gives you comparative and correlated insights leveraging records.

“IBM has the analytic and cloud capabilities that purchasers need to drive improved outcomes,” spoke of Sriram Rajan, govt director- IBM Analytics, India & South Asia.

IBM has linked to primary sports routine reminiscent of Wimbledon, Australian Open, soccer World Cup.

editor@infotechlead.com


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How collaboration apps foster digital transformation

IBM to acquire purple Hat, a number one Java community Contributor | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

information

IBM to purchase purple Hat, a number one Java community Contributor
  • through John okay. Waters
  • 10/29/2018
  • IBM introduced on Sunday plans to purchase leading commercial enterprise open supply software company and longtime Java neighborhood method (JCP) leader crimson Hat in a $34 billion stock deal.

    Described by way of massive Blue as IBM's most tremendous acquisition and probably the most tremendous tech acquisition of 2018, the deal represents "a landmark instant for each groups and is a massive step ahead in IBM's ongoing focal point on excessive-value company, the transformation of their portfolio, and their leadership within the rising era of AI and cloud."

    IBM and pink Hat mentioned the deal, which has been authorized via their respective boards, is subject to purple Hat shareholder and regulatory approval, and will live achieved in the latter half of 2019.

    talking this morning with press and analysts on a conference name, Paul Cormier, pink Hat's EVP and president of products and technologies, talked about the merger will assist his company realize its imaginative and prescient for its Linux and open supply choices.

    "over the terminal 10 years or so, Linux has been the platform where lots of the innovation in the business has been happening," Cormier observed. "We constructed a purposeful portfolio round Linux and open source tailor-made for the hybrid cloud ... but we're soundless a relatively minute enterprise. Their shoppers are seeing open hybrid cloud as the handiest way to carry public cloud into their IT infrastructure, and because of their measurement they can't diagnosed the scholarship of that demand. IBM helps us bring that approach to a hundred and seventy nations and speeds up their vision into the market."

    IBM has lengthy been a leading user and contributor to Linux, which undergirds pink Hat's properly items, including the crimson Hat commercial enterprise Linux (RHEL) OS.

    On that equal convention name, Arvind Krishna, IBM's SVP of Hybrid Cloud, observed this acquisition will construct his enterprise the realm's main hybrid cloud issuer. IBM's goal, he pointed out, "is to win in hybrid cloud, and win on the groundwork of open applied sciences, and in the cease to give a expertise that makes being more straightforward [for companies] with less complexity and a future proof funding."

    To a question about the potential strike of the acquisition on crimson Hat-maintained open source tasks, akin to Fedora, Gnome, and CentOS, Cormier spoke back succinctly "None. No possess an impact on," he mentioned. "The day after they shut [the acquisition], I don't intend to accomplish anything diverse. For us, it would live company as usual. some thing they were going to accomplish for their roadmaps as a stand-alone will proceed. They ought to accomplish what's commandeer for the group upstream, their friends and their business."

    each executives claimed that the leading roles both agencies play in the JCP aren't affected by the merger. IBM and pink Hat are lively individuals of the Java community, however Raleigh, N.C.-based red Hat is without doubt one of the most energetic contributors, and has been for many years.

    "both IBM and purple Hat possess been wonderful voices in that neighborhood," Cormier spoke of, "and that i suppose so one can proceed. purple Hat will proceed to accomplish what's right for the pink Hat portfolio, and that i would guess that IBM would accomplish the same."

    crimson Hat is, really, the greatest contributor to the OpenJDK next to Oracle. red Hat executives possess served on the JCP govt Committee and as Java spec leads or knowledgeable Working neighborhood individuals for greater than 35 Java Specification Requests (JSRs). the first Context and Dependency Injection spec (JSR 299), which become led by JBoss Fellow Gavin King, had a vast consequence on Java EE 6. The enterprise changed into additionally at the back of enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) three, JavaServer Faces, and the Java Persistence API. It collaborated on 4 JSRs for Java EE 7: Java API for RESTful web functions 2.0 (JSR-339); Java Message service 2.0 (JSR-343); Java Server Faces 2.2 (JSR-344); and Java content Repository API (JSR-333).

    purple Hat additionally spearheaded two OpenJDK tasks: Shenandoah (JEP 189), which goals to supply an extremely-low-pause-time rubbish Collector; and Thermostat , an instrumentation device for the Hotspot JVM.

    Martijn Verburg, CEO of jClarity, co-organizer of the London JUG, and a member of the Java neighborhood manner (JCP) government Committee, expects "a agreeable outcome" from the acquisition.

    "IBM has basically shown red Hat-like qualities when it comes to Java and Open supply," Verburg preeminent in an e-mail. "They've lately OpenSourced their J9 VM (Eclipse OpenJ9) in addition to their WebSphere application Server (Open Liberty). They are besides desirable tier supports of Microprofile, Jakarta EE and crucially undertake OpenJDK.

    Reza Rahman, SVP at AxonIQ, former Oracle Java developer evangelist, and co-founding father of the Java EE Guardians, is "of two minds" on the acquisition.

    "I totally pick note the corporate intent at the back of this for each IBM and red Hat," he instructed ADTmag. "here's unequivocally decent for the shareholders and personnel of both groups. youngsters, the reality is that the outcomes for customers and the Java EE ecosystem may besides no longer always live so rosy. it will likely imply less options for Java EE clients and fewer market competitiveness. for example, it might now not shock me if Websphere Liberty, Open Liberty, JBoss EAP, WildFly, and Thorntail now deserve to merge. i hope smaller and more moderen market entrants will fill in any competitive gaps, as they should soundless in a well financial house."

    "I additionally wish both the Java EE folks at IBM and red Hat total of the top of the line as long term colleagues," he brought. "with a bit of luck they can manage to construct this a pretty agreeable outcomes for Java EE."

    an extra Java EE Guardian, Kito Mann, who is a essential consultant at Virtua Inc., sees a particular synergy amongst Linux, Java, and cloud capabilities, however he issues about massive Blue.

    "IBM's track listing with acquisitions is questionable," he referred to in an e mail. "crimson Hat has completed a huge job championing open source and constructing wonderful products. besides the fact that children IBM has numerous involvement with open supply, it live simply not on the very stage. My situation is that crimson Hat will acquire absorbed into one or greater huge IBM product lines after which fade into mediocrity or irrelevance (bear in mind Rational?)"

    about the Java connection, Mann has some questions: "when it comes to Java, does this signify pink Hat products will genesis delivery with the IBM Java VM?" he asked. "What about JBoss and WebSphere (Liberty)? What about the entire high-quality OSS items from purple Hat/JBoss, and the business's toil lifestyle?"

    JNBridge CTO and co-founder Wayne Citrin, besides has just a few considerations concerning the merger. "My sentiment is that there's attending to live too a lot attention within the trade," he observed in an electronic mail, "and this doesn't support. crimson Hat appeared to live doing simply best and did not need to merge, however I can't guilt them for cashing in."

    concerning the writer

    John has been overlaying the excessive-tech beat from Silicon Valley and the San Francisco Bay belt for basically two many years. He serves as Editor-at-huge for utility building tendencies (www.ADTMag.com) and contributes continuously to Redmond magazine, The technology Horizons in education Journal, and Campus technology. he is the creator of greater than a dozen books, including The every minute thing pilot to companionable Media; The every minute thing computing device book; Blobitecture: Waveform architecture and Digital Design; John Chambers and the Cisco manner; and Diablo: The legit method guide.


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    The Best Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) Tools and Techniques | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This article breaks down the best OSINT tools, techniques, resources and websites available online for every stage of intelligence gathering process. From background reading, to organising your research and getting the best out of search engines, Intelligence Fusion has created the ultimate list of open source intelligence tools.

    We’ll cover the following;

  • What is OSINT?
  • The Best OSINT Websites for Background Reading
  • OSINT Techniques to Organise your Thoughts
  • Setting up Automated Alerts using OSINT Tools
  • OSINT Tools for companionable Media
  • OSINT Techniques: Getting the Best out of Search Engines
  • Platforms and Dashboards for Open Source Intelligence
  • OSINT Websites for Online advice Media
  • Other Useful OSINT Tools
  • What is OSINT?

    Open source intelligence, or OSINT, is the collection and analysis of information that is gathered from public, or open, sources.

    The Best OSINT Websites for Background Reading

    1. academia.edu

    This is a platform used to partake papers, monitor their impact, and follow the research in a particular field. Academia.edu currently has over 21 million papers.

    2. CORE (COnnecting REpositories)

    CORE promotes free and unrestricted access to research outputs from repositories and journals worldwide. The public can search through a collection of over 125 millions of harvested research outputs which can live downloaded free of charge.

    3. Library of Congress

    The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

    4. Open scholarship Maps

    Open scholarship Maps presents you with a topical overview of your search term. It’s based on the 100 most material documents for your search term, which allows you to easily identify useful, pertinent information.

    5. WolframAlpha

    WolframAlpha is an online service that answers factual queries directly by computing the respond from externally sourced “curated data”, unlike a search engine that provides a list of documents or web pages that might contain the respond the searcher is looking for.

    6. BASE

    BASE is one of the world’s most voluminous search engines especially for academic web resources. ground provides more than 120 million documents from more than 6,000 sources. You can access the full texts of about 60% of the indexed documents for free.

    7. Google Scholar

    Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

    8. Disputed Territories

    This map identifies the locations and territories that are claimed by more than one country or occupying force.

    OSINT Techniques to Organise your Thoughts

    1. Microsoft OneNote

    Microsoft OneNote is a free-form information gathering and multi-user collaboration. It gathers users’ notes, drawings, screen clippings and audio commentaries and allows your OSINT resources to live easily shared amongst other users online.

    Setting up Automated Alerts using OSINT Tools

    1. Google Alerts

    Google Alerts is a content change detection and notification service that can live used as an open source intelligence tool. It will dispatch emails to you when it finds newfangled results matching your specified search term.

    2. Talkwalker Alerts

    Talkwalker is an alternative free alert system to Google Alerts that offers a higher smooth of customisation on alerts and notifications. Talkwalker can besides monitor companionable media mentions of your specified search term.

    OSINT Tools for Social Media

    1. search A Tweet

    Seekatweet is designed to embolden you find material tweets in a specific location. You can consume their tailored filtering as an OSINT instrument to find Tweets near you or anywhere else in the world.

    2. One Million Tweet Map

    The one million tweet map is a companionable media instrument that you can consume to visualise tweets and aggregated Twitter data in a world map. It can live useful when conduction real-time OSINT investigations.

    3. Tweeplers

    Tweepler is a real time map of tweets coming from various locations. The tweets shown on the map are only the fresh tweets. They are displayed as soon as received. No tweet location is older than a fraction of a minute.

    4. Hashatit.com

    Hashatit.com is a companionable search engine for hashtags. You can search tags across total companionable media platforms, bringing everything material to your OSINT research to one residence in real time.

    5. Mulpix

    An advanced Instagram search engine, Mulpix makes searching Instagram as an OSINT technique even easier through the leverage of searching via multiple hashtags.

    6. Picodash

    Picodash is another Instagram search engine OSINT instrument to embolden you to search and analyse Instagram content by location and hashtags.

    7. Echosec

    Echosec is a location-based companionable media geofencing platform that analyses data in real-time to back retail, journalists, marketers and security teams as an open source intelligence tool.

    8. TweetDeck

    TweetDeck is a companionable media dashboard application for management of Twitter accounts. OSINT analysts can create live feeds of tweets to monitor specified hashtags, handles or mentions.

    OSINT Techniques: Getting the Best out of Search Engines

    1. Carrot²

    Carrot² is an open source search results clustering engine. It can automatically cluster minute collections of documents, for specimen search results or document abstracts, into thematic categories

    2. Newslookup.com

    Newslookup.com is a advice search engine, advice headline, advice feed and advice services provider that crawls several thousand advice media sites providing time based live hasten down of headlines by region, topic or person.

    3. Cluuz

    Cluuz is a search engine that can live used as a really useful OSINT tool. Cluuz shows not only links to related pages, but besides entities and images that are extracted from within the search results. In addition to the results, Cluuz displays a tag cloud of the most material entities extracted from returned results.

    Platforms and Dashboards for Open Source Intelligence

    1. HealthMap

    HealthMap brings together disparate data sources to achieve a unified and comprehensive view of the current global condition of infectious diseases.

    2. Investigative Database

    The Investigative Database allows open source analysts to browse their global index of public registries for companies, land registries and courts as well as search millions of documents and datasets, from public sources, leaks and investigations.

    3. IBM Watson advice Explorer

    The IBM Watson advice Explorer automatically constructs a advice information network and presents great volumes of advice results in an understandable fashion.

    4. Human Trafficking Search

    HTS produces a weekly blog, publishes research, and hosts a global resource database on human trafficking and modern-day slavery.

    5. Marine Traffic

    MarineTraffic is a provider of ship tracking and maritime intelligence. Monitoring vessel movements to build a ground of data gathered from their network of coastal AIS-receiving stations, supplemented by satellite receivers.

    6. Iris

    Iris is an application developed by the World Customs Organisation that monitors open source information and presents this information in a graphic-style world map in real-time.

    7. ICC Live Piracy Report

    This live map from ICC shows total of the piracy and armed robbery incidents reported to IMB Piracy Reporting Centre.

    8. ACLED

    ACLED is a realtime data and analysis source on political violence and protest. As an OSINT tool, analysts and researched can consume ACLED for the latest dependable information on current conflict and disorder patterns.

    OSINT Websites for Online News Media

    1. NewsNow

    NewsNow aims to live the world’s most accurate and comprehensive world advice aggregator, bringing you the latest global current affairs headlines

    2. Allyoucanread.com

    AllYouCanRead.com is the largest database of magazines and newspapers on the Internet, with listings for about 25,000 magazines, newspapers and top advice sites from total over the world.

    3. Newspaper Map

    Newspaper map is a free webapp that helps you find over 10,000 of the world’s online newspapers, and in many cases acquire to their Google translations in one click.

    4. Distill Web Monitor

    Monitor webpage or feed for changes asn an open source intelligence tool. Distill runs in your browser to check monitored pages for changes and can dispatch you instant alerts via SMS or email as soon as a change is detected.

    5. Feedly

    Feedly is a advice aggregator application that can live used to compiles advice feeds from a variety of OSINT websites, online sources and allows the you to customise and partake with others users online.

    Other Useful OSINT Tools

    Additional tools that can live used as allotment of an OSINT framework can live institute below.

    As allotment of their open source intelligence course, they provide extensive training on the most efficacious way to consume these OSINT tools as well as an impressive and diverse range of additional modules, total built using real-life experiences from their ex-military and intelligence expert team.

    1. IntelTechniques and Image Search

    2. Tineye

    3. Invid

    4. Maltego

    5. way Back Machine

    6. Transparency International

    7. Globalsecurity.org

    8. Naval Open Source Intelligence

    9. TerraServer

    10. Relief Web

    11. Tripadvisor

    12. Police Sites

    13. CIA Factbook

    14. FBI Vault

    15. OSAC Report

    16. Global Terrorism Database

    17. Bellingcat

    18. Reddit

    Intelligence Fusion uses these sources, teamed with military-grade processes and structure to enable a newfangled way of thinking, encouraging analysts to adjust alternative mindsets to better discover, evaluate and understand threats of every kind.

    Our OSINT training course can live adapted to clients’ requirements and tailored to meet bespoke requests. They possess the capacity to conduct face to face training, across the globe, or alternatively, they can besides deliver the open source ntelligence course remotely.

    If you’d relish further insight into what their training programme consists of, you can download a selection of slides from their benchmark training modules by clicking here.


    75 Open Source Tools to supersede Apps You consume Every Day | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Download the authoritative guide: Cloud Computing 2019: Using the Cloud for Competitive Advantage

    ALSO SEE: 50 Open Source Tools To supersede favorite Security Software

    • 50 Open Source Tools: Desktop Downloads

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    Can open source toolsreplace total closed source software? That is, are open source tools – freely downloadable software – really just as agreeable as software you possess to pay for?

    https://o1.qnsr.com/log/p.gif?;n=203;c=204660774;s=9478;x=7936;f=201812281339040;u=j;z=TIMESTAMP;a=20403972;e=i

    In a lot of cases, the respond is yes. In fact, in some cases, open source tools offers features or performance benefits that surpass their commercial counterparts.

    Want proof? Below you'll find a list of 75 open source tools that proffer viable alternatives to favorite closed-source applications. The list besides refers you to comparable commercial software so that you can compare for yourself and behold which option best meets your needs and offers the best value.

    For this list, we've included a smattering of the best open source tools from a wide range of categories. Whether you're a great enterprise user, a minute business owner, a home user, or even an educational institution, you'll probably find quite a few tools on this list that could supersede the commercial software you consume every day.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music

    1 Amarok Replaces: iTunes

    This audio player lets you listen to music, creates playlists, displays lyrics and cover art, and integrates with a number of Web services. The interface seems a minute text-heavy, but easy to use, though not as attractive as iTunes. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    2 Songbird Replaces: iTunes

    You can't consume Songbird on your iPhone or iPad, but you can consume it on your PC or smartphone to set up playlists, listen to audio, stream video, and more. It besides notifies users of upcoming concerts and allows you to purchase tickets right from the app. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Backup

    3 Areca Backup Replaces: Norton Ghost

    This simple yet supple backup manager offers both compression and encryption capabilities, and it archives files locally, over a network, or online via FTP or FTPS. It offers most of the very features as Ghost, except it doesn't integrate with a full security suite, and it doesn't back Blu-Ray. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    Open Source Tools: Browsers

    4 Chrome Replaces: Internet Explorer

    The vast advantage Google's browser offers over the one from Microsoft is speed. It's swiftly to start up, swiftly to load pages, and swiftly to hasten Web apps. Unlike other browsers, it uses a combination Web address/search bar and simplifies the browsing suffer in other ways as well. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    5 Firefox Replaces:

    While not as swiftly as Chrome, Firefox proffer faster performance than Internet Explorer, as well as excellent security features. It includes a lot of personalization features and more than 6,000 add-ons so that you can construct your browser toil the way you want it to. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Compression

    6 7-zip Replaces: WinZip

    While WinZip offers a fancier interface and more menu options, 7-zip lets you create 7z files with a higher compression rate, which means it creates smaller files. 7-zip besides reads and writes WinZip files, as well as a number of other favorite compression formats. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    7 PeaZip Replaces: WinZip

    Unlike WinZip, PeaZip can save files in seven different formats and reads an astounding 123 different compressed file types. It besides includes tough encryption capabilities. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Content Management

    8 Alfresco Replaces: Sharepoint

    Like SharePoint, Alfresco combines document management, web content management, records management, image management, and a content repository. In addition to the free community edition, it's besides available as an enterprise subscription with support. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    9 MindTouch Replaces: Sharepoint, IBM Lotus

    Forrester research has called MindTouch the "Best product alternative to Microsoft Sharepoint and IBM Lotus." The Core edition is available for free, while the commercial Standard, Enterprise, and Cloud editions add more features. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    Open Source Tools: Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

    10 SugarCRM Replaces: SalesForce.com

    Like SalesForce.com, SugarCRM is cloud-based and combines sales, marketing, customer service and reporting features. While the free community edition comprise basic functionality, in order to consume the more advanced features, you'll need to pay for a subscription to the professional or enterprise edition. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Database

    11 Firebird Replaces: Microsoft SQL Server, others

    It's not as well-known as MySQL (see below), but Firebird besides provides an alternative to commercial closed-source RBDMSs. First developed in 1981, it offers a mature, stable code base, but doesn't possess corporate backing relish MySQL. Operating System: Windows, Linux/Unix, OS X, Solaris.

    12 Kexi Replaces: Microsoft Access

    Making no surreptitious of it's intended competition, Kexi's Web site boldly proclaims it "Microsoft Access for Linux." In fact, Kexi offers total of the very features and functionality as Access, and it's besides available for Windows and OS X, as well as Linux. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    13 MySQL Replaces: Microsoft SQL Server, others

    Downloaded or distributed more than 100 million times, MySQL (now owned by Oracle) is the most favorite open source database software in the world. It's used by a number of well-known companies, including Yahoo!, Alcatel-Lucent, Google, Nokia, YouTube, and Zappos.com. Operating System: Windows, Linux, Unix, OS X

    Open Source Tools: Desktop Publishing

    14 Scribus Replaces: InDesign, QuarkXPress, Microsoft Office Publisher

    While most desktop publishing programs cost a lot of money, Scribus offers professional layout features relish CMYK color separations, Spot Colors, ICC color management, and PDF creation—all for free. However, because of the complexity involved in desktop publishing, Scribus cannot open or edit files created with similar programs. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware

    15 Collabtive Replaces: Basecamp

    This cloud-based Web app includes project management, instant messaging, file and document management, timetracking, and reporting. It besides imports Basecamp files, and if you don't want to host it yourself, you can purchase hosting and other services from Collabtive. Operating System: OS Independent.

    16 Evolution Replaces: Microsoft Office Outlook

    Often called "the Outlook of Linux," Evolution combines e-mail, calendar, and addressbook capabilities. However, this app only works with the Linux Gnome desktop. Operating System: Linux.

    17 Group-Office Replaces: Microsoft Office Outlook

    Group-Office includes a calendar, file sharing, basic CRM capabilities, e-mail, project management, and some billing features. In addition to the free community version, Group-Office besides offers a paid professional version, which adds synchronization with mobile phones and Outlook, and a hosted version. Operating System: OS Independent.

    18 phpGroupWare Replaces: Microsoft Office Outlook, Sharepoint

    This GNU project includes more than 50 applications, most notably e-mail, shared calendar, contact management, Web content management, document management, and project management. It scales for minute groups and great enterprises. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    19 Thunderbird Replaces: Microsoft Office Outlook

    The Thunderbird e-mail client boasts tabbed browsing and easy search—much relish the Firefox browser besides made by Mozilla. Unlike Outlook, this app only includes e-mail capabilities, but if you want to add calendar functionality, you can add Mozilla's Lightning/Sunbird. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    20 Zimbra Replaces: Microsoft Exchange

    Zimbra messaging and collaboration suite comes in desktop, server, and hosted Web client versions. It includes e-mail, contact management, shared calendaring, and voice communications capabilities. Operating System: Linux

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

    21 Open ERP Replaces: SAP

    With its modular design, Open ERP makes it easy to add just the functionality your company needs. The Web site besides includes comparisonswith other open-source ERP solutions, as well as SAP and Microsoft Dynamics. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    22 Openbravo Replaces: SAP

    Web-based, Openbravo offers ERP functionality with a minimal upfront investment. While the community version source code is available for download, most enterprises purchase Openbravo as a hosted app from one of the Openbravo vendors. Operating System: OS Independent

    23 ADempiere Replaces: SAP

    With a very vigorous community and developer group, ADempiere boasts more than the customary amount of documentation and resources for an open source project. However, it doesn't possess quite as many features and isn't quite as polished as some of the other ERP solutions. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    Open Source Tools: File Transfer

    24 FileZilla Replaces: CuteFTP, FTP Commander

    FileZilla allows users to dispatch great files via regular FTP and the more secure FTPS and SFTP protocols. While the client version works with total operating systems, the server version only works on Windows. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    25 FireFTP Replaces: CuteFTP, FTP Commander

    Downloaded more than 13 million times, FireFTP is a Firefox add-on that turns your browser into an FTP client. relish WinSCP (below), it only includes a client, no server software. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    26 WinSCP Replaces: CuteFTP, FTP Commander

    For Windows only, WinSCP is an file transfer client only—that is, it allows you to download files securely, but does not allow you to set up your own FTP server. It supports FTP, SFTP, and SCP. Operating System: Windows.

    Open Source Tools: financial Management

    27 Buddi Replaces: Quicken, Microsoft Money

    Extremely simple, Buddi lacks many of the fancy features you'll find in commercial financial software. However, it's easy to consume and lets you set up accounts and budgets, enter transactions, and hasten reports. Operating System: OS Independent

    28 Money Manager Ex Replaces: Quicken, Microsoft Money

    Although slightly more robust than Buddi, Money Manager soundless lacks the more attractive interface you'll find in Quicken or Money. However, it does proffer the unique feature of allowing you to download the software to your PC and then access it via the Web on your phone or another PC. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    29 TurboCASH Replaces: QuickBooks

    TurboCash invites minute business owners to compare it to commercial accounting packages with a handy checklist that compares features. While it doesn't possess some of the features you'll find in QuickBooks, relish check printing and multi-currency capabilities, it offers some features its more well-known competitor doesn't have, relish XML back and remote access. Operating System: Windows.

    Open Source Tools: Games

    30 FlightGear Replaces: Microsoft Flight Simulator X

    With realistic worldwide terrain, more than 20,000 real airports, and lots of aircraft to pick from, FlightGear provides real competition to Microsoft's Flight Simulator, and it doesn't require as many system resources. In fact, it provides such realistic flight operations that it has been used by universities, aerospace companies, and the FAA for research. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    31 FreeCol Replaces: Civilization

    FreeCol doesn't possess the fierce graphics of the newest versions of Civilization, but then again it doesn't require as much reminiscence or CPU either. It offers a similar style of game play and a similar storyline as the favorite series. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    32 Frets on Fire Replaces: Guitar Hero

    Frets on Fire is so much relish Guitar Hero that you can even import Guitar Hero songs. While you can consume a guitar controller if you possess one, you can besides play the game with your keyboard. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    33 surreptitious Maryo ChroniclesReplaces: Mario Bros. Games

    If you've played any Mario Brothers game (and you know you have), you'll find this game very familiar. It has the sort of 2D graphics you might recall from a couple of decades ago, and you progress from smooth to smooth by running, jumping, collecting coins, etc. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    34 StepManiaReplaces: Dance Dance Revolution

    StepMania works a lot relish Dance Dance Revolution. If you possess dance pads, you can consume them (or buy them from the site); otherwise, you consume your fingers to tap the keyboard in meter to the music. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Gateway Security Appliances

    35 Endian Firewall Community Replaces: Check Point Security Gateways, McAfee, SonicWall, others

    Like the closed-source Unified Threat Management (UTM) appliances on the market, Endian combines anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, intrusion detection, and other security functions into a sole package. You can download the free community software to swirl an ragged PC into a Linux-based appliance, or you can buy an appliance right from Endian. Operating System: Linux.

    36 Untangle Replaces: Check Point Security Gateways, McAfee, SonicWall, others

    Similar to Endian, Untangle combines a all bunch of open-source apps for anti-virus, anti-spam, Web filetering, etc. With Untangle, you possess three deployment options: as a router/UTM appliance on a sunder PC, as a transparent bridge (if you already possess a firewall/router), or as a software solution that runs in the background on any Windows PC connected to your network. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    Open Source Tools: Graphics/Drawing

    37 Archimedes Replaces: AutoCAD

    Like AutoCAD, Archimedes creates 2D and 3D design renderings, but Archimedes was designed primarily for architects. Thus, it's not as agreeable for mechanical engineering, but does proffer architects some benefits over AutoCAD. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    38 Dia Replaces: Visio

    Dia creates diagrams—for flowcharts, org charts, and more. It doesn't possess as many options for know-how toil and styles of boxes as Visio, but it's agreeable enough for most casual users. Operating System: Windows, Linux/Unix.

    39 Gimp Replaces: Photoshop

    Gimp makes it easy to edit photos and other images—just relish you would with Photoshop. Suitable for professionals, it includes features relish layers, gradients, photo enhancement, color manipulation, digital retouching, and much more. For the Windows installer, behold Gimp-win. Operating System: Windows, Linux

    40 Inkscape Replaces: Illustrator, CorelDraw

    A vector drawing program, Inkscape offers professional-quality features (markers, clones, alpha blending, etc.) for vivid designers. The site now besides features an open clip know-how gallery that you can consume in your drawings. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    41 Paint.Net Replaces: Photoshop

    While not quite as powerful as Photoshop and The Gimp, PaintNet offers many, many more capabilities than the Microsoft Paint utility it was originally intended to replace. It boasts an intuitive interface, layering capability, and many special effects. Operating System: Windows

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging

    42 Adium Replaces:AIM, Yahoo! Messenger, Windows Live Messenger

    One of the best reasons to consume an open-source IM client is that it lets you talk with friends on lots of different networks at once. Adium lets you connect with AIM, MSN, Jabber, Yahoo, and others from your Mac. Operating System: OS X

    43 aMSN Replaces:Windows Live Messenger

    This chat client works almost exactly relish MSN Messenger (now known as Windows Live Messenger). Key features comprise offline messaging, custom emoticons, multi-language support, webcam support, tabbed windows, and more. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X

    44 Pidgin Replaces: AIM, Yahoo! Messenger, Windows Live Messenger

    One of the most favorite open-source IM clients, Pidgin connects with 17 different chat networks. While the basic download doesn't proffer some of the capabilities that the closed source IM clients possess (for example, back for Facebook and Twitter), its great collection of plug-ins fills in most of the missing features. Operating System: Windows, Linux/Unix, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Mapping

    45 WorldWind Replaces: Google Earth

    Google has released a lot of source code, but they haven't released the code for Google Earth. Developed by NASA, WorldWind offers nearly identical functionality, with full access to the source code. The link here will pick you to the Java-based SDK that allows developers to consume WorldWind in their own applications, but you can besides download the desktop version for Windows only. Operating System: OS Independent

    Open Source Tools: Office Productivity

    46 AbiWord Replaces: Microsoft Word

    The AbiWord word processor offers most of the features you consume every day in Microsoft Word, and the interface looks a lot relish the older versions of Word. It even opens and saves files in Word and WordPerfect formats. While it lacks some of the more sophisticated features, that means you can hasten it on an older system, and many of the more advanced features can live added as plug-ins if you really need them. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    47 FreeMind Replaces: MindJet

    Both of these mind mapping programs let you create unique diagrams showing the relationship between ideas—kind of relish you would with a white board during a brainstorming session. The biggest disagreement between the two is that the commercial program offers some online collaboration and Sharepoint integration capabilities that aren't available in the open-source version. On the other hand, FreeMind claims to proffer faster performance than MindJet. Operating System: OS Independent.

    48 Gnumeric Replaces: Microsoft Excel

    This spreadsheet app boasts that it includes total of the functions in Microsoft Excel, plus 154 others. It imports files from Excel, Lotus, QuattroPro, and other programs, and it can export to Excel, XML, PDF, and several other formats. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    49 KOffice Replaces: Microsoft Office

    Although it's not as favorite as OpenOffice.org, this office productivity suite from KDE besides offers a viable alternative to Microsoft Office. It includes a word processor/desktop publisher, spreadsheet, presentation, database, project planner, flowchart, vector drawing, and a photo editing app. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    50 NeoOffice Replaces: Microsoft Office

    NeoOffice is a variation of OpenOffice.org (see below) that's tailored for the Mac. While OpenOffice.org does toil on OS X, NeoOffice menus and features leer and feel more relish typical Mac software. Operating System: OS X.

    51 OpenOffice.org Replaces: Microsoft Office

    One of the best applications for people who possess never used open-source before, OpenOffice.org includes a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation creator, and database that read and create Microsoft-compatible files. Unlike Office, it besides comes with a drawing program and a mathematical equation creator, and of course, it's free. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    52 StarOffice Replaces: Microsoft Office

    For users who would relish to try an open-source productivity suite but who don't want to recede without support, StarOffice offers exactly the very programs as OpenOffice.org with paid back from Oracle. Prices start at $49.95, with discounts available for volume purchasers. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    Open Source Tools: Operating System

    53 Red Hat Replaces: Windows

    Calling itself "the world's leading open source application platform," Red Hat offers both desktop and server versions of Linux that are designed primarily for enterprise users. One-year subscriptions which comprise basic back start at $349 for the server version and $80 for the desktop version, or you can acquire a free, non-supported version that is nearly identical fromFedora.

    54 SUSE Replaces: Windows

    Novell besides targets great business users with it's SUSE version of Linux. Prices start at $349 for the server version and $50 for the desktop version, and free versions are available fromopenSUSE.

    55 Ubuntu Replaces: Windows

    Because it is so user friendly, Ubuntu is one of the most favorite versions of Linux for home users, particularly netbook users. Unlike Windows, Ubuntu (and the other versions of Linux) includes most of the applications you'll need, so you don't possess to purchase sunder software for word processing, spreadsheets, e-mail, video, music, etc.

    Open Source Tools: Password Manager

    56 KeePass Replaces: RoboForm, LastPass

    Like the other password managers, KeePass stores your passwords in an encrypted database, so that you only possess to recall one master password. Its Web site claims that its encryption is so tough that "even if you would consume total computers in the world to attack one database, decrypting it would pick longer than the age of the universe." However, KeePass does not automatically fill in Web forms for you relish the commercial products do. Operating System: Windows.

    Open Source Tools: PDF Tools

    57 PDFCreator Replaces: Adobe Acrobat

    With this tool, you can create a PDF file from any application that can print. It besides includes digital signature and encryption capabilities, but it lacks some of Acrobat's profile creating capabilities. Operating System: Windows.

    58 Sumatra PDF Replaces: Adobe Reader

    You don't possess to consume Adobe Reader to open PDF files. Sumatra besides lets you view PDFs, and it's extremely lightweight, so it loads and operates much faster. Operating System: Windows.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management

    59 OpenProj Replaces: Microsoft Project

    Downloaded more than 1.2 million times, OpenProj provides nearly identical project management capabilities as Microsoft Project and even opens Microsoft Project and Primavera files. It's besides available in a cloud-based version called "Projects On Demand" for $20 per month per user. Operating System: Windows, Linux, Unix, OS X.

    60 GanttProject Replaces: Microsoft Project

    Like OpenProj, GanttProject opens Microsoft Project files and offers much of the very functionality. However, it's not quite as polished as either OpenProj or Microsoft Project. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: School Management

    61 Moodle Replaces: Blackboard

    Both of these course management systems construct it easy for instructors to conduct online courses, but Moodle offers the several advantage of being available for free. It's currently used on nearly 50,000 sites in more than 200 countries. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    62 openSIS Replaces: PowerSchool

    Some school districts pretense to possess lowered their TCO by 75 percent or more when switching from PowerSchool to openSIS. It includes modules for student demographics, attendance, gradebooks, scheduling, report cards, and more. Operating System: Windows (Linux coming soon).

    Open Source Tools: Text Editor

    63 jEdit Replaces: WordPad

    This Java-based replacement for the benchmark Windows text editor includes a number of helpful features for developers. For example, it indents automatically and highlights syntax for 130 different programming languages, and it has convenient keyboard shortcuts for many functions. Operating System: OS Independent

    Open Source Tools: Utilities

    64 LaunchyReplaces: Windows Start Menu

    Instead of hunting through your Windows start menu or file manager, just character a couple of letters and Launchy will find the application or file you're looking for. It's swiftly and very easy to use. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X

    65 DocFetcherReplaces: benchmark desktop search

    If you're looking for text in a document, DocFetcher can find it quickly. It doesn't search application and system files, but it does find text within documents very quickly. Operating System: Windows, Linux

    66 UltraDefragReplaces: Disk Defragmenter

    This utility offers a couple of benefits over the Windows Disk Defragmenter. Most notably, it offers better speed, lets you schedule your defrag, and can automatically swirl off your system when it's done. Operating System: Windows

    67 Karsten SlideShowReplaces: My Pictures Slideshow

    This screensaver works relish the "My Pictures Slideshow" in Windows, except that it lets you determine which pictures should live used. It can besides play video clips or hasten a slideshow as your desktop wallpaper. Operating System: Windows

    Open Source Tools: Video Tools

    68 Avidemux Replaces: Adobe Premiere

    Although it doesn't possess nearly the wealth of features available with Adobe Premiere, Avidemux performs simple video cutting, filtering, and encoding tasks well. It besides includes some scripting and job queue capabilities so that you can automate some repetitive tasks. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    69 VLC Media Player Replaces: Windows Media Player

    This meida player supports most audio and video file formats, and it can play from files, physical media (DVDs, CDs, etc.), TV cards, and streaming media. It can besides transmute files from one format to another and act as a streaming server—all without the need for external codecs. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    70 XBMC Media heart Replaces: Windows Media Player

    Winner of numerous awards, XBMC plays nearly total types of audio and video files—and looks remarkable doing it. Designed to toil with home theater PCs (HTPCs), it supports most remote controls, and it automatically creates a personal library, including cover art, for total of your audio and video files. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: VoIP

    71 QuteCom Replaces: Skype

    Formerly known as "WengoPhone," QuteCom offers free calling to other SIP-based VoIP software users, and if you possess a SIP service provider, you can besides summon landlines, mobile phones, etc. Unfortunately, documentation for QuteCom is scarce, so if you want ease of use, Skype may proffer a better option. However, if you want to live able to pick your own service provider, the open-source software is the way to go. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Web Site Creation

    72 Bluefish Replaces: Adobe Dreamweaver, Microsoft Expression Web

    While it's not quite as user-friendly as its commercial competitors or the other open-source options listed here, Bluefish offers a very swiftly WYSIWYG HTML editor that doesn't consume a lot of system resources. Aimed at coders more than designers, it besides includes back for a number of other programming languages. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    73 NVU Replaces: Adobe Dreamweaver, Microsoft Expression Web

    NVU claims to live "the number one free Web authoring system." While it's definitely aimed more at novices than professionals, it inlcudes many of the very features as the commercial HTML tools, and the Web site besides helps newbies register a domain denomination and find hosting for their sites. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    74 SeaMonkey Replaces: Adobe Dreamweaver, Microsoft Expression Web

    Loosely supported by Mozilla, SeaMonkey includes a Web browser, feedreader, e-mail client, and IRC chat client, as well as an HTML authoring tool. Unlike the commercial tools, SeaMonkey doesn't proffer an easy way to transmute vivid files to Web pages, but it does comprise some advanced CSS capabilities and a built-in Java de-bugger. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    75 XML Copy Editor Replaces: XMLSpy

    If you're looking for a basic XML editor with maximum speed, give XML Copy Editor a try. However, if you need a more full-featured solution or integration with SharePoint, Visual Studio, or Eclipse, the commercial software offers a better option. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

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  • Effects of a 20-month cluster randomised controlled school-based intervention tribulation on BMI of school-aged boys and girls: the HEIA study | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Background

    The increasing rates of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents possess resulted in several initiatives aiming to preclude further evolution of the epidemic. School-based interventions targeting prevention of overweight and obesity in children possess yielded mixed results.1 ,2 However, evidence supports advantageous effects of child obesity prevention programmes on body mass index (BMI) in systematically developed interventions that promote well eating and physical activity and emphasise back from teachers and parents and home activities.1

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials of objectively measured physical activity concluded that successful physical activity interventions possess only had a minute consequence on children's overall activity levels,3 which may partly account for why they possess had limited success in preventing childhood obesity. Methodological shortcomings possess besides been used as an explanation for the want of intervention effects.2 Many intervention studies are underpowered to detect minute differences between groups, particularly on adiposity outcomes.1 Longer term programmes and comprehensive school-based interventions may live more efficacious than shorter programmes.4–6 There is ongoing discussion regarding the optimal measure of adiposity in larger studies of children and adolescents. Some authors pretense that BMI-for-age z-score (BMIz) is the best measure as it adjusts for the age and gender of the child7 while others pretense that BMI most aptly represents a child's adiposity.8 ,9 BMI and BMIz are merely estimates of body fatness as these indices accomplish not differentiate between the types of tissue that contribute to body weight (fat, muscle or bone mass).

    To determine whether a school-based intervention is truly an efficacious means to reduce body fat, it may live necessary to assess it using a number of different anthropometric variables.4 Questions possess besides been raised about intervention reach.2 Gender and socioeconomic status may moderate intervention effects.10 There are soundless relatively few methodologically tough trials aimed at the primary prevention of weight gain in older children, thus indicating a need to strengthen the evidence base.6 ,11 ,12

    Previous results from the HEalth in Adolescents (HEIA) study possess shown intervention effects both in psychological and social-environmental determinants of physical activity13 and in targeted behaviours relish time spent watching TV/DVD, computer/game use, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages14 and physical activity15 in either the total sample or the subgroups.

    Therefore, they address the following primary objective: to investigate the effects of a systematically developed, 20-month multicomponent school-based intervention programme, the HEIA study, on BMI.

    Our secondary objectives were to investigate whether the consequence of the intervention on anthropometry was influenced by gender, pubertal status or smooth of parental education.

    Methods

    The HEIA study was based on a socioecological framework and the intervention was designed so that it was feasible to implement and of low cost so that it could live sustained in the public school system. The design and procedures of the HEIA study are thoroughly described elsewhere.16 The CONSORT Statement for reporting a randomised tribulation was followed according to applicability (http://www.consort-statement.org).

    Study design and participants

    Eligible schools were those with more than 40 students in the sixth grade and located in the largest towns/municipalities in seven counties in south-eastern Norway. Of the 177 schools invited, 37 agreed to participate (figure 1). total sixth graders in these 37 schools (n=2165) were invited to participate. Of these, 1580 (73%) children returned a parent-signed informed consent form. Twelve schools were randomly assigned by blind draw with total investigators present to the intervention group (n=784 children) and 25 schools to the control group (n=1381 children). Neither participants nor investigators were blinded for condition.

    Figure 1

    Flow diagram of recruitment, randomisation and participation of children in the HEalth in Adolescents study. *Percentage of participants with consent.

    The data collections took residence at each school in September 2007 (baseline) and in May 2009 (postintervention). Anthropometrics were measured by trained staff, and participants filled in a short-paper questionnaire about pubertal status; 1376 children (87% of those returning consent) provided data at baseline and 1361 children at postintervention. A total of 1324 children provided data at both time points which constitute the analysed sample in this paper. A priori, per protocol and drop-out analyses were chosen over intention-to-treat.17 Power calculations were based on changes in BMI. Taking the cluster consequence of randomly assigning schools to intervention and control into account, assuming that 80% of the students would participate and that the attrition rate would not exceed 15%/year, they aimed for 40 schools (10 intervention and 30 control) with an average of 45 students participating from each school. According to these assumptions, they calculated that they should live able to detect a disagreement between intervention and control schools after 2 years of 0.72 kg/m2 in BMI.16

    Ethical approval and research clearance were obtained from the Regional Committees for Medical Research Ethics in Norway and from the Norwegian companionable Science Data Service.

    Intervention

    The multilevel approach included collaboration with school principals and teachers, school-health services and parent committees. Multiple intervention efforts were orchestrated to promote a well diet and to augment awareness of well choices, to augment participants’ physical activity during school hours and leisure time, and to reduce screen-time. Schoolteachers were the key-persons to implement the intervention components. The main ones are outlined in table 1 and further described elsewhere.16

    Table 1

    The HEIA study: intervention components implemented in the sixth and seventh grades in 12 Norwegian schools in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009

    Anthropometric outcomes

    A trained staff person of the very sex as the study participant conducted the anthropometry. Participants wore light clothing or underwear only during these assessments. Height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm by a wall-mounted measurement tape with the participant standing upright against the wall. Weight was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg by a digital scale/body composition analyser (Tanita TBF-300; Tanita Corp., Illinois, USA). Waist compass (WC) was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm by a measuring tape between the lower rib and the iliac-crest at the cease of a unvarying expiration. BMI was calculated (kg/m2). BMI-for-age and sex z-score (BMIz) was calculated by adapting syntaxes for SPSS provided by WHO.19 The age-specific and gender-specific BMI cut-off values proposed by the International Obesity task obligate were used to categorise the children as being of unvarying weight or overweight/obese.20 Only 1.8% of the participants at baseline were obese and thus included with those overweight in the analyses. Waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) was calculated as the ratio of waist (cm) to height (cm).

    For ethical reasons, children were asked to self-report their pubertal status by a sunder and sex-specific paper questionnaire at the cease of the data collection. The questionnaire was based on the Pubertal Category Scores.21 The children were categorised into five puberty categories which were collapsed to three because of low numbers in the latter two categories (3.5% of the participants in total): prepubertal, early-pubertal, mid-pubertal/late-pubertal/postpubertal. A reliability study of the anthropometric measures was conducted prior to the survey among 114 children;16 total tests had a reasonable reproducibility (intra-class correlation (ICC) and Pearson's R 0.76–0.99, p<0.001, except voice change (boys only) ICC 0.36, p<0.006).

    Demographic characteristics

    On the informed consent, parents reported their educational level. Parental education was categorised into three levels: <12 years (low), 13–16 years (medium) and >16 years (high).

    If both parents provided smooth of education, they included the parent with the highest smooth of education in their analyses; they otherwise used data provided by either parent.

    Data preparation and statistics

    To address the clustered effects of schools as the unit of recruitment while children were the unit of analysis, they conducted a Linear Mixed Model Procedure (analyses available upon request). Both Tabachnick and Fidell and Heck et al condition that if the ICC is minute when quantifying the degree of clustering (<5%), there is no meaningful disagreement among groups and the data may live analysed at the individual level.22 ,23 As only 2% of the variance in BMI and WC was explained by group, they did not adjust for clustering in their analysis.22 ,23

    Baseline differences between the intervention and control groups were tested with independent sample t tests and a χ2 test. Drop-out analyses were done likewise. The consequence of the intervention was determined using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with the postintervention value for the outcomes as the dependent variables (continuous variables), baseline values of the outcomes as covariates and group (intervention vs control) as the independent variable. The very technique was used for categorical outcomes using logistic regressions. Interaction effects by gender, pubertal status and parental educational smooth were tested in sunder analyses as a second step using two-way ANCOVA/logistic regressions with the interaction terms as covariates. The significance smooth of the interaction tests was set to p<0.1. Significant interactions were explored by rerunning the analyses stratified by the moderator. The significance smooth of the main analyses was set to p<0.05. Data were analysed using the IBM SPSS Statistics V.18 (IBM Corp., newfangled York, newfangled York, USA).

    Results

    Only 4% of children dropped out of the study and attrition was equal between the intervention (n=17) and control (n=35) groups. Drop-out analyses showed that the participants lost to follow-up (n=52) weighed more (42.8 vs 39.7 kg, p=0.01) and had a higher BMI (19.2 vs 17.9 kg/m2, p=0.01) and BMIz (0.55 vs 0.10, p=0.003) than the investigated sample (n=1324). No other differences were detected.

    There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups at baseline with respect to age, gender, weight, height, pubertal status and parental education (table 2), as well as for body composition estimates. Table 2 besides shows baseline characteristics by gender for descriptive purposes.

    Table 2

    Characteristics at baseline for the HEIA study intervention and control groups and by gender

    For the total sample, there were no significant intervention effects on any of the body composition measures outlined in table 3, or for weight status: OR 1.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.7), p=0.1. Gender was identified as a moderator of the intervention effects on BMI (p=0.02), BMIz (p<0.01), WC (p=0.05) and WTHR (p=0.05). The consequence on BMI was besides moderated by parental education (p=0.04); similar was the consequence on WTHR (p=0.06). No moderating effects of pubertal status were detected (data not shown). After stratification, there was a significant intervention consequence on BMI for girls; girls in the intervention group increased less on BMI compared with the control group. No such consequence was seen for boys. Similarly, an intervention consequence was seen on BMIz for girls but not for boys. For WC and WTHR, there was no significant intervention consequence for either gender after stratification (table 3). Furthermore, a advantageous intervention consequence on BMI among the participants of parents with high education was found, but no consequence was detected among participants of parents with medium or low education. For WTHR, a negative consequence was institute among participants of parents with low education.

    Table 3

    Intervention effects of the HEIA study on anthropometric outcomes after 20 months; total sample and by gender and parental education

    Discussion

    The HEIA study had a advantageous consequence on BMI and BMIz in girls, but not in boys. A advantageous consequence on BMI was seen among participants of parents with higher education. However, a negative intervention consequence on WTHR was seen among participants of parents reporting low education.

    Effect of the intervention on BMI

    One understanding for the want of overall consequence on BMI for both boys and girls can live the inadequate dose received of intervention components. Unpublished process evaluation data witness that the smooth of implementation of the components decreased from midway to postintervention, thus reducing both the attain and dose received by the participants. Furthermore, since low cost and high applicability of the intervention activities in the public school system were given high priority, this may besides possess limited the dose received on each of the targeted behaviours. Moreover, the diet and activity behaviours that were promoted in the intervention, separately or in combination, may not possess been enough to strike estimates of body composition to a greater magnitude.3 The length of the intervention, being almost two academic years, can live considered relatively long compared with similar school-based interventions.4 ,5 ,24 Sufficiently fierce intervention (daily expert-led physical education) and adequate duration (1 year) were two strengths that were pointed out in the successful KISS study, which managed to favourably strike estimates of body composition in first and fifth grade schoolchildren.24 Additionally, both the control group and the intervention group in the present study increased their total physical activity significantly during the intervention.15 This was unexpected as a decline in physical activity with increasing age has repeatedly been documented between the ages 9 and 15.25–27 They cannot rule out that the control schools possess initiated their own health-promoting initiatives, even if allocated to the control arm of the study. For ethical reasons, they made no attempt to preclude this. The want of overall intervention effects can besides live due to the limited potential for change, as the majority of participants in this study were of unvarying weight at baseline.5

    Effect of the intervention on secondary objectives

    We possess previously reported that gender moderated the consequence of the HEIA intervention on dietary behaviours, sedentary behaviours and physical activity.13 ,14 The consequence of the intervention was greater for girls than for boys on most of the outcomes they investigated.

    This can possess several explanations. Four female researchers developed the intervention and assisted the implementation. The majority of teachers involved in this project were women. Unintentionally, the intervention components may therefore possess been better adapted and delivered to girls than to boys. The earlier demonstrated intervention effects on behaviours in girls but not in boys may partly account for why the intervention was efficacious on BMI and BMIz among girls only.14 ,15 It is workable that boys did not change their physical activity smooth as much as girls because of higher baseline values and, consequently, had a smaller potential for change. Furthermore, the issues addressed in the study may live of greater interest to girls, or girls may live more conscientious regarding the intervention components than boys. They appreciate the results showing that the intervention reached and affected girls. However, they besides own that the intervention failed to strike the very outcomes in boys. Similarly, the American ‘Planet Health’ study significantly reduced the prevalence of obesity in 12-year-old girls by promotion of physical activity, modification of dietary intake and reduction of sedentary behaviours, but institute no consequence on boys.28 On the other hand, another American intervention study targeting environment, policy and companionable marketing (M-SPAN) showed a significant reduction in BMI in 11-year-old to 13-year-old boys over two school years, but not in girls.29 A systematic review of school-based interventions that focused on changing dietary intake and physical activity to preclude childhood obesity concluded that such interventions may live more efficacious for younger children and girls.30 The authors suggested that children aged 10–14 years may respond differently by genders to different intervention elements.

    The present study demonstrated a advantageous intervention consequence on participants having parents with high education, and a negative intervention consequence on participants in the lowest parental education group with respect to WTHR. While acknowledging that they failed to positively attain participants of parents with low education, the understanding is not readily explainable. In an attempt to account for companionable differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among Norwegian schoolchildren, Bere et al31 institute that children with lower educated parents had less access to fruits and vegetables than children with higher educated parents, and hypothesised that cost, greater knowledge, health considerations and greater back from family and friends could live the reasons for this difference. The results are in line with earlier findings, which portray a companionable gradient in the problem of adolescent overweight and obesity,32–35 and which witness that population-based intervention efforts appear to attain participants from different socioeconomic backgrounds differently and may contribute to increased health inequalities.1 ,36

    In this paper, they chose to comprise multiple estimates of body composition as called for,4 although BMI was the main outcome variable in the study. It is noteworthy that relatively closely related outcomes, that is, BMI and WTHR, gave different results regarding intervention effects. total the investigated outcomes are descriptions of body composition and more equal effects could possess been expected. The results intimate that there are differences in how the intervention affects these measures. The power analyses were calculated to detect differences between groups for BMI; the other investigated anthropometric outcomes may possess required a larger sample size to detect intervention effects.

    Regarding consequence size, total the significant consequence sizes were classified as small. The highest explained variance was only 1.4% in girls’ BMIz and WTHR in the lowest parental education group. This means that most of the participants’ estimates of body composition evolution during the tribulation were explained by other factors, and thus the consequence of the intervention effects may live limited. However, obtaining minute but advantageous findings such as this can live primary for public health if implemented on a larger scale and with a longer duration.

    Strengths and limitations

    The strengths of the study comprise the systematic evolution of the intervention and the study design, which were based on the current recommendations and best practice.2 ,29 ,37 Other strengths were the great number of participants from a narrow age group. Furthermore, the multicomponent intervention lasting 20 months was designed to live feasible to implement within the school system and not financially demanding. Also, the anthropometric measures were objectively assessed, self-reported pubertal maturation was included and parental education was reported by a parent for nearly the full sample.

    We own that their study has limitations. A workable selection bias might live present because a rather great proportion of invited schools declined to pick allotment in the study. Recruiting schools in Norway to extracurricular projects has become a challenging undertaking over the past decade, as curricular and administrative demands on schools possess increased substantially. In addition, weighing of children is a controversial issue in Norway and has been debated in the national media repeatedly. However, attrition analyses showed no differences between the participating schools and schools which declined to participate in terms of the number of students in the sixth grade and the overall size.38 The drop-out analyses showed that participants lost to follow-up had a higher BMI and witness that they lost participants that they intended to reach. A workable understanding for this attrition could live resistance to assessment of anthropometrics in light clothing or underwear only. This was discovered as the main understanding for adolescents to decline participation in the anthropometric measurement in a Dutch school-based weight gain prevention programme.39 However, the drop-out rate was minute and equal in both groups, and no further differences were detected. Also, when investigating the intervention effects of a multicomponent intervention, it is not workable to sort out the effects of the different components. Finally, as the sample was recruited from a limited geographic area, this could reduce the generalisability of their findings. However, the objectively measured height, weight and total physical activity from the participants in this study topple adequately between the measures of 9-year-olds and 15-year -olds in a nationally representative sample.40

    Conclusion

    We demonstrated that a 20-month comprehensive multicomponent school-based intervention designed to augment physical activity, reduce sedentary time and stimulate a well diet successfully decreased BMI and BMIz among girls, but not boys.

    The intervention had a advantageous consequence on BMI among children of parents with higher education, but not among children of parents with lower education. Future interventions should live alert of differences in how the intervention affects genders and socioeconomic groups, and should adequately address this issue to liquidate chances of increasing inequalities in health with esteem to obesity development.

    What this study adds
  • A multicomponent school-based obesity prevention intervention produced significant positive effects on estimates of body composition among participating adolescent girls, but not among the boys.

  • The intervention gave positive results for participants having parents with higher education, while negative effects were seen among those with parents having lower education. The risk that interventions contribute to augment companionable inequalities in health should live given attention in future intervention studies.

  • Acknowledgments

    We sincerely thank the participants, their parents and teachers and the project staff.



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